Exploring Art:A Global,Thematic
Approach
Chapter 2
The Language of Art and Architecture
Formal elements
• Just as words are the basic
elements of oral/written languages
• Formal elements are the basic units
of ...
Line…a moving point having
length/width.
In art, a line usually has length
and width, but length is more
important.
• Actu...
The Creation of Adam (Detail)
Note the line quality:
Thick strokes—bottom of hem
Wispy lines—beard
Crisp lines—sword blade
Utagawa Kunishada, Shoki the ...
Line quality can
express a range of
emotions. Contrast the
thick, angular lines
of Shoki with the
thin, playful lines of
K...
Line that depict three-dimensional
objects:
• Outline—follows the outer edges of the
silhouette of a three-dimensional for...
Durer, Artist drawing a model in foreshortening through
a frame using a grid system, woodcut (crosshatching)
Foreshortened...
Light and value
• In art and architecture, light
might be an actual element. In
buildings, the control of light
is an esse...
Bruce Nauman. (American, born 1941). Human/Need/Desire. 1983. Neon tubing
and wire with glass tubing suspension frames, 7'...
Light and Value
• Most art does not emit or
manipulate light but relects
ambient light (the light all
around us)
• In two-...
• Value (or tone) is one step on
a gradation from light and dark
• Achromatic value scale—the
extremes are white and black...
Achromatic value scale,
showing only black, white,
and gray tones.
Chromatic value scale,
showing various values of
red.
V...
Rosso Fiorentino, Recumbent Female Nude Figure Asleep, 1530
Chiaroscuro—use of various tones
(black, white, grays) to crea...
A range of values can
express emotion.
Kunishada’s print
carries a strong
emotional charge.
While Fiorentino’s
nude may lu...
Louise Nevelson, Mirror-Shadow VII, 1985, wood painted black, 9'
Sculpture and architecture have value
difference because ...
Examining Color
• Consider the various concepts and
properties of color—hue, value and
intensity
• Hue it the pure state of color in the spectrum
an is that color’s name, such as red, blue,
yellow, green violet and oran...
Hue: This is what we usually mean when we ask "what color
is that?"
The property of color that we are actually asking abou...
Value: When we describe a color as "light" or "dark", we are discussing its value
or "brightness". This property of color ...
Tints, Tones and Shades:
• These terms are often used inappropriately
but they describe fairly simple color
concepts. The ...
• Tints (adding white to a pure hue)
• Shades (adding black to a pure hue)
• Tones (adding gray to a pure hue)
• Intensity/Saturation—tells us how a color
looks under certain lighting conditions. For
instance, a room painted a solid ...
Gainsborough, M/M Andrews
Most saturated color—blue
satin dress, modified with
tints and shades
Warm—foreground greens
Coo...
RED, YELLOW, BLUE:
Thought of as the “original” colors
since they are the starting point
for all other colors and cannot b...
It is from the blending of the
primary colors that secondary
colors are born.
There are three secondary
colors.
Red + yell...
TERTIARY COLORS
Tertiary colors come to life when
primary and secondary combine.
There are six:
Red-orange
Yellow-orange
Y...
If we are working on a
computer, the colors we see
on the screen are created
with light using the additive
color method.
A...
When we mix colors
using paint we are
using the subtractive
color method.
Subtractive color
mixing means that
one begins w...
Complementary colors are opposites of each other and,
when mixed, give a dull result.
Red and green are complementary colo...
COMPLEMENTARY VERSUS ANALOGOUS COLORS
• complementary colors
are opposite each
other on the color
wheel and
dramatically d...
A good example of the use of color complements is in
this 15th Century painting.
The rich reds and greens of the bed canop...
primary colors (red, yellow, and blue)
are those that cannot be produced by
mixing two other colors together
secondary col...
LOCAL VERSUS OPTICAL COLOR
• local color is the color that an object has in
normal light
• optical color is color produced...
Haystack at Sunset Near Giverny
Clause Monet. oil on canvas, 1891 (Impressionism)
a great example of optical color
The Night Cafe
by Vincent Van Gogh, oil
on canvas
1888 (Post Impressionism)
• Expressive use of color (non-realistic)
• Ha...
