Successfully reported this slideshow.

Grammar handbook

628 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Grammar handbook

  1. 1. Grammar Book <br />Carlota Davis<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents <br />Preterite <br />Trigger Words <br />Car Gar Zar <br />Spock <br />Cucaracha<br />Snake Verbs <br />Snakey Verbs <br />Imperfect <br />Trigger Words <br />Irregulars <br />Preterite vs. Imperfect <br />Ser vs. Estar<br />13. Verbs like Gustar <br />14. Comparatives/ Superlatives <br />15. Transition/Connecting Words <br />16. Future <br />17. Trigger Words <br />18. Irregulars <br />19. Por/Para <br />20. Por Expressions <br />21. Para Expressions <br />22. Beginning of Semester 2 <br />
  3. 3. Table of Contents (SecondSemester) <br />Conditional Tense <br />PresentPerfect<br />PastPerfect<br />SubjunctivePerfect<br />Tan and Tanto <br /> Saber vs. Conocer<br />Impersonal Se <br />Informal (Tu) Commands<br />Formal Commands<br />DOP Placement<br />IOP Placement<br /><ul><li> Nosotros Commands
  4. 4. Mono Verbs
  5. 5. Howtoformthesubjunctive
  6. 6. WhatistheSubjunctive?
  7. 7. SubjunctiveIrregulars
  8. 8. TriggersforSubjunctive
  9. 9. Expressionsof Emotion
  10. 10. Conjunctionsof Time
  11. 11. Demonstratives (nouns and pronouns) </li></li></ul><li>Prederite <br /> AR <br />a amos<br />aste<br />o aron<br /> ER/IR <br />iimos<br />iste<br />ioieron<br />
  12. 12. Pretérito Trigger Words <br />Ayer: Yesterday<br />Estanoche: <br />Tonight<br />Hace dos días: <br />Two days ago<br />El miércoles : <br />On Wednesday<br />Unavez: <br />One time/Once<br />Anteayer: Day <br />before yesterday<br />El lunespasado: <br />Last Monday<br />Unavez: <br />One time/Once<br />Durante dos siglos: <br />During two centuries<br />El día anterior: <br />The day before<br />A lasocho: <br />At 8 o'clock<br />Ayer por la mañana: Yesterday morning<br />El otrodía: <br />The other day<br />Desde el primer momento: <br />From the first moment<br />Entonces: Then<br />
  13. 13. Car Gar Zar <br />Verbs that end in Gar in the Preterite change the g to gu in the yo form <br />Verbs that end in Car in the Preterite change the c to qu in the yo form <br />juguéjugamos<br />jugaste<br />jugójugaron<br />busqué buscamos<br />buscaste<br />buscó buscaron<br />Verbs that end in Zar in the Preterite change the z to c in the yo form <br />crucé cruzamos<br />cruzaste<br />cruzó cruzaron<br />
  14. 14. Spock Hand<br />Irregular Preterite Forms <br />I<br />R<br />V<br />E<br />R<br />D<br />A<br />R<br />Vi <br />Viste <br />Vio <br />Vimos <br />Vieron <br />S<br />E<br />R<br />Fui <br />Fuiste <br />Fue<br />Fuimos <br /> Fueron <br />Di<br />Diste <br />Dio <br />Dimos <br />Dieron <br />HACER<br />Hice <br />Hiciste <br />Hizo <br />Hicimos<br />Hicieron <br />
  15. 15. Cucaracha Verbs <br />Tenertuv<br />Venirvin<br />Conducirconduj<br />Producirproduj<br />Traducirtraduj<br />Decirdij<br />Traer traj<br />Andaranduv<br />Estarestuv<br />Poderpud<br />Poner pus<br />Quererquis<br />Saber sup<br />
  16. 16. Snake Verbs <br />Snake verbs change in the third person preterite. They change from an i to an e. <br />PedíPedimos<br />Pediste<br />PidióPidieron<br />
  17. 17. Snakey Verbs <br />LeíLeímos<br />Leíste<br />LeyóLeyeron<br />Snakey Verbs are verbs that in the preterite change from an i to a y in the third person singular and plural. <br />
