I-1 Identify correct noun forms p. 25 Nouns are the names of people, places, and things A singular noun represents one thing- John A plural noun represents more than one thing- boys Add –s to most nouns to make them plural- girls Nouns ending in –s, -ch, -sh, -x, -z add –es- churches If a consonant comes before a –y, change the –y to –iadd –ies- babies Nouns ending in –io or –eo, just add –s- radios Most nouns ending in –o, add –es- tomatoes Two exceptions- pianos and solos For most –lf nouns, change the f to v and add -es
I-1 Identify correct noun forms p. 25 To make proper nouns plural most, add –s Ends in –s, -ch, -sh, -x, -z, add -es To show ownership, most add –’ s Singular nouns are made possessive by adding –’s- girl’s dress If plural noun ends in –s, add the apostrophe after the –s- the boys’ game If a plural noun does not end in –s, add ‘s- men’s suits An apostrophe never goes in the middle of hyphenated compound nouns- editors-in-chief’s
I-1 Identify correct noun forms p. 25 Collective nouns- refers to a group, but is specific to the the thing being described Herd of antelope, swarm of ants, hive of bees Pride of lions, pack of mules, team of oxen Army, audience, department, jury, company Words with alternate accepted forms (index could be indexes or indices) complete list p. 26 alga- algae, vertebra- vertebrae, oasis- oases, notary public- notaries public, focus- foci, analysis- analyses, diagnosis- diagnoses, child- children, foot- feet, goose- geese, man- men, mouse- mice
I-2 Identify correct verb forms p. 37 Tense Past- ran Present- runs Future- will run Past perfect- had finished Present perfect- has run Future perfect- will have run Progressive past- was running Progressive present-is running Progressive future- will be running Progressive past perfect- had been running Progressive present perfect- has been running Progressive future perfect- will have been running
I-2 Identify correct verb forms p. 37 regular and irregular verbs A regular verb is one that forms its past and past participle by adding -dor -edto the infinitive form- walk, walked; ease eased An irregular verb is one that forms its past and past participle in some way other than the regular verbs- drink, drank, have drunk; catch, caught, have caught
I-3 Recognize subject-verb agreement p. 85 Singular and plural subjects, including compound subjects (note: compound subjects will include those joined by or, with the second element singular or plural.) A verb must agree with its subject in number The number of the subject is not changed by intervening phrases or clauses- Our math class, along with Mrs. Smith’s science class, goes to lunch at 11. These words (indefinite pronouns) are always singular: each, either, neither, one, everyone, no one, nobody, anyone, someone, somebody, everybody, much. –Neither is in the classroom. These words (indefinite pronouns) are always plural: several, few, both, many, others. –Many are becoming endangered.
I-3 Recognize subject-verb agreement p. 85 Subjects joined by “and” generally take a plural verb. –Neither the snow nor the ice keeps the postal carrier at home. When a singular subject and plural subject are joined by “or” or “nor,” the verb agrees in number with the subject nearer to the verb. –Neither Sam nor his brothers regret the incident. Expressions of amount are generally singular . –Fifty dollars is a reasonable amount. Correlative conjunctions When either and neither act as correlative conjunctions, the subject that is closer to the verb determines the number (singular or plural form) of the verb.
I-4 Recognize pronoun-antecedent p. 78 A pronoun agrees with its antecedent (the word replaced by the pronoun) in number and gender. Martha has completed her task. The teachers left their umbrellas at home. Each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are singular. Nobody should mistake his meaning. Two singular antecedents joined by and become plural. He and she are both going to the game.
I-5 Identify incorrect shifts in verb tense p. 43 Verb shifts within sentences In a compound or complex sentence, follow the sequence of tense. –The gate opened and the horses ran outside. (both past tense) –The gate opens and the horses run outside. (both present tense) Verb shifts within paragraphs In paragraphs, follow the principle of sequence of tense. – Sally opened the gift. It was a new dress. (past tense) Changes in tense confuse the reader!
I-6 Identify correct pronoun case p. 71 Nominative, objective, possessive case (note: pronoun case may include reflexive pronouns.) The subject of the verb is the nominative case. –Sally and I will lead the discussion. The object of the verb (receives the action) is in the objective case. –They trusted us to find the missing diamond. The object of the preposition (follows a preposition) is in the objective case. –Who will ride with Thomas and me? The pronoun “who” is the nominative case. –Who is it? The pronoun “whom” is the objective case (follows a preposition). –Towhom are you referring? Do not use reflexive or intensive pronouns instead of personal pronouns. –Tammy and I (NOT myself) were studying. Use the possessive case of a noun or pronoun before a gerund (ends in –ing). –I was surprised by ourwinning the game so easily.
