Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Art 1100
Joan Jonas
“They Come to Us without a Word”
U.S. Pavilion,Venice Biennale, 2015
Our Goal:
To understand how the the culture of the
past influences the culture of the present
so that you can better unders...
Chapter 14

Ancient
Mediterranean
Worlds
Major Cultures:
Mesopotamia
Egypt
Greece
Rome
Chapter 11: Sculpture
Terms
Sculptu...
Chapter 13: Architecture
Terms
Stacking and Piling
i.e. ziggurat
Post and Lintel, “hypostyle hall”
i.e. Parthenon
Rounded ...
What if we could see the “amount”
of influence on our (American)
culture from the past...
Ishtar Gate, Babylon, c. 575 B.C.E.
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia’s history was marked by continual warfare and
conquests.The major goal in architecture was the erection of
mig...
Ziggurat: temple or shrine raised on a
monumental, stepped base.
Nanna Ziggurat, Ur c. 21,000-2050 B.C.E.
Mesopotamia
Great Friday Mosque,
Djenne, Mali, rebuilt 1907
•Simplest load bearing building method.
•Brick, stone and mud.
•Thick at b...
Great Friday Mosque,
Djenne, Mali, rebuilt 1907
The Great Friday Mosque at
Djenne in Mali is
constructed of adobe and
coat...
Great Friday Mosque,
Djenne, Mali, rebuilt 1907
Stacking and Piling:
Relief (frontal view) Shallow sculpture
Low relief: (bas-relief) projects slightly as in coins and
tombstones.
High relief...
King Assurbanipal on a Lion Hunt, c. 850 B.C.E.
Gravestone of a Woman with her Attendant,
Greek, 100 BCE, Marble
Example of high relief sculpture.
The Great Sphinx, Giza, c. 2500 B.C.E..
Egypt
The history of Mesopotamia
parallels its neighbor to the
southwest: Egypt.
B...
The subtractive method begins
with a block of solid material
which will be carved away.
Carving is a much more
aggressive ...
Step pyramid, funerary complex of King Zoser,
Saqqara, Egypt, c. 2630-2611 B.C.E.
Limestone, 200' high.
Egypt Stacking and...
The Great Sphinx,
Giza, c. 2500 B.C.E..
Egyptian kings ruled absolutely and enjoyed a semi-divine status.
When a king died...
Hatshepsut's memorial temple.
Egypt Post-and-Lintel Construction
Post-and-Lintel Construction
Model of the hypostyle
hall, temple of Amon-Ra,
Karnak, Egypt,
Lintel
Posts
This configuration...
Hypostyle Hall,Temple of Amon, Karnak, ca. 1220 BCE.
Egypt
Hypostyle Hall from
the Greek for
“beneath columns”.
Egypt
Ancient Egyptians associated hypo-style halls with the
primal swamp of creation, believed to represent the first
moun...
Egyptian column types reflect the swamp plants
of the creation myth.
Egypt
Palette of Narmer, c. 3100 B.C.E from Hierakonpolis, c. 3100 B.C.E. Slate, 25" high.
Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
Egypt
The Palette of Narmer illustrates many characteristics of
Egyptian art.The pose and placement (Hierarchical Order)
indicat...
Egypt
Akhenaten and His
Family, c. 1345 B.C.E.
Sunken Relief:
The outline is carved deeply into the surface
and the figures are m...
Model depicting the counting of livestock, from the tomb of Meketre,
Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 11, 2134-1991 B.C.E.
Painted w...
Photograph by the MMA Egyptian Expedition, showing the locations of KV 54.The tomb
of Tutankhamun (KV 62) was not yet disc...
Egypt
Howard Carter and an assistant unwrapping the innermost of Tutankhamun's three nested coffins.
Photography by the MMA...
Nefertiti, c. 1345 B.C.E.
Burial Mask of Tutankhaman,
c. 1325 B.C.E.
Egypt
King Sahure and a nome god,
Old Kingdom, Dynasty 5, reign
of Sahure, ca. 2458–2446 b.c.
Egyptian
Gneiss
Monolith:
Formal s...
Continuity, order and stability
were the primary characteristics
of their art and they represent
the goals of Egyptian soc...
Hatshepsut, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18,
reign of Hatshepsut, ca. 1473–1458 b.c.
Egyptian; From Deir el-Bahri, western
Thebes ...
Egypt
King Menkaura (Mycerinus)
and queen Khamerernebty
2490–2472 B.C.E.
pp. 247
Greece
1. Pre-Greek (2500 - 1200 B.C.E.)
Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean
2.Archaic (1050 - 480 B.C.E)
-Era of Growth
2. Classical...
Statuette of a Woman, Cycladic,
c. 2600-2400 B.C.E.
The Cycladic culture was one of the
earliest in the Aegean Sea.Their a...
Pre-Greek: Minoan
The Minoans were a peaceful society
of traders.Their palaces and cities
were largely unfortified and the
...
Toreador Fresco, palace at Knossos, Minoan Culture.
c. 1500 B.C.E.
Pre-Greek: Minoan
Bull and acrobat
Minoan