Sensory overload—installation immerses
viewer in cool and highly saturated
BLUENESS
LED—points, lines, and grids—used as a...
Color Properties inVarious Media
Paint Light-Emitting
Media
Commercial
Printing or
Computer
Printer
Color System subtracti...
The Relativity of Color Perception
Explore Texture and Pattern
• Texture refers to the surface
characteristics, and may be tactile or visual.
• Pattern is th...
Texture
• ACTUAL TEXTURE is tactile it is more
than visual information
• VISUAL TEXTURE is the illusion of texture
– tromp...
Tactile texture
• Lion Capital from
Asoka pillar
• Sarnath, India
• ca. 250 BCE
• Culture:
Buddhist/Indian
Detail of Deesis Mosaic in
Hagia Sophia. Believed to be
1185-1204. Mosaic tile.
Each mosaic piece reflects
ambient light i...
James Rosenquist
Gift Wrapped Doll IV
1992
VISUAL TEXTURE
• Simulates texture of cellophane
• Transparent wrap reflect lig...
SUBVERSIVE TEXTURE contradicts our past visual experience by using texture in
ways that are unexpected.
Birth of Venus, by...
Considering Shape and Volume
• Shape refers to two-dimensional art,
and volume refers to three-dimensional
works.
• Shape ...
Examining Space
• Space refers to the actual space in which a work of
art exists, or an illusion of space created.
• An il...
One-point perspective
Two-point perspective
Three-point perspective
• 1. Turn your paper horizontal ("landscape"
orientation)
•
1. Turn your paper horizontal ("landscape" orientation)
• 2. Line the end of your ruler up with the side
of your page.
• Be sure the ruler is straight and flush with the
edge of ...
• 3. Draw a horizontal line one or two inches
down from top of the page. This is your
horizon line.
•
• 4. Draw a dot in the middle of your horizon
line. This is your vanishing point.
• 5. Now draw a square or rectangle in the
right or left bottom area of your page.
• 6. Now connect three corners of your
rectangle or square to the vanishing point.
These are orthogonals.
• 7. Draw a horizontal line between the top
two orthogonals where you want your form
to end.
• 8. Draw a vertical line down from the
horizontal line to complete the side.
• 9. Erase the remaining orthogonals.
10. Add details and experiment!
Albrecht Durer,
The Adoration of the Magi (1511) woodcut
• Follow converging
parallel lines to
vanishing point
• This wood...
linear perspective is a
mathematical system for
organizing space in a
convincing way.
It is used in Piranesi's
Drawbridge ...
• ATMOSPHERIC
(AERIAL) PERSPECTIVE
• is a convention of art that
was invented by
Leonardo da Vinci for
creating an illusio...
Multipoint perspective
Time and Motion
• ACTUAL MOTION is
live movement. A
work of kinetic art
like Alexander
Calder's Untitled
mobile in the Eas...
THE ILLUSION OF MOTION
• is what we experience when we see a
movie or series of shapes that note a
passage of time. A movi...
Apollo and Daphne. Gianlorenzo Bernini, marble sculpture, 1622-24 (Baroque)
IMPLIED MOTION AND TIME
is a non-moving image ...
Examining Time and Motion
• Consider how time and motion may be
incorporated in visual art, usually
understood as static, ...
Marcel Duchamp. Nude
Descending a Staircase (No. 2),
1912. Oil on canvas, 57 7/8” X
35 1/8”. Philadelphia Museum of
Art, P...
Boccioni, Umberto. Dynamism of a Cyclist. 1913
Chance/Improvisation/Spontaneity
• Strongly affects visual organization of an
artwork
• Opportunity for uniqueness
• Uncon...
Cai Guo-Qiang. Black Rainbow:
Explosion Project for Valencia,
Spain. 2005.
Omens for international unease—
frightening—but...
Principles of Composition
• Balance
• Rhythm
• Proportion and scale
• Empasis
• Unity and variety
POLYKLEITOS
Doryphoros (Spearbearer)
ca. 450-40 B.C.