  18. 18. Imperfect <br />AR<br />aba<br />abas<br />aba<br />abamos<br />aban<br />ER/IR<br />ia<br />ias<br />ia<br />íamos<br />ían<br />
  19. 19. Imperfecto Trigger Words <br />Siempre: Always<br />Todos los días/ Cadadía: <br />Every day<br />A menudo: <br />Often<br />De vez en cuando: <br />Occasionally<br />Cadames: <br />Every month<br />Muchasveces: <br />Many times<br />Casisiempre: <br />Almost always<br />Mientras: <br />While<br />Por un rato: <br />For awhile<br />Variasveces: <br />Several times<br />En aquellaepoca: <br />At that time<br />Nunca: <br />Never<br />Generalmente: <br />Generally<br />Frecuentemente: <br />Frequently<br />A veces: <br />Sometimes<br />
  20. 20. Imperfect Irregulars <br />Ir<br />iba<br />ibas<br />iba<br />íbamos<br />iban<br />Ser<br />era<br />eras <br />era <br />erámos<br />eran<br />Ver<br />veía<br />veías<br />veía<br />veíamos<br />veían<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Health<br />O<br />Emotion<br />C<br />Origin<br />iendo<br />ando<br />T<br />Location<br />O<br />R<br />Present Condiction<br />D-Description <br />O- Occupation <br />C-Characteristics <br />T- Time <br />O- Origin <br />R- Relationship<br />P- Possession <br />E-Event <br />D- Direction <br />
  23. 23. Verbs Like Gustar <br />Aburrir<br />Encantar<br />Faltar<br />Fascinar<br />Importar<br />Interesar<br />Molestar<br />Quedar<br />Caerbien/mal <br />Disgustar<br />Hacerfalta<br />Procupar<br />Soprender<br />Aptecer<br />When gustar and verbs like gustar are followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive the singular form of gustar or a verb like gustar is used. <br />“A” comes before the subject of the sentence when a verb like gustar is being used. <br />Example: A Adela le enconta la musica de Shakira. <br />
  24. 24. Comparatives/Superlatives<br />Superlatives=definite article+noun+mas(menos)+adjective+de<br />Example: Felipe es el chico más inteligente en la clase. <br />Comparatives <br />Más… que- more than <br />Menos… que- less than <br />Tan…como- as…as <br />Tanto…como- as much <br />Example: Ana esmásaltaque Jessica. <br />
  25. 25. Transition/Connector Words<br />Sin embargo/ no obstante-nevertheless<br />Pero- But <br />
  26. 26. El Futuro<br />Yo- infinitive+é<br />Tu- infinitive+ás<br />El/Ella/Usted- infinitive+á<br />Nosotros- infinitive+emos<br />Vosotros- infinitive+éis<br />Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas- infinitive+án<br />
  27. 27. Future Trigger Words<br />En el futuro<br />En el futuro <br />Próximo<br />Mañana<br />
  28. 28. Future Irregulars <br />Dar-dir <br />Hacer- har<br />Poner- pondr<br />Salir- saldr<br />Tener- tendr<br />Caber- cabr<br />Valer- valdr<br />Poder- podr<br />Querer-quer<br />Saber- sabr<br />Haber- habr<br />Vendir- vendr<br />
  29. 29. Por<br />PORtal- Passing through <br />PORtugal- general rather than specific location <br />PORever- how long something lasts <br />PORpuse- the cause of something <br />imPORT/exPORT- an exchange <br />I am POR, pay for me- doing something in place of or instead of something else <br />transPORtation- a means of transportation <br />Para<br />Surprise PARAty- for whom something is done <br />PARAguay- destination <br />PARAchute- the purpose for which something is done <br />PARAdon me- the express an opinion <br />comPARA- the compara or contrast <br />PARAmedic- to express idea of deadline <br />