I-6 Identify correct pronoun case p. 71 Contractions Contractions are combined words and require an apostrophe. –she is= she’s Misspellings such as “our’s” and “her’s.” Possessive pronouns do not typically require an apostrophe –The shirt is hers.
I-7 Identify effective use of voice p. 187 Active voice- when a verb expresses an action performed by its subject We gave the child many presents. Passive voice- when verb expresses an action performed upon its subject or when the subject is the result of an action Many presents were given to the child. The child was given many presents. The vase got broken. Active verbs preferred over passive!! Passive voice makes statements vague and awkward. It can be hard to identify the subject.
I-8 Determine correct use of modifiers p. 143 Dangling participles a modifying phrase or clause must clearly and sensibly modify a word in a sentence. When there is no word that the phrase or clause can modify, the modifier is said to dangle. Eating my dinner quietly, the explosion made me jump. (is the explosion eating my dinner?) Eating my dinner quietly, I jumped when I heard the explosion. (That makes more sense!) Misplaced participles For clarity, place adjectives and adverbs as near as possible to the word they modify. He only sliced one apple. (He is the only one or only one apple?) He sliced only one apple. (He is the only one who sliced.) Note: Modifiers may be words, phrases ,or clauses; adjectives and adverbs (adjectival and adverbial phrases and clauses); or verbals.
I-8 Determine correct use of modifiers p. 143 Usually an adjective precedes the noun that it modifies. Nine boxes, large animals, brown eyes The adverb is most commonly used to modify a verb; and adverb may modify an adjective or other adverb. Sang daily, usually clever, very rapidly
I-9 Identify commonly confused words p. 151 Some commonly confused words (There are many!!) Buy (to purchase)/by (preposition)/bye (good-bye) Council (noun- a group that advises)/counsel (verb- to advise) It’s (contraction of it is) /its (possessive pronoun) Lead (a metal)/ led (past tense of –to lead) Principal (person in authority)/ principle (a rule) Reign (noun- royal authority)/ rein (straps or means of control) Stationary (adjective- not moving)/ stationery (paper) Their (possessive pronoun)/ there (where)/ they’re (they are) Who’s (who is)/ whose (possessive pronoun) Your (possessive pronoun)/ you’re (you are)
I-9 Identify commonly confused words p. 151 Accept (to receive)/ except (to leave out) Affect (to influence)/ effect (result) All ready (prepared)/ already (previously or so soon) Breath (noun- air exhaled)/ breathe (verb- to inhale or exhale) Clothes (apparel)/ cloths (plural form of cloth) Conscience (sense of right and wrong)/ conscious (awake or aware) Desert (dry, arid place)/ dessert (last course of a meal) Every day (all days) /everyday (adjective to describe a noun) Loose (free from restraint) /lose (verb) Good (adjective that describes a noun) / well (modifies a verb) Bad (adjective that describes a noun) /badly (adverb) Fewer (counted) /less (measured) Lie (rest or recline)/ lay (to put or place)
II-1 Use clear, vivid, precise language p. 173 Use action verbs, not linking verbs Specific terms, not general or vague We caught a lot of fish. (vague- how much is a lot?) We caught eight trout. (clearer, easier to understand) Clear, precise, vivid language The birds flew in the air. (vague reference, what bird? You cannot picture this.) The red hawk soared through the midnight sky. ( You can picture this!) Note: language to avoid includes, but is not limited to, overused, clichéd words, superfluous verbiage, redundancy (repetition), and jargon
II-2 Use formal and informal language p. 187 Informal language- allows for slang, contractions, personal pronouns, and jargon. (How you talk to friends!) Formal language- used in reports, textbooks, research papers, etc. (Note: Formal language should avoid slang, contractions, personal pronouns, and jargon.) Youshouldn’t cook while watching the tube. (informal) One should concentrate when cooking a meal. (formal)
III-1 Demonstrate correct sentence structure Run-ons- when two sentences are not separated at all. The meeting lasted for hours nothing was accomplished. (run-on) The meeting lasted for hours; nothing was accomplished. (Correct! You may also make two separate sentences or add a conjunction and a comma) Fragments- does not express a complete thought with a subject and a predicate Called him a clumsy dancer. (fragment- no subject!) The girl called him a clumsy dancer. (Correct! Subject and predicate) Comma splices- two sentences separated by a comma-(can correct by adding a conjunction before comma or replacing comma with a semicolon) The meeting lasted for hours, nothing was accomplished. (comma splice!) The meeting lasted for hours, and nothing was accomplished. (Correct! You could also replace the comma with a semicolon.