[actual balance]
Leonardo da Vinci , Vitruvian Man, c.1490 [symmetrical balance]
Lindisfarne Gospels, Carpet Page
[bilateral symmetry]
The U.S. Capital Building
[Symmetrical balance—bilateral symmetry]
Arnold Newman,
Georgia O’Keeffe,
Ghost Ranch, NM (1968)
[approximate symmetry]
Asymmetrical Balance
Your eyes tell you the elements are
skewed
Your brain registers balance
Miro, Birth of the World
(1925) MoMA
[asymmetrical and balanced]
Helen M. Turner (1858-1958), Morning News, 1915
[well-placed touches of color …overall visual balance]
Horizontal,
Vertical,
and
Radial Balance
Gertrude Kasebier
Blessed Art Thou Among Women
[horizontal balance…elements on left and
ritght seem to be equal in number ...
[vertical balance…top and
bottom are in balance]
[radial balance...design elements radiate from a center point]
Barbara Morgan, Martha Graham (GSP)
Angkor Wat. Central Temple Complex. C. 1113-1150 CE. Cambodia.
The temple is laid out in a modified radial plan.
IMBALANCE
Balance…comfort/aesthetically pleasing
Imbalance…discomfort/shock
Robert Capa. Death of a Loyalist Soldier (9/5/1936)
imbalance..intensified drama
Niki de Saint-Phalle. Black Venus,1967
[precarious balance suggest weightlessness]
Proportion and Scale
• Proportion refers to size of one part in relaton to
another within a work of art.
• Scale is the si...
Count of Montizon. Obaysch, London Zoo's first hippopotamus, 1852
The hippopatamus named Obaysch arrived at the London Zoo...
René Magritte, Personal Values. 1952
The Annunciation
From the Lectionary of Henry II
1002 - 1014, approximately
17" x 13”
Hieratic scaling
Pannini. Interior of the Pantheon,
Rome (c.1734)
Jan Van Eyck. Madonna in the
Church
c. 1425
Oil on wood, 32 x 14 cm
Marisol. Baby Girl. 1963
Claes Oldenburg, Coosje van Bruggen, and Frank O. Gehry. The
Binocular Entrance to the Chiat Building, Venice, California.
Claes Oldenburg. Clothespin (1976)
Corten steel with stainless steel base. 45’ H
Emphasis, Unity and Variety
• Emphasis is the creation of focal points.
• Unity is the quality of overall cohesion within ...
Claes Oldenburg, Coosje van Bruggen, and Frank O. Gehry. The
Binocular Entrance to the Chiat Building, Venice, California....
PROPORTION
Everything is relative
POLYKLEITOS
Doryphoros (Spearbearer)
ca. 450-40 B.C.
“The Canon of Proportions…ideal
beauty”
Alice Neel. The Family
(John Gruen, Jane Wilson,
and Julia). 1970
• What is not
idealized?
Structural Systems in Architecture
• Traditional building methods
– Load-bearing construction
– Post and lintel constructi...
Compare load-bearing with
post and lintel construction:
El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico. See
the elevated view in the te...
Post and lintel construction at Stonehenge.
arcade: A series of arches supported by columns or piers.
colonnade: A row of columns which support horizontal members,
called an architrave, rather than arches
Diagram of the Greek and Roman Orders
Parthenon
Temple of Athena
Vault systems
Barrel vault
Groin vault
to suggest direction and movement:
• horizontal lines tend to communicate suggest
stability and calm, vertical lines sugge...
Lines—firm carve out figures (from rigid horizontal and vertical trees)
Lines—zephyrs—straight breath—curved drapery (impl...
Jacob Lawrence, Harriet Tubman Series. 1939–40 . Panel #4
On a hot summer day about 1820, a group of slave children were t...
• Lines—horizontal (like horizon) suggest stability
• Lines—vertical (skyscrapers) defy gravity, suggest assertiveness
• L...