  30. 30. Por Expressions <br />Por adelantado- in advance<br />Por ahora- fornow<br />Por allí- aroundthere<br />Por aquí- aroundhere<br />Por favor- please<br />Por ejemple- forexample<br />Por desgracia- unfortunately<br />Por completo- completely<br />Por lo tanto- consequently<br />Por mi padre- as for me <br />Por otra parte- ontheotherhand<br />Por suerte- fortunately<br />Por todas partes- everywhere<br />Por todosladias- onallsides<br />Por último- finally <br />
  31. 31. Para Expressions <br />Para siempre- forever<br />Para abajo- downward<br />Para que?- Why? <br />Para variar- justfor a change<br />Para que- so that, in orderto<br />Para esa época- bythat time <br />Estar para- tobeaboutto<br />Para entonces- bythat time<br />Para detrás- backward<br />Para otra vez- foranotheroccasion<br />Ser tal para cual- betwo of a kind<br />Para adelante- forward <br />
  32. 32. Semester 2 <br />
  33. 33. Conditional<br />Irregulars<br />Haber<br />Used to express <br />possibility, probability, <br />wonder, and <br />would, should, could. <br />Poder<br />Querer<br />Saber<br />Poner<br />Salir<br />Tener<br />Valer<br />Venir<br />
  34. 34. Present Perfect Tense <br />Haber + pastparticiple<br />Perfect Tense isusedtosayhaveor has.<br />Irregulars <br />abrir (to open) - abierto<br />cubrir (to cover) - cubierto<br />decir (to say) - dicho)<br />escribir (to write) - escrito<br />freír (to fry) - frito<br />hacer (to do) - hecho<br />morir (to die) - muerto<br />poner (to put) - puesto<br />resolver (to resolve) - resuelto<br />romper (to break) - roto<br />ver (to see) - visto<br />volver (to return) - vuelto<br />Example- He comiendo <br />(I haveeaten) <br />Itiscontructedbyusingtheauxiliaryverb (haber) and thenthepastparticiple. <br />
  35. 35. Past Perfect Tense <br />Irregulars (same as present) <br />abrir (to open) - abierto<br />cubrir (to cover) - cubierto<br />decir (to say) - dicho<br />escribir (to write) - escrito<br />freír (to fry) - frito<br />hacer (to do) - hecho<br />morir (to die) - muerto<br />poner (to put) - puesto<br />resolver (to resolve) - resuelto<br />romper (to break) - roto<br />ver (to see) - visto<br />volver (to return) - vuelto<br />Droptheinfinitiveending (-ir, -er, or –ar) <br />Thenforanarverbaddado, orforaner/ir verbadd ido. <br />Example- El restaurante esta abierto. (The restaurant is open) <br />
  36. 36. Subjunctive Perfect Tense<br />Indicates an action that is completed with verbs in the present or future tense. <br />Comer<br />como - o = comcom + a = comacom + as = comascom + a = comacom + amos = comamoscom + áis = comáiscom + an = coman<br />Haber <br />- Haya<br />- Hayas<br />- Haya<br />- Hayamos<br />- Hayan<br />
  37. 37. Tan and Tanto<br />tan+ adjectiveoradverb+ como<br />Whencomparingthingsthat are equalusingnouns, use tanto<br />Whencomparingthingsthat are equalusingadjectivesoradverbs, use tan<br />Tanto (-a,-as,-os)+ noun+ como<br />Verb + tanto + como<br />Whencomparingactions, use tanto<br />
  38. 38. Conocer<br />vs.<br />Saber<br />Knowledge of a noun (person, place, orthings) <br />Knowledge of factsorinformation<br />Example- Carlos sabe mucho información sobre perros.<br />Example- Carlos conoce Nina. <br />
  39. 39. Impersonal Se <br />Using impersonal se is a way to avoid being specific about, or towards a subject. <br />The verb is ALWAYS in the third person when using the impersonal se. <br />The impersonal se can be used in all tenses. Present, Preterite, Future, subjunctive, conditional, ect. <br />Example- Aquí, se habla español. <br />Example- Se vende fruta en la frutería. <br />