Date: 1700-1450 BCE
Bull-jumping did not involve
killing the bull, rather it was
a test of both c...
Mycenaean Rhyton,
c. 1550 B.C.E.
Pre-Greek: Mycenaean
The Mycenaeans
Powerful wealthy Kings
King = warlord.
Cities were he...
Pre-Greek: Mycenaean
Gold death-mask, known as the ‘mask of Agamemnon’.
Mycenae, Grave Circle A, GraveV, 16th cent. BC.
Chariot krater, first half of 13th
century b.c.; Late Helladic IIIB:1
Mycenaean
Terracotta
“Krater” :
Large decorative vase...
Pre-Greek: Mycenaean
But the Greek world from 1150-900 B.C.E fell into a
kind of “dark ages” where their societies were
unorganized and their h...
The Archaic
Greeks borrowed
the Monolithic
sculptural form
from contact with
the Egyptians.
Egypt, Menkaure and Khamererne...
Archaic Greek
Kouros: Anonymous young men or
“youth.” Usually shown nude with the
left leg striding forward and hands
clen...
Kore: Statue of a young girl
wearing a pleated or draped
fabric and veil is typical of
Archaic korai.
Kore from the Cheram...
Volute-krater (vase for
mixing wine and water),
early 6th century b.c.
Attributed to Sophilos
Greek,Attic
Terracotta
Archa...
Classical Greece

Classical Greek art and architecture embodied what they
believed to be the highest possible standard of ...
Panathenaic amphora, ca. 530 b.c.;Archaic
Attributed to the Euphiletos Painter
Greek,Attic
Black-figure: The
image is made ...
BERLIN PAINTER (attributed to)
Attic Red-Figure Bell-Krater
Circa 500-490 BC
Classical Greece

Red figure- Replaces Black-fi...
The Classical Figure in Sculpture
Kritios boy, 490 BCE
Archaic Greek.
In their sculpture, as with their
architecture, Gree...
Contrapposto: Italian meaning
opposite.The figure is posed
with its weight on one leg and
the other at rest.
Creates an opp...
ContrappostoMonolithic
Roman Copy of Apoxyomenos, c. 320
B.C.E.
Egypt, Menkaure and Khamerernebty, c. 2460 B.C.E.
Human Fi...
Roman Copy of Apoxyomenos,
c. 320 B.C.E.
Classical Greece

The Apoxyomenos
depicts a young male
who has just finished
exerc...
Scraper (strigil)
Greek
Late Classical or Early Hellenistic Period
about 350–290 B.C.
Apollo Sauroctonus,
Copy of Praxiteles,
Roman work dating
from the Imperial era,
1st or 2nd century
AD(?), based on an
ori...
Riace Warrior. Ca. 450 BC.
Bronze. Height: 6 feet, 6
inches.
Riace Warrior. Ca. 450 BC.
Bronze. Height: 6 feet, 6
inches.
The male ideal of the High Classical
style is evident in this...
The Riace bronzes were discovered August 16, 1972. The
classical Greek statues were spotted partly buried in the sand
by a...
Praxiteles,Aphrodite of
Knidos, c. 330 B.C.E
Classical Greece

The Classical Figure in Sculpture
Greek sport and the ideal body.
According to tradition, the most important athletic
comp...
The Classical Figure in Sculpture
Panathenaic prize amphora, ca. 525–500
b.c.; black-figure
Attributed to the Kleophrades P...
PrizeVessel from the
Athenian Games
Greek, Made in
Athens 363 -362
BCE
VictoriousYouth
Greek, 300-200 BCE,
Bronze
The traditional pose of a
victorious athlete, a relaxed and
confident youth crow...
Wreath, Greek, 300-100 BCE Gold.
Temple of Apollo at Corinth,Archaic Greek
Doric order, 535 B.C.E.
Classical Greece

The Acropolis:
[acros-“upper” + polis -“city”]
A steep-sided hill supporting
several temples, precincts, and
other buildin...
Greek Theatre
Our interest in the theater connects us directly to the ancient
Greeks and Romans. Nearly every Greek and Ro...
The Greek theater consisted of the...
orchestra: the flat circular or semi-circular singing / dancing
floor of the Chorus
th...
Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Athens, c. 447 and 438 BCE.
Classical Greece

Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon,
Athens, c. 447 and 438 BCE.
Classical Greece

During the 5th and 4th century B. C. E.,...
Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Athens, c. 447- 438 B.C.E.
Lintel
Posts
Entasis
Classical Greece

The Parthenon is said
to have no straight
lines.As tall columns
rise vertically, they
produce an illusion of
bending inwar...
Greek architects developed and codified three major
architectural styles, knows as the Greek Orders.
Doric Ionic Corinthian...
Doric order: Archaic Greek order.“Fluted” (grooved)
columns with capitals are composed of two parts consisting
of a flat sl...
Ionic capital, torus (foliated base), and
parts of a fluted column shaft from
the Temple of Artemis at Sardis, 4th
century ...
Pediment
Frieze
Architrave
(or Lintel)
Entablature:
Made up of the
Frieze and
Architrave
Reconstructed model of the Parthenon’s east pediment. left side.
The pediments were decorated with sculptural compositions...
Reconstructed model of the Parthenon’s east pediment. right side.
Classical Greece