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  • Words relating to human want light up in a pulsing cycle, continually evoking and replacing meaning. By offering words and taking them away, this work disrupts viewers' habits of perception. Nauman believes that language is "a very powerful tool"; he was inspired to use neon tubing because of the convincing messages and hypnotic aura of neon advertisements. Here, with irony, the artist uses this flashing commercial medium—with all its wires exposed—to address fundamental elements of human experience.
  • Chiaroscuro—use of various tones (black, white, grays) to create the illusion of volume
  • Most saturated color—blue satin dress, modified with tints and shades
    Warm—foreground greens
    Cool—distant blue-grey greens
    Local colors are the colore we normally find in the objects around us.
  • Visual Texture
  • Unidealized…enlarged heads, elongated fingers and calves, outsized feet…glaring obstacles to realistic representation
  • Ncc art100 ch.2

    1. 1. Exploring Art:A Global,Thematic Approach Chapter 2 The Language of Art and Architecture
    2. 2. Formal elements • Just as words are the basic elements of oral/written languages • Formal elements are the basic units of visual arts – Line – Light and value – Color – Texture and pattern – Shape and volume – Space – Time and motion
    3. 3. Line…a moving point having length/width. In art, a line usually has length and width, but length is more important. • Actual line—they physically exist and can be broad, thin, straight, jagged • Implied lines—do not physically exist, yet they seem quite real to viewers—dotted line, unconnected parts
    4. 4. The Creation of Adam (Detail)
    5. 5. Note the line quality: Thick strokes—bottom of hem Wispy lines—beard Crisp lines—sword blade Utagawa Kunishada, Shoki the Demon Queller, c. 1849-1853. Woodblock print
    6. 6. Line quality can express a range of emotions. Contrast the thick, angular lines of Shoki with the thin, playful lines of Klee. Also the arrangement of lines can seem organized or disorderly. Klee’s lines seem arranged whimsically. Paul Klee. They’re Biting, 1920. Drawing and oil on paper
    7. 7. Line that depict three-dimensional objects: • Outline—follows the outer edges of the silhouette of a three-dimensional for with uniform line thickness. Outlines flatten a three-dimensional form into a two- dimensional shape. • Contour lines—mark the outer edges of a three-dimensional object—with varying line thickness and some internal detail. • Cross-contours—repeated lines that go around an object and express its three- dimensionality • Hatching—lines that product tones or values (different areas of gray) • Cross-hatching—parallel Lines in
    8. 8. Durer, Artist drawing a model in foreshortening through a frame using a grid system, woodcut (crosshatching) Foreshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight
    9. 9. Light and value • In art and architecture, light might be an actual element. In buildings, the control of light is an essential design element.
    10. 10. Bruce Nauman. (American, born 1941). Human/Need/Desire. 1983. Neon tubing and wire with glass tubing suspension frames, 7' 10 3/8" x 70 1/2" x 25 3/4" Nauman believes that language is "a very powerful tool"; he was inspired to use neon tubing because of the convincing messages and hypnotic aura of neon advertisements. Ironicly, he uses this flashing commercial medium—with all its wires exposed—to address fundamental elements of human experience.
    11. 11. Light and Value • Most art does not emit or manipulate light but relects ambient light (the light all around us) • In two-dimensional art artist use value to represent the various levels of light that reflect off of objects.
    12. 12. • Value (or tone) is one step on a gradation from light and dark • Achromatic value scale—the extremes are white and black (grey in between) • Chromatic value scale—different values of color • Shading (modeling) manipulate gradations in values to create the appearance of natural light on objects • Chiaroscuro—light-dark
    13. 13. Achromatic value scale, showing only black, white, and gray tones. Chromatic value scale, showing various values of red. Values can create the illusion of volume. Light and Value
    14. 14. Rosso Fiorentino, Recumbent Female Nude Figure Asleep, 1530 Chiaroscuro—use of various tones (black, white, grays) to create the illusion of volume
    15. 15. A range of values can express emotion. Kunishada’s print carries a strong emotional charge. While Fiorentino’s nude may lull the viewer. Utagawa Kunishada, Shoki the Demon Queller, c. 1849-1853. Woodblock print
    16. 16. Louise Nevelson, Mirror-Shadow VII, 1985, wood painted black, 9' Sculpture and architecture have value difference because of the many angles at which light hits and refects off their three- dimensional surfaces. Nevelson’s sculpture is painted black, but the light bouncing off of various surfaces appears as gray or as black.