  40. 40. Tu Commands<br />Regular <br /> - Go to the tu form <br /> - Drop the “s” <br />Irregulars <br /> - di<br /> - haz<br /> -ve<br /> -pon<br /> -sal<br /> -se<br /> -ten<br /> -ven<br />Regular <br /> - Go to the yo form<br /> - change to the opposite vowel ending <br /> - add an “s” <br />Irregular <br /> - TVDISHES <br />Negative<br />Affirmative<br />
  41. 41. Formal Commands<br />Regular- Go to yo form, then change to the opposite vowel ending<br />Irregulars- TVDISHES<br /> Dar-de<br />Estar- este<br />Ir- vaya<br /> Ser- sea<br /> Saber- sepa<br /> *For ustedes add an “n” to the end of the verb.*<br />Regular- Go to yo form, then change to the opposite vowel ending <br />Irregulars- TVDISHES<br /> Dar-de<br />Estar- este<br />Ir- vaya<br /> Ser- sea<br /> Saber- sepa<br />*For ustedes add an “n” to the end of the verb.*<br />Negative<br />Affirmative<br />
  42. 42. DOP Placement <br />Affirmative Commands<br /> -The DOP is to be attached to the end of the verb. <br /> -It is also necessary to add an accent over the first syllable. <br />Example- Cómpralas. <br />Negative Commands <br /> - The DOP is to be placed in front of the command<br /> - No accent marks need to be added. <br />Example- Compraunabolsa. <br />
  43. 43. IOP Placement<br />Affirmative<br /> - IOPsgoaftertheverb<br />Example- Comprelo me <br />Negative<br /> - IOPS gobeforetheverb<br />Example- Me lo compre<br />
  44. 44. Nosotros Commands<br />Affirmative <br /><ul><li>Go to the nosotros form of the verb
  45. 45. Change to the opposite vowel ending </li></ul>Example- ¡Comemos! <br />*Irregulars are TVDISHES<br />Negative <br /><ul><li>Go to the nosotros form of the verb.
  46. 46. Change to the opposite vowel ending
  47. 47. Add the word no before the verb </li></ul>Example- No comemosallí. <br />
  48. 48. Mono Verbs<br />In nosotros commands, in ordertoadd a DOP, the “s” isdropped off of theend of thecommand<br />Then “nos” isaddedtotheend<br />Example- Sentémonos <br />
  49. 49. How to form the Subjunctive <br />
  50. 50. What is the Subjunctive? <br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. Triggers for the Subjunctive <br />
  53. 53. Impersonal Expressions <br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Conjunctions of Time<br />- asíque as soon as <br />- cuando when <br />- despues de que after <br />- en cuanto as soon as<br />- hastaque until <br />- luegoque as soon as <br />- tan pronto como as soon<br />as<br />These conjunctions are often used with the subjunctive. <br />They are used in the indicative mood, when they are used is sentences when the action is in the past tense. <br />
  56. 56. Demonstratives<br />este (this one - masculine)<br />estos (these ones - masculine)<br />esta (this one - feminine)<br />estas (these ones - feminine)<br />ese (that one - masculine)<br />esos (those ones - masculine)<br />esa (that one - feminine)<br />esas (those ones - feminine)<br />aquel (that one over there - masc.)<br />aquellos (those ones over there - masc.)<br />aquella (that one over there - fem.)<br />aquellas (those ones over there - fem.)<br />- Example- Este libro (This book) <br />- Eselibro (That book)<br />- Aquellibro (That book over there)<br />Demonstrative adjectives describe the noun. <br />Example of demonstrative adjective-Carlos lee esterevista. <br />Demonstrative pronouns takes the place of the noun. <br />Example of demonstrative pronoun- Carlos lee este.<br />

×