The Acropolis Museum
The “Elgin” Marbles
The Acropolis Museum
The “Elgin” Marbles
Warrior's head from the east pediment of theTemple of Aphaia on Aegin.
Greek, ca. 480 B.C.; marble, height 24 cm; Staatlic...
What you would have seen when you walked through an
ancient city, cemetery, or sanctuary would have been colorful
sculptur...
Segment of the Aegina Pediment, Glypotek, Munich
Classical Greece

Horseman,West Parthenon frieze, Greek, 438-432 BCE British Museum
Classical Greece

Metope from the Parthenon,The Acropolis,Athens, Greece, around 440 BCE British Museum
Classical Greece

The “Elgin” Marbles
The British Museum
By 1800 only about half of the original sculptural decoration
remained on the Parth...
The Greek government wants the parts of the Parthenon
returned to their country. Whether antiquities should be
returned to...
The Acropolis Museum. Athens, Greece
$200 Million, built in 2009
The “Elgin” Marbles
“The new museum, however, does not alter theTrustees’ view
that the sculptures are part of everyone’s shared heritage and
...
The “Elgin” Marbles
The Acropolis Museum proximity to
the actual structure.
The Acropolis Museum interior
with sculptures.
"Antiquities," Cuno argues, "are the cultural property of all
humankind," "evidence of the world's ancient past and not th...
Culture predates nationalism (which only really got going in the
18th century) and runs counter to it, Cuno argues. Nation...
Hellenism
(Greek-like)
Hellenism.
Between 334 and 323 B.C.,Alexander the Great and his armies
conquered much of the known world , creating an emp...
Hellenism.
This unprecedented contact with cultures far and wide exported
Greek culture and its arts, and exposed Greek ar...
Hellenism.
Hellenistic artists copied and adapted earlier styles, and also
made great innovations.
Hellenistic sculpture w...
Aphrodite of Melos (also called
Venus de Milo), c. 150 B.C.E.
Marble, height 6' 10". Musée du
Louvre, Paris.
TheVenus de M...
Hellenism.
This sculpture portrays an event
from Greek mythology, the
Trojan Horse story.
The sea god, Poseidon, was
anger...
“Nike” aka Winged victory
The WingedVictory of Samothrace, also called the Nike of Samothrace,
300 B.C.E
Hellenism.
The wi...
Statue of a wounded Galatian
Roman Imperial copy (first-
second century AD) after a
Greek original
Hellenism.
This Gallic w...
Dying Gaul
c.230-220 BCE
Gaul Killing Himself and His
Wife (sometimes called "The
Galatian Suicide")
Roman copy
2nd cent. CE,
Hellenistic original,...
Art1100 LVA 14 Greece Online
Art1100 LVA 14 Greece Online
Art1100 LVA 14 Greece Online
Art1100 LVA 14 Greece Online
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Art1100 LVA 14 Greece Online

476 views

Published on

Chapter 14

Published in: Art & Photos
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Art1100 LVA 14 Greece Online