    17. 17. Examining Color • Consider the various concepts and properties of color—hue, value and intensity
    18. 18. • Hue it the pure state of color in the spectrum an is that color’s name, such as red, blue, yellow, green violet and orange.
    19. 19. Hue: This is what we usually mean when we ask "what color is that?" The property of color that we are actually asking about is "hue". For example, when we talk about colors that are red, yellow, green, and blue, we are talking about hue. Different hues are caused by different wavelengths of light. Therefore, this aspect of color is usually easy to recognize. Hue Contrast - strikingly different hues Hue Constancy - different colors, same hue (blue) Value in color is the lightness and darkness within a hue
    20. 20. Value: When we describe a color as "light" or "dark", we are discussing its value or "brightness". This property of color tells us how light or dark a color is based on how close it is to white. For instance, canary yellow would be considered lighter than navy blue which in turn is lighter than black. Therefore, the value of canary yellow is higher than navy blue and black. Low value—same brightness level Contrast of value—grayscale, no chroma Contrast of value—stark differences in brightness
    21. 21. Tints, Tones and Shades: • These terms are often used inappropriately but they describe fairly simple color concepts. The important thing to remember is how the color varies from its original hue. If white is added to a color, the lighter version is called a "tint". If the color is made darker by adding black, the result is called a "shade". And if gray is added, each gradation gives you a different "tone."
    22. 22. • Tints (adding white to a pure hue) • Shades (adding black to a pure hue) • Tones (adding gray to a pure hue)
    23. 23. • Intensity/Saturation—tells us how a color looks under certain lighting conditions. For instance, a room painted a solid color will appear different at night than in daylight. Over the course of the day, although the color is the same, the saturation changes. • Be careful not to think about SATURATION in terms of light and dark but rather in terms of pale or weak and pure or strong.
    24. 24. Gainsborough, M/M Andrews Most saturated color—blue satin dress, modified with tints and shades Warm—foreground greens Cool—distant blue-grey greens Local colors—the colors we normally find in the objects around us.
    25. 25. RED, YELLOW, BLUE: Thought of as the “original” colors since they are the starting point for all other colors and cannot be recreated by the mixing of any others. They are thought to be exuberant, decorative and decisive. For light-emitting media, the primary colors are red, blue, green Primary Colors (R/Y/B): For paints and pigments, the primary colors are red, yellow and blue
    26. 26. It is from the blending of the primary colors that secondary colors are born. There are three secondary colors. Red + yellow = orange Blue + yellow = green Blue + red = purple SECONDARY COLORS
    27. 27. TERTIARY COLORS Tertiary colors come to life when primary and secondary combine. There are six: Red-orange Yellow-orange Yellow-green Blue-green Blue-violet Violet-red
    28. 28. If we are working on a computer, the colors we see on the screen are created with light using the additive color method. Additive color mixing begins with black and ends with white; as more color is added, the result is lighter and tends to white ADDITIVE COLOR SYSTEM—applies to light-emitting media, the primary colors are red, blue, green
    29. 29. When we mix colors using paint we are using the subtractive color method. Subtractive color mixing means that one begins with white and ends with black; as one adds color, the result gets darker.
    30. 30. Complementary colors are opposites of each other and, when mixed, give a dull result. Red and green are complementary colors.