III-3 Demonstrate internal parallelism Correlative conjunctions immediately before the parallel terms The President of the United States must represent not only his political partybut also the American people. Parallel grammatical form of words, phrases, and clauses in series I like skiing and skating. I like to ski and to skate.
IV-1 Demonstrate correct use of capitalization p. 99 Direct quotations, including complete sentences and broken quotations A direct quotation begins with a capital letter – Mrs. Smith said, “The test was fair.” When a quoted sentence is divided into two parts with an interrupting expression such as, “she said,” begin the second part with a lower-case letter. – “In less than an hour,” he said, “we will leave for our trip.” Titles Capitalize a title that precedes a name. – Dr. Walker Capitalize the first, last, and important words in titles of books, magazines, newspapers, articles, historical documents, laws, works of art, movies, and television programs. –Newsweek
IV-1 Demonstrate correct use of capitalization p. 99 Proper nouns and proper adjectives Capitalize names of individuals; geographical names; definite sections of the country or world; all important words in the names of organizations, institutions, government bodies, business firms, brand names, building, ships, planes, trains, special events, historical events and periods, races, religions, tribes, and nationalities. – Germany, General Electric, Chrysler Building, the North
IV-2 Demonstrate correct use of commas Items in a series We ordered muffins, juice, and coffee. Direct address Sam, where did you go? Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for, yet when they join independent clauses. We spent thirty minutes planning for the trip, and the rest of the time we argued over where to go for supper. Use commas to set off nonessential clauses and nonessential participial phrases Listening intently, we learned much about travel in South America. Use commas with direct quotations. He answered, “I am looking forward to summer vacation.”
IV-3 Demonstrate correct semicolon and colon p. 113, 136 Semicolon to separate elements in a series in which one element in the series is already separated by commas He traveled to St. Paul, Minnesota; Denver, Colorado; and Dallas, Texas. Use a semicolon between clauses not joined by and, but, for, or, nor, yet. I was willing to compromise; he was not. Semicolon before a conjunctive adverb (accordingly, also, besides, consequently, furthermore, hence, however, indeed, instead, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, similarly, still, therefore, thus, for example, for instance, that is, in fact) We enjoyed the play; in fact, it was the best production this year. Colon to introduce a list within a sentence unless it follows a verb or preposition. These items will be on sale in January: sheets, towels, rugs, and bedspreads.
IV-4 Demonstrate correct use of quotation marks and underlining p. 109 Quotation marks in direct quotations, including broken quotations Mr. Hayes shouted, “Look out!” Quotation marks to indicate titles of chapters, articles, other parts of books or magazines, short poems, short stories, and songs. (hint. . .short) Have you read the poem, “Ozymandius?” Underlining to indicate written titles of books, periodicals, newspapers, works of art, and ships. Life was an interesting magazine. Twilight is a great book.
IV-5 Demonstrate correct use of the apostrophe p. 111 Possessive of singular nouns- add apostrophe s Helen’s dress, boy’s cap Possessive of pluralnouns- add only apostrophe Girls’ hats, marines’ uniforms Exception- for some plural forms, add an apostrophe and s Men’s hats, children’s stories
V-1 Paragraph progression and completion p. 191 Introductory sentences should capture the reader’s interest and get the paragraph moving. Concluding sentences should “round out” the treatment of the topic. Sequence of events should make sense to the reader and details should support the main idea. Irrelevant and/or redundant sentences- You should not include information that is irrelevant (does not pertain) to the main idea. The architect plans to build a gymnasium to be constructed at the high school.
V-1 Paragraph progression and completion p. 191 Some transitional words link similar ideas; some link dissimilar or contradictory ideas; some indicate cause, purpose, or result; and others indicate time or position. Select transitional words carefully. Similar ideas- furthermore, likewise, similarly, also, another Dissimilar ideas- conversely, nevertheless, otherwise, on the other hand Cause, purpose, result- consequently, therefore, so, because Time or position- above, afterward, eventually, next