  1. 1. Art 1100 Joan Jonas “They Come to Us without a Word” U.S. Pavilion,Venice Biennale, 2015
  2. 2. Our Goal: To understand how the the culture of the past influences the culture of the present so that you can better understand how your world around you is shaping who you are.
  3. 3. Chapter 14
 Ancient Mediterranean Worlds Major Cultures: Mesopotamia Egypt Greece Rome Chapter 11: Sculpture Terms Sculpture “In the round”. or “in relief” -high, low and sunken. Additive: Modeling & Casting Subtractive: Carving Types of Figural Poses Monolith Contrapposto
  4. 4. Chapter 13: Architecture Terms Stacking and Piling i.e. ziggurat Post and Lintel, “hypostyle hall” i.e. Parthenon Rounded Arch Part of the Parthenon Pediment, Frieze Entasis Greek Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian Column, Capital, Base
  5. 5. What if we could see the “amount” of influence on our (American) culture from the past...
  6. 6. Ishtar Gate, Babylon, c. 575 B.C.E. Mesopotamia
  7. 7. Mesopotamia’s history was marked by continual warfare and conquests.The major goal in architecture was the erection of mighty citadels to ensure the safety of temples and palaces. In Mesopotamia (the area that is now modern day Iraq), cultures and cities developed around the rivers of the area— the Tigris and Euphrates. Different groups invaded, conquered, and ruled until they themselves were conquered. Some of the first cities arose in the southernmost region, called Sumer, in what is now Iraq.The Sumerians were the first to leave behind artifacts and words.The marks developed into a writing system called cuneiform. Mesopotamia
  8. 8. Ziggurat: temple or shrine raised on a monumental, stepped base. Nanna Ziggurat, Ur c. 21,000-2050 B.C.E. Mesopotamia
  9. 9. Great Friday Mosque, Djenne, Mali, rebuilt 1907 •Simplest load bearing building method. •Brick, stone and mud. •Thick at bottom, thinner at top. •Can only support small windows. Stacking and Piling:
  10. 10. Great Friday Mosque, Djenne, Mali, rebuilt 1907 The Great Friday Mosque at Djenne in Mali is constructed of adobe and coated with mud plaster. This sculptural building shows the tapering and small windows characteristic of this construction.The protruding wooden poles serve to anchor the scaffolding that is erected every few years for restoring the plaster. Stacking and Piling:
  11. 11. Great Friday Mosque, Djenne, Mali, rebuilt 1907 Stacking and Piling:
  12. 12. Relief (frontal view) Shallow sculpture Low relief: (bas-relief) projects slightly as in coins and tombstones. High relief: (haut-relief) projects by at least 1/2 of the depth. King Assurbanipal on a Lion Hunt, c. 850 B.C.E.
  13. 13. King Assurbanipal on a Lion Hunt, c. 850 B.C.E.
  14. 14. Gravestone of a Woman with her Attendant, Greek, 100 BCE, Marble Example of high relief sculpture.
  15. 15. The Great Sphinx, Giza, c. 2500 B.C.E.. Egypt The history of Mesopotamia parallels its neighbor to the southwest: Egypt. Because of its location, deserts, and the Nile river, Egypt had less immigration and invasion.The main message of Egyptian art is CONTINUITY. The Sphinx is an example of an important characteristic in Egyptian art, the essence of stability, order, and endurance.The sphinx is 65 ft tall, with the body of a reclining lion and the head of a man, thought to be the Pharaoh Khafe.
  16. 16. The subtractive method begins with a block of solid material which will be carved away. Carving is a much more aggressive and complex process. From this block, the sculptor must envision a topographical image from all 4 sides.This is a very time consuming physical process. If too much is taken off, it usually cannot be added, especially when working with stone. For this reason, negative space, balance, and structure had to be considered in the planning stages.
  17. 17. Step pyramid, funerary complex of King Zoser, Saqqara, Egypt, c. 2630-2611 B.C.E. Limestone, 200' high. Egypt Stacking and Piling
  18. 18. The Great Sphinx, Giza, c. 2500 B.C.E.. Egyptian kings ruled absolutely and enjoyed a semi-divine status. When a king died, it was believed he rejoined the gods and became fully divine. Preparations for this journey began during his lifetime and vast tombs or pyramids, seen in the background, were constructed and furnished with everything he would need in the afterlife.
  19. 19. Hatshepsut's memorial temple. Egypt Post-and-Lintel Construction
  20. 20. Post-and-Lintel Construction Model of the hypostyle hall, temple of Amon-Ra, Karnak, Egypt, Lintel Posts This configuration can support long horizontal beams at critical points with vertical posts to carry weight to the ground. Allows for buildings with larger and more open interior spaces.
  21. 21. Hypostyle Hall,Temple of Amon, Karnak, ca. 1220 BCE. Egypt Hypostyle Hall from the Greek for “beneath columns”.
  22. 22. Egypt Ancient Egyptians associated hypo-style halls with the primal swamp of creation, believed to represent the first mound of dry land at the dawn of the world.
  23. 23. Egyptian column types reflect the swamp plants of the creation myth. Egypt
  24. 24. Palette of Narmer, c. 3100 B.C.E from Hierakonpolis, c. 3100 B.C.E. Slate, 25" high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Egypt
  25. 25. The Palette of Narmer illustrates many characteristics of Egyptian art.The pose and placement (Hierarchical Order) indicate Narmer’s status. Narmer’s pose is typical of Egyptian two-dimensional art, with the lower body in profile, and the torso viewed frontally.The head is in profile, but the eye is frontal. In depicting an important personage, the artist shows each body part to its best advantage to ensure continuity in the after-life. Egypt
  26. 26. Egypt
  27. 27. Akhenaten and His Family, c. 1345 B.C.E. Sunken Relief: The outline is carved deeply into the surface and the figures are modeled from the surface down. Egypt
  28. 28. Model depicting the counting of livestock, from the tomb of Meketre, Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 11, 2134-1991 B.C.E. Painted wood, length 5' 8". Egyptian Museum, Cairo Their belief in the afterlife required that they take everything with them that they would need in the next life in the form of miniature models, mummified remains and full scale versions.
  29. 29. Photograph by the MMA Egyptian Expedition, showing the locations of KV 54.The tomb of Tutankhamun (KV 62) was not yet discovered. Egypt
  30. 30. Egypt Howard Carter and an assistant unwrapping the innermost of Tutankhamun's three nested coffins. Photography by the MMA Egyptian Expedition. 1922
  31. 31. Nefertiti, c. 1345 B.C.E. Burial Mask of Tutankhaman, c. 1325 B.C.E. Egypt
  32. 32. King Sahure and a nome god, Old Kingdom, Dynasty 5, reign of Sahure, ca. 2458–2446 b.c. Egyptian Gneiss Monolith: Formal symmetry Static poses Durable The Egyptians considered the duration of this sculpture important for immortality. Egypt
  33. 33. Continuity, order and stability were the primary characteristics of their art and they represent the goals of Egyptian society. Namely the organization of political, religious and social power around the pharaohs. Hatshepsut, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Hatshepsut, ca. 1473–1458 b.c. Egyptian; From Deir el-Bahri, western Thebes Indurated limestone
  34. 34. Hatshepsut, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Hatshepsut, ca. 1473–1458 b.c. Egyptian; From Deir el-Bahri, western Thebes Indurated limestone Hatshepsut, the best known of several female rulers of Egypt, declared herself king during of the reign of her stepson Thutmose III.This lifesize statue shows her in the ceremonial attire of an Egyptian pharaoh, traditionally a man's role. In spite of the masculine dress, the statue has a distinctly feminine air, unlike most other representations of Hatshepsut as pharaoh. Even the kingly titles on the sides of the throne are feminized to read "Daughter of Re [the sun god]" and "Lady of the Two Lands [Upper and Lower Egypt]."
  35. 35. Egypt King Menkaura (Mycerinus) and queen Khamerernebty 2490–2472 B.C.E. pp. 247
  36. 36. Greece
  37. 37. 1. Pre-Greek (2500 - 1200 B.C.E.) Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean 2.Archaic (1050 - 480 B.C.E) -Era of Growth 2. Classical (ca. 480–323 B.C.E.) -Era of Intellect and Idealism 3. Hellenism (323 - 31 B.C.E) -Era of Empire and Commerce Eras of Greek culture.
  38. 38. Statuette of a Woman, Cycladic, c. 2600-2400 B.C.E. The Cycladic culture was one of the earliest in the Aegean Sea.Their art is simplified, abstract, and consists mainly of nude female figures. Pre-Greek: Cycladic Head from the figure of a woman, ca. 2700–2500 b.c.; Early Cycladic I–II Cycladic; Keros-Syros culture
  39. 39. Pre-Greek: Minoan The Minoans were a peaceful society of traders.Their palaces and cities were largely unfortified and the residents enjoyed sport.This is a new phenomenon in the ancient world: sport for sport's sake, and parallels a number of other aspects of Minoan culture. The most popular sport subjects in Minoan painting and sculpture are two sports in particular: boxing and bull-jumping. Rhyton in the form of a bull's head, ca. 1450–1400 b.c.; Late Minoan II Minoan; Greece, Crete Terracotta
  40. 40. Toreador Fresco, palace at Knossos, Minoan Culture. c. 1500 B.C.E. Pre-Greek: Minoan
  41. 41. Bull and acrobat Minoan
 Date: 1700-1450 BCE Bull-jumping did not involve killing the bull, rather it was a test of both courage and agility.A bull would run at a jumper or line of jumpers; when it was close enough, the jumper would grab the bull's horns and either vault onto the bull's back or vault over the bull in a somersault and land on his or her feet on the other side of the bull. Pre-Greek: Minoan
  42. 42. Mycenaean Rhyton, c. 1550 B.C.E. Pre-Greek: Mycenaean The Mycenaeans Powerful wealthy Kings King = warlord. Cities were heavy fortresses Mycenaean society was constantly geared for battle and invasion.The Mycenaeans built palaces and temples, but are noted for their elaborate burial customs and tombs. Both the Minoans and the Mycenaeans form the past of writers like Homer.
  43. 43. Pre-Greek: Mycenaean Gold death-mask, known as the ‘mask of Agamemnon’. Mycenae, Grave Circle A, GraveV, 16th cent. BC.
  44. 44. Chariot krater, first half of 13th century b.c.; Late Helladic IIIB:1 Mycenaean Terracotta “Krater” : Large decorative vases One of the enduring forms of Greek art is the vase and pottery in general. Pre-Greek: Mycenaean
  45. 45. Pre-Greek: Mycenaean
  46. 46. But the Greek world from 1150-900 B.C.E fell into a kind of “dark ages” where their societies were unorganized and their history unrecorded. This was probably due to some kind of outside invasion by an as yet unknown people group. Hence when Homer assembles the Iliad and the Odyssey around 700 B.C.E. he can only reference the memory of the earlier Mycenaean age which was some 500 years earlier. The Greek “Dark Ages”
  47. 47. The Archaic Greeks borrowed the Monolithic sculptural form from contact with the Egyptians. Egypt, Menkaure and Khamerernebty, c. 2460 B.C.E. Statue of a kouros (youth), ca. 590–580 b.c.;Archaic Greek,Attic Naxian marble Archaic Greek
  48. 48. Archaic Greek Kouros: Anonymous young men or “youth.” Usually shown nude with the left leg striding forward and hands clenched at the side. They are believed to have been grave markers or dedications to a god. 7th -5th century B.C.E. Statue of a kouros (youth), ca. 590–580 b.c.; Archaic Greek,Attic Naxian marble
  49. 49. Kore: Statue of a young girl wearing a pleated or draped fabric and veil is typical of Archaic korai. Kore from the Cheramyes group Circa 570-560 BC Island of Samos, temple of Hera. Samos
  50. 50. Volute-krater (vase for mixing wine and water), early 6th century b.c. Attributed to Sophilos Greek,Attic Terracotta Archaic Greek
  51. 51. Classical Greece
 Classical Greek art and architecture embodied what they believed to be the highest possible standard of quality, the best, purest, logical, and most beautiful. Underpinning rationalism, the belief that we can make sense of the world with our minds, is a belief in the ability of humanity called humanism. For the Greeks this was not only an appreciation for the mind’s abilities, but also for the body’s through sport.
  52. 52. Panathenaic amphora, ca. 530 b.c.;Archaic Attributed to the Euphiletos Painter Greek,Attic Black-figure: The image is made by scratching away the black glaze, leaving the red of the clay visible. Classical Greece