    31. 31. COMPLEMENTARY VERSUS ANALOGOUS COLORS • complementary colors are opposite each other on the color wheel and dramatically different in wavelength • Analogous colors are next to each other on the color wheel and similar in appearance •
    32. 32. A good example of the use of color complements is in this 15th Century painting. The rich reds and greens of the bed canopy and Cenami’s dress contrast with the dark robes of Arnolfini. Light, entering from a side window provides brightness which contrasts with areas left in shadow. Colors are subtly blended, creating great depth. The work is well balanced, with the two figures framing the mirror Contrast is given on each side, with the dark clothed Arnolfini standing next to the bright clear light of the window, and green robed Cenami set against red. "The Arnolfini Wedding" by Jan Van Eyck
    33. 33. primary colors (red, yellow, and blue) are those that cannot be produced by mixing two other colors together secondary colors (violet, orange, and green) are those that are produced when two primaries are mixed analogous colors are those that are next to each other on the color wheel and share similar wavelenghts
    34. 34. LOCAL VERSUS OPTICAL COLOR • local color is the color that an object has in normal light • optical color is color produced through our visual perception
    35. 35. Haystack at Sunset Near Giverny Clause Monet. oil on canvas, 1891 (Impressionism) a great example of optical color
    36. 36. The Night Cafe by Vincent Van Gogh, oil on canvas 1888 (Post Impressionism) • Expressive use of color (non-realistic) • Harsh palette (a place where one can ruin oneself) • Red (walls) green (ceiling) clash • Billiard table and floor (contain red and green) marry the two • Lamp light—agitated swirls of local color—psychological brillance/agitation.
    37. 37. Sensory overload—installation immerses viewer in cool and highly saturated BLUENESS LED—points, lines, and grids—used as a medium for sensory stimulation. Erwin Redl. Installation view of Matrix IV 30/5/01 at Creative Time’s “Massless Medium: Exploration in Sensory Immersion.” Brooklyn Bridge Anchorage, Bklyn. NY
    38. 38. Color Properties inVarious Media Paint Light-Emitting Media Commercial Printing or Computer Printer Color System subtractive additive subtractive Effects of Environmental Light Levels more room light, the brighter the colors less room light, the brighter the colors more room light, the brighter the colors Primary Colors blue, red, yellow red, green, blue CMYK Secondary Colors purple, green, orange yellow, cyan, magenta red, blue, green Complementaries blue – orange red – green yellow – purple red – cyan green – magenta blue – yellow cyan – red magenta – green yellow – blue Mixture of all Primaries gray or dull neutral white black
    39. 39. The Relativity of Color Perception
    40. 40. Explore Texture and Pattern • Texture refers to the surface characteristics, and may be tactile or visual. • Pattern is the regular repetition of a visual form. • Describe both the texture and pattern displayed in the 6th century mosaic below.
    41. 41. Texture • ACTUAL TEXTURE is tactile it is more than visual information • VISUAL TEXTURE is the illusion of texture – trompe l'oeil is a method of art that is intended to create a realistic illusion of texture and depth in a work of art. The term means "fool the eye" in French.
    42. 42. Tactile texture • Lion Capital from Asoka pillar • Sarnath, India • ca. 250 BCE • Culture: Buddhist/Indian
    43. 43. Detail of Deesis Mosaic in Hagia Sophia. Believed to be 1185-1204. Mosaic tile. Each mosaic piece reflects ambient light in a slightly different direction. Visual texture is illusionary.
    44. 44. James Rosenquist Gift Wrapped Doll IV 1992 VISUAL TEXTURE • Simulates texture of cellophane • Transparent wrap reflect light, tearing across the innocent face like white-hot rods • Doll—haunting and sinister • Commentary—ideal of beauty—blue eyed blonde
    45. 45. SUBVERSIVE TEXTURE contradicts our past visual experience by using texture in ways that are unexpected. Birth of Venus, by Ralph Larmann—good examples of this.
    46. 46. Considering Shape and Volume • Shape refers to two-dimensional art, and volume refers to three-dimensional works. • Shape and volume may have simulated reality, may be abstracted or invented.
    47. 47. Examining Space • Space refers to the actual space in which a work of art exists, or an illusion of space created. • An illusion of space (depth) may be created by shading, overlapping, and atmospheric or linear perspective. • Artists may also use isometric, oblique, and mid- point perspective. • Compare the different illusions of space between Piranesi’s Prisons and the detail of a Muromachi period screen.
    48. 48. One-point perspective
    49. 49. Two-point perspective
    50. 50. Three-point perspective
    51. 51. • 1. Turn your paper horizontal ("landscape" orientation) • 1. Turn your paper horizontal ("landscape" orientation)
    52. 52. • 2. Line the end of your ruler up with the side of your page. • Be sure the ruler is straight and flush with the edge of the page or everything will be crooked!