  53. 53. BERLIN PAINTER (attributed to) Attic Red-Figure Bell-Krater Circa 500-490 BC Classical Greece
 Red figure- Replaces Black-figure technique. Black glaze is painted around the open red (or unglazed )areas.
  54. 54. The Classical Figure in Sculpture Kritios boy, 490 BCE Archaic Greek. In their sculpture, as with their architecture, Greeks increasingly valued the experience of looking. This combined with Greek humanism ushered in a new sense of naturalism; the copying of visual experience.
  55. 55. Contrapposto: Italian meaning opposite.The figure is posed with its weight on one leg and the other at rest. Creates an opposition between shoulders and hips that enlivens the body. Where strength and movement was balanced with harmony. Roman Copy of Apoxyomenos, c. 320 B.C.E. The Classical Figure in Sculpture
  56. 56. ContrappostoMonolithic Roman Copy of Apoxyomenos, c. 320 B.C.E. Egypt, Menkaure and Khamerernebty, c. 2460 B.C.E. Human Figure in Sculpture
  57. 57. Roman Copy of Apoxyomenos, c. 320 B.C.E. Classical Greece
 The Apoxyomenos depicts a young male who has just finished exercising and is cleaning himself off with olive oil. He is scraping the excess oil from his outstretched arm with a curved metal scraper, called a strigil* (now missing).
  58. 58. Scraper (strigil) Greek Late Classical or Early Hellenistic Period about 350–290 B.C.
  59. 59. Apollo Sauroctonus, Copy of Praxiteles, Roman work dating from the Imperial era, 1st or 2nd century AD(?), based on an original dating from c. 340 BC Classical Greece
 Sculpture “in the round”: Freestanding work that can be viewed from any angle.
  60. 60. Riace Warrior. Ca. 450 BC. Bronze. Height: 6 feet, 6 inches.
  61. 61. Riace Warrior. Ca. 450 BC. Bronze. Height: 6 feet, 6 inches. The male ideal of the High Classical style is evident in this bronze warrior discovered near Riace, Italy. Cast in bronze, this figure projects the supreme confidence and powerful athleticism of the hero. The left arm is raised to hold a shield and the right arm grasped a spear, both of which have been lost. Notice the torso’s contrapposto and animated S-curve, created by placing the figure’s weight on the right foot, which causes the pelvis and shoulders to tilt in opposite directions. For greater realism, the bronze face also contains glass-plate, bone, silver, and copper inlay.
  62. 62. The Riace bronzes were discovered August 16, 1972. The classical Greek statues were spotted partly buried in the sand by a snorkeler, Stefano Mariottini, about 300 meters off the cost of Riace, near Reggio Calabria, Italy.
  63. 63. Praxiteles,Aphrodite of Knidos, c. 330 B.C.E Classical Greece