    53. 53. • 3. Draw a horizontal line one or two inches down from top of the page. This is your horizon line. •
    54. 54. • 4. Draw a dot in the middle of your horizon line. This is your vanishing point.
    55. 55. • 5. Now draw a square or rectangle in the right or left bottom area of your page.
    56. 56. • 6. Now connect three corners of your rectangle or square to the vanishing point. These are orthogonals.
    57. 57. • 7. Draw a horizontal line between the top two orthogonals where you want your form to end.
    58. 58. • 8. Draw a vertical line down from the horizontal line to complete the side.
    59. 59. • 9. Erase the remaining orthogonals.
    60. 60. 10. Add details and experiment!
    61. 61. Albrecht Durer, The Adoration of the Magi (1511) woodcut • Follow converging parallel lines to vanishing point • This woodcut is an exercise in one-point perspective
    62. 62. linear perspective is a mathematical system for organizing space in a convincing way. It is used in Piranesi's Drawbridge drawing
    63. 63. • ATMOSPHERIC (AERIAL) PERSPECTIVE • is a convention of art that was invented by Leonardo da Vinci for creating an illusion of depth by incorporating the natural effects of atmosphere.
    64. 64. Multipoint perspective
    65. 65. Time and Motion • ACTUAL MOTION is live movement. A work of kinetic art like Alexander Calder's Untitled mobile in the East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. displays actual motion when we see it in person.
    66. 66. THE ILLUSION OF MOTION • is what we experience when we see a movie or series of shapes that note a passage of time. A movie is a series of still frames that do not contain actual motion, but when shown in a time sequence, create an illusion of motion.
    67. 67. Apollo and Daphne. Gianlorenzo Bernini, marble sculpture, 1622-24 (Baroque) IMPLIED MOTION AND TIME is a non-moving image that shows movement through the attributes present in the image. Good examples of this are found in Bernini's Apollo and Daphne
    68. 68. Examining Time and Motion • Consider how time and motion may be incorporated in visual art, usually understood as static, by examining issues of Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase.
    69. 69. Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2), 1912. Oil on canvas, 57 7/8” X 35 1/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia.
    70. 70. Boccioni, Umberto. Dynamism of a Cyclist. 1913
    71. 71. Chance/Improvisation/Spontaneity • Strongly affects visual organization of an artwork • Opportunity for uniqueness • Uncontrolled outcomes
    72. 72. Cai Guo-Qiang. Black Rainbow: Explosion Project for Valencia, Spain. 2005. Omens for international unease— frightening—but also attract with their power and beauty.
    73. 73. Principles of Composition • Balance • Rhythm • Proportion and scale • Empasis • Unity and variety
    74. 74. POLYKLEITOS Doryphoros (Spearbearer) ca. 450-40 B.C. [actual balance]
    75. 75. Leonardo da Vinci , Vitruvian Man, c.1490 [symmetrical balance]
    76. 76. Lindisfarne Gospels, Carpet Page [bilateral symmetry]
    77. 77. The U.S. Capital Building [Symmetrical balance—bilateral symmetry]
    78. 78. Arnold Newman, Georgia O’Keeffe, Ghost Ranch, NM (1968) [approximate symmetry]
    79. 79. Asymmetrical Balance Your eyes tell you the elements are skewed Your brain registers balance
    80. 80. Miro, Birth of the World (1925) MoMA [asymmetrical and balanced]
    81. 81. Helen M. Turner (1858-1958), Morning News, 1915 [well-placed touches of color …overall visual balance]
    82. 82. Horizontal, Vertical, and Radial Balance
    83. 83. Gertrude Kasebier Blessed Art Thou Among Women [horizontal balance…elements on left and ritght seem to be equal in number or visual emphasis]
    84. 84. [vertical balance…top and bottom are in balance]
    85. 85. [radial balance...design elements radiate from a center point]
    86. 86. Barbara Morgan, Martha Graham (GSP)
    87. 87. Angkor Wat. Central Temple Complex. C. 1113-1150 CE. Cambodia. The temple is laid out in a modified radial plan.