  64. 64. The Classical Figure in Sculpture Greek sport and the ideal body. According to tradition, the most important athletic competitions were inaugurated in 776 B.C. at Olympia in the Peloponnesos The victors at all these games brought honor to themselves, their families, and their hometowns. Events included footraces, the long jump, diskos and javelin throwing, wrestling, the pentathlon (a combination of these five events), boxing, the pankration (a combination of wrestling and boxing), horse races, and chariot races. The Panhellenic games, the model for our Olympics, unified the Greek city-states in a common activity.
  65. 65. The Classical Figure in Sculpture Panathenaic prize amphora, ca. 525–500 b.c.; black-figure Attributed to the Kleophrades Painter Greek,Attic Depicted here is a pankration, a combination of boxing and wrestling, was to bring one's opponent to the ground.
  66. 66. PrizeVessel from the Athenian Games Greek, Made in Athens 363 -362 BCE
  67. 67. VictoriousYouth Greek, 300-200 BCE, Bronze The traditional pose of a victorious athlete, a relaxed and confident youth crowns himself with an olive wreath. He may have carried palm branches, another attribute of victory, in his left hand. This statue probably commemorated an athletic triumph at Olympia where the wreath was given as a prize. Hundreds of statues like this were erected in Greek sanctuaries.
  68. 68. Wreath, Greek, 300-100 BCE Gold.
  69. 69. Temple of Apollo at Corinth,Archaic Greek Doric order, 535 B.C.E. Classical Greece