    88. 88. IMBALANCE Balance…comfort/aesthetically pleasing Imbalance…discomfort/shock
    89. 89. Robert Capa. Death of a Loyalist Soldier (9/5/1936) imbalance..intensified drama
    90. 90. Niki de Saint-Phalle. Black Venus,1967 [precarious balance suggest weightlessness]
    91. 91. Proportion and Scale • Proportion refers to size of one part in relaton to another within a work of art. • Scale is the size of something in reation to what we assume to be normal
    92. 92. Count of Montizon. Obaysch, London Zoo's first hippopotamus, 1852 The hippopatamus named Obaysch arrived at the London Zoo in May 1850
    93. 93. René Magritte, Personal Values. 1952
    94. 94. The Annunciation From the Lectionary of Henry II 1002 - 1014, approximately 17" x 13” Hieratic scaling
    95. 95. Pannini. Interior of the Pantheon, Rome (c.1734)
    96. 96. Jan Van Eyck. Madonna in the Church c. 1425 Oil on wood, 32 x 14 cm
    97. 97. Marisol. Baby Girl. 1963
    98. 98. Claes Oldenburg, Coosje van Bruggen, and Frank O. Gehry. The Binocular Entrance to the Chiat Building, Venice, California.
    99. 99. Claes Oldenburg. Clothespin (1976) Corten steel with stainless steel base. 45’ H
    100. 100. Emphasis, Unity and Variety • Emphasis is the creation of focal points. • Unity is the quality of overall cohesion within a work of art. • Variety is the element of difference in a work of art. • Examine how the principles of emphasis, unity and variety are used in works of art.
    101. 101. Claes Oldenburg, Coosje van Bruggen, and Frank O. Gehry. The Binocular Entrance to the Chiat Building, Venice, California. The Binocular Entrance is the focal point!
    102. 102. PROPORTION Everything is relative
    103. 103. POLYKLEITOS Doryphoros (Spearbearer) ca. 450-40 B.C. “The Canon of Proportions…ideal beauty”
    104. 104. Alice Neel. The Family (John Gruen, Jane Wilson, and Julia). 1970 • What is not idealized?
    105. 105. Structural Systems in Architecture • Traditional building methods – Load-bearing construction – Post and lintel construction – Wood frame construction – Arches, Vaulting, Domes • Recent Methods and Materials – Steel Frame construction – Reinforced concrete – Suspension and tensile construction
    106. 106. Compare load-bearing with post and lintel construction: El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico. See the elevated view in the textbook. Mnesicles. The Temple of Athena Nike and the Proplylaea. 437-432 BCE. Athens.
    107. 107. Post and lintel construction at Stonehenge.
    108. 108. arcade: A series of arches supported by columns or piers.
    109. 109. colonnade: A row of columns which support horizontal members, called an architrave, rather than arches
    110. 110. Diagram of the Greek and Roman Orders
    111. 111. Parthenon
    112. 112. Temple of Athena
    113. 113. Vault systems
    114. 114. Barrel vault
    115. 115. Groin vault
    116. 116. to suggest direction and movement: • horizontal lines tend to communicate suggest stability and calm, vertical lines suggest strength and authority (architecture), and diagonal lines tend to represent movement. These characteristics can all be seen in Botticelli's Birth of Venus.
    117. 117. Lines—firm carve out figures (from rigid horizontal and vertical trees) Lines—zephyrs—straight breath—curved drapery (imply movement) Lines—implied—compositional (overall triangle)
    118. 118. Jacob Lawrence, Harriet Tubman Series. 1939–40 . Panel #4 On a hot summer day about 1820, a group of slave children were tumbling in the sandy soil in the state of Maryland - and among them was one, Harriet Tubman
    119. 119. • Lines—horizontal (like horizon) suggest stability • Lines—vertical (skyscrapers) defy gravity, suggest assertiveness • Lines—diagonal—movement/directionality (i.e. zephyr)

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