  70. 70. The Acropolis: [acros-“upper” + polis -“city”] A steep-sided hill supporting several temples, precincts, and other buildings. Classical Greece

  71. 71. Greek Theatre Our interest in the theater connects us directly to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Nearly every Greek and Roman city had an open-air theater.The theatron seats were arranged in tiers with a striking view of the surrounding landscape. Here the Greeks sat and watched the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and and later playwrights.
  72. 72. The Greek theater consisted of the... orchestra: the flat circular or semi-circular singing / dancing floor of the Chorus theatron: terraced bowl shaped seating area for viewers skene: a building that held backdrops, props and waiting actors. episkenion: the second story of the skene Greek Theatre
  73. 73. Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Athens, c. 447 and 438 BCE. Classical Greece

  74. 74. Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Athens, c. 447 and 438 BCE. Classical Greece
 During the 5th and 4th century B. C. E.,Athens was a major city- state known for military strength as well as being a center of culture and art.This structure is meant to be viewed from the exterior, as it was the center for political and religious meetings for masses of people. It was highly decorated with high relief sculptures.The inner chamber once housed a monumental statue of the goddess Athena.
  75. 75. Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Athens, c. 447- 438 B.C.E. Lintel Posts Entasis Classical Greece

  76. 76. The Parthenon is said to have no straight lines.As tall columns rise vertically, they produce an illusion of bending inward at the center.The Greeks adjusted these columns through the use of a bulge, known as entasis, so that that they appeared straight. Classical Greece

  77. 77. Greek architects developed and codified three major architectural styles, knows as the Greek Orders. Doric Ionic Corinthian Column Base Capital Entablature
  78. 78. Doric order: Archaic Greek order.“Fluted” (grooved) columns with capitals are composed of two parts consisting of a flat slab, the abacus, and a cushion-like slab known as the echinus. Ionic order: More popular among Greeks in Asia Minor and in the Greek islands. Bases support the columns, which have more vertical flutes than those of the Doric order. Ionic capitals have two volutes (spirals) that rest atop a band of palm-leaf ornaments. Corinthian order: A more elaborate style that was common in the Hellenistic and later Roman periods. Corinthian capitals are decorated with acanthus leaves, spirals, and palmettes.
  79. 79. Ionic capital, torus (foliated base), and parts of a fluted column shaft from the Temple of Artemis at Sardis, 4th century b.c.e Greek, Lydian Marble The Greek orders
  80. 80. Pediment Frieze Architrave (or Lintel) Entablature: Made up of the Frieze and Architrave
  81. 81. Reconstructed model of the Parthenon’s east pediment. left side. The pediments were decorated with sculptural compositions inspired from the life of the goddess Athena.The east pediment depicted the birth of the goddess, who sprang from the head of her father, Zeus, before an assembly of the Olympian gods, while the west pediment showed Athena and Poseidon disputing for the possession of the city of Athens before the gods, heroes and mythical kings of Attica.
  82. 82. Reconstructed model of the Parthenon’s east pediment. right side. Classical Greece

  83. 83. The Acropolis Museum The “Elgin” Marbles
  84. 84. The Acropolis Museum The “Elgin” Marbles
  85. 85. Warrior's head from the east pediment of theTemple of Aphaia on Aegin. Greek, ca. 480 B.C.; marble, height 24 cm; Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich Most Classical Greek sculptures were actually painted with bright color and patterning.
  86. 86. What you would have seen when you walked through an ancient city, cemetery, or sanctuary would have been colorful sculpture: painted marble, colorful bronze, gold and ivory cult images. Most scholars haven't paid much attention to the light traces of pigment that remained on the surface of marble statues. One reason is that ancient artists used mineral-based paints with organic binding media that disintegrated over time.Also, as statues were later collected and displayed, paint remnants were likely lost during cleaning.And even after extensive visual and scientific analysis of the original sculptures scholars still don't know if the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground, or exactly which binding medium would have been used in each case--all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece.
  87. 87. Segment of the Aegina Pediment, Glypotek, Munich Classical Greece

  88. 88. Horseman,West Parthenon frieze, Greek, 438-432 BCE British Museum Classical Greece

  89. 89. Metope from the Parthenon,The Acropolis,Athens, Greece, around 440 BCE British Museum Classical Greece

  90. 90. The “Elgin” Marbles The British Museum By 1800 only about half of the original sculptural decoration remained on the Parthenon. In 805 the British Lord Elgin, the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, acting with the full knowledge and permission of the authorities, removed about half of the remaining sculptures from the building itself. Lord Elgin transported the sculptures back to Britain. These sculptures were acquired from Lord Elgin by the British Museum in 1816. Since then the sculptures have all been on display to the public in the British Museum, free of entry charge.
  91. 91. The Greek government wants the parts of the Parthenon returned to their country. Whether antiquities should be returned to the countries where they were found is one of the most urgent and controversial issues in the art world today. For years the argument was that the marbles were safer in the British Museum. But in 2009 Greece built a state of the art museum in the shadow of the Parthenon to help hold the sculptures. Maintaining that the acquisition of undocumented antiquities by museums encourages the looting of archaeological sites, countries such as Italy, Greece, Egypt,Turkey, and China have claimed ancient artifacts as state property, called for their return from museums around the world, and passed laws against their future export. The “Elgin” Marbles
  92. 92. The Acropolis Museum. Athens, Greece $200 Million, built in 2009 The “Elgin” Marbles
  93. 93. “The new museum, however, does not alter theTrustees’ view that the sculptures are part of everyone’s shared heritage and transcend cultural boundaries.” - The British Museum “Further serious damage was caused in the early nineteenth century by Lord Elgin, who looted much of the temple's sculptural decoration and sold it to the British Museum.” -Greek Ministry of Culture The “Elgin” Marbles
  94. 94. The “Elgin” Marbles The Acropolis Museum proximity to the actual structure. The Acropolis Museum interior with sculptures.
  95. 95. "Antiquities," Cuno argues, "are the cultural property of all humankind," "evidence of the world's ancient past and not that of a particular modern nation. They comprise antiquity, and antiquity knows no borders." The “Elgin” Marbles James Cuno, 
 Current director of the Getty Museum in Los Angeles Former president and director of the Art Institute of Chicago.
  96. 96. Culture predates nationalism (which only really got going in the 18th century) and runs counter to it, Cuno argues. Nations may use cultural objects to build national identity and loyalty, but culture, by nature, is polyglot. Nationalism divides us and leads to violence; culture can unite us in our common human heritage. The real argument over the acquisition of "un-provenanced" antiquities "is not what it appears to be," he writes. "It is not really between art museums and archeologists, about the protection of the archeological record from looting and illicit trafficking.... It is between museums and modern nation-states and their nationalist claims on that heritage." The “Elgin” Marbles
  97. 97. Hellenism (Greek-like)
  98. 98. Hellenism. Between 334 and 323 B.C.,Alexander the Great and his armies conquered much of the known world , creating an empire that stretched from Greece and Asia Minor through Egypt and the Persian empire in the Near East to India.
  99. 99. Hellenism. This unprecedented contact with cultures far and wide exported Greek culture and its arts, and exposed Greek artistic styles to a host of new cultural influences. Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer, Hellenistic, 3rd–2nd century b.c. Greek
  100. 100. Hellenism. Hellenistic artists copied and adapted earlier styles, and also made great innovations. Hellenistic sculpture was a dramatic change from peaceful and relaxed poses to the depiction of drama and movement. •Figures writhing in different directions. •Strong use of diagonals. •Spiraling compositions. •Use of negative space. In Hellenistic art, the “ideal” of the body in repose gets lost in the emotion of the “story” and the power of the action. Hence the body of Hellenistic sculpture is under stress.
  101. 101. Aphrodite of Melos (also called Venus de Milo), c. 150 B.C.E. Marble, height 6' 10". Musée du Louvre, Paris. TheVenus de Milo is actually thought to be a copy of a lost 5th century BCE work. Because it combines the contrapposto of Classical Greek sculpture with the Hellenistic trait of spiral composition, elongated torso and its position in “the round”. Hellenism.
  102. 102. Hellenism. This sculpture portrays an event from Greek mythology, the Trojan Horse story. The sea god, Poseidon, was angered with Troy, and sent serpents to strangle Laocoon, the priest who tried to reveal the trickery of the horse.We see the priest and sons entwined by the deadly snakes. Laocoon (lay-auk-ah-wan) Laocoon Group, 40–20 BCE Vatican Museums, Sculptors: Athanadoros, Hagesander, Polydoros Parian marble Height 208 cm; width 163 cm; depth 112 cm.
  103. 103. “Nike” aka Winged victory The WingedVictory of Samothrace, also called the Nike of Samothrace, 300 B.C.E Hellenism. The winged goddess ofVictory stood on the prow of a ship overlooking the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on the island of Samothrace that commemorated a naval victory in the early second century BCE. The theatrical stance, vigorous movement, and billowing drapery of this Hellenistic sculpture are combined with references to the Classical period.
  104. 104. Statue of a wounded Galatian Roman Imperial copy (first- second century AD) after a Greek original Hellenism. This Gallic warrior (known to the Greeks as a Galatian) is badly wounded, although he is poised to fight back. These sculptures commemorated the victory of the Pergamene kings over the Galatians.
  105. 105. Dying Gaul c.230-220 BCE
  106. 106. Gaul Killing Himself and His Wife (sometimes called "The Galatian Suicide") Roman copy 2nd cent. CE, Hellenistic original, ca 230-20 BCE

×