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Yannis Dimitriadis: Interweaving learning and assessment patterns in CSCL scripts
 

Yannis Dimitriadis: Interweaving learning and assessment patterns in CSCL scripts

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http://link.lkl.ac.uk/Dimitriadis...

http://link.lkl.ac.uk/Dimitriadis

Interweaving learning and assessment patterns in CSCL scripts Print
Thursday 25 June 2009, 12:00am - 2:00pm

Patterns and macro-scripts for supporting teachers with learning design
Prof. Yannis Dimitriadis, University of Valladolid
Location: Large Seminar Room

Learning design or scripting has drawn considerable attention in the field of CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning). Such an interest draws on research in flexible scaffolding of complex collaborative situations as well as on parallel research regarding Learning Design.

This talk will address a pattern-based approach to CSCL macro-scripts as a means to support teachers in the Learning Design process. Besides a presentation of prior work on Collaborative Learning Flow Patterns and the WebCollage tool, this talk will describe current research efforts that aim at interweaving learning and assessment
patterns. Finally, it will reflect on issues that may relate the patterns approach with
the Learning Design and Open Educational Resources fields.

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  • Learning design or scripting has drawn considerable attention in the field of CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning). Such an interest draws on research in flexible scaffolding of complex collaborative situations as well as on parallel research regarding Learning Design. This talk will address a pattern-based approach to CSCL macro-scripts as a means to support teachers in the Learning Design process. Besides a presentation of prior work on Collaborative Learning Flow Patterns and the WebCollage tool, this talk will describe current research efforts that aim at interweaving learning and assessment patterns. Finally, it will reflect on issues that may relate the patterns approach with the Learning Design and Open Educational Resources fields.
  • Para las aplicaciones telemáticas que nos ocupan en este trabajo, los servicios Grid aúnan las ventajas previamente mencionadas de los paradigmas de Grid y SOA. Así, con este análisis podemos afirmar que los servicios Grid pueden integrar recursos heterogéneos como servicios y reutilizar los recursos que sean comunes cuando sean requeridos por distintas aplicaciones.
  • Para las aplicaciones telemáticas que nos ocupan en este trabajo, los servicios Grid aúnan las ventajas previamente mencionadas de los paradigmas de Grid y SOA. Así, con este análisis podemos afirmar que los servicios Grid pueden integrar recursos heterogéneos como servicios y reutilizar los recursos que sean comunes cuando sean requeridos por distintas aplicaciones.
  • Para las aplicaciones telemáticas que nos ocupan en este trabajo, los servicios Grid aúnan las ventajas previamente mencionadas de los paradigmas de Grid y SOA. Así, con este análisis podemos afirmar que los servicios Grid pueden integrar recursos heterogéneos como servicios y reutilizar los recursos que sean comunes cuando sean requeridos por distintas aplicaciones.
  • Para las aplicaciones telemáticas que nos ocupan en este trabajo, los servicios Grid aúnan las ventajas previamente mencionadas de los paradigmas de Grid y SOA. Así, con este análisis podemos afirmar que los servicios Grid pueden integrar recursos heterogéneos como servicios y reutilizar los recursos que sean comunes cuando sean requeridos por distintas aplicaciones.
  • Para las aplicaciones telemáticas que nos ocupan en este trabajo, los servicios Grid aúnan las ventajas previamente mencionadas de los paradigmas de Grid y SOA. Así, con este análisis podemos afirmar que los servicios Grid pueden integrar recursos heterogéneos como servicios y reutilizar los recursos que sean comunes cuando sean requeridos por distintas aplicaciones.
  • Web collage takes advantege of the web architecture. It allows sharing LDs easily with other users in remote servers. (Next version implements user accounts so users can set the access policy to their designs).
  • The design should start with general information: title and a list of learning objectives (LOs). Each LO will be connected to learning activities (which promote LO development) and assessment activities (which assess this development).
  • The learning flow can be configured according to CLFPs, in this example a Jigsaw…
  • El trabajo de investigación se centra en la tecnología de servicios Grid para los entornos colaborativos. Así se propone y se evalúa un sistema telemático que aporta guiado del flujo de actividades, así como adaptación de aplicaciones telemáticas mediante integración de recursos heterogéneos.

Yannis Dimitriadis: Interweaving learning and assessment patterns in CSCL scripts Yannis Dimitriadis: Interweaving learning and assessment patterns in CSCL scripts Presentation Transcript

  • A pattern-based approach for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) scripts Yannis Dimitriadis University of Valladolid, Spain EMIC/GSIC research group http://gsic.tel.uva.es/members/yannis London Knowledge Lab London, UK June 25, 2009
  • Some notes from CSCL 2009
    • ” Teacher in the middle of the process for class orchestration”:
      • Quote by keynote speaker P. Dillenbourg
    • Scripting and scaffolding:
      • One of the major conference themes
    • “ Adaptive, flexible, fading, agile, improvised”:
      • An adjective as a necessary companion
    • Technology:
      • a secondary actor in a Learning Sciences community
  • Why innovative learning needs pedagogical patterns
    • Collaborative, Inquiry, Problem or Project–based learning (CL, IL, PBL)…
      • Focus on learners, authentic situations, meta-cognitive skills, distributed cognition, etc.
      • Lots of expectations but also lots of problems for learners and teachers
      • Among other things, these pedagogical approaches require experience, knowledge, good practices
    • So let’s talk first about patterns
      • Pedagogical design for learning, assessment …
  • An example of CL pedagogical pattern
    • Think-Pair-Share pattern
      • It structures collaboration and promotes participation in large classes
  • And what learners and teachers might do and need
    • Learners may need support so that
      • effective interactions occur in CL or
      • the inquiry cycle is effectively adopted in IL
    • And the teachers may
      • Produce Learning Designs (objectives, outcomes, activities, resources) or Lesson Plans
      • Script the activities at a micro (e.g. prompts) or macro (structuring) level
      • Provide Scaffolds and Orchestrate the whole process
    • What about convergence and shared understanding in terminology and concepts?
  • And a challenge for us and the community
    • In our case we deal with
      • macro-scripts based on pedagogical (design) patterns in Collaborative Learning
    • And the challenge:
      • How can we provide support to participants ( teachers , learners, researchers, community) …
      • In an … effective, efficient and sustainable way
      • While taking into account … flexibility, adaptivity, fading, improvisation in authentic environments
  • But where is the technology? Role - Adapt IA
  • Our focus …
    • Use existing and design/build new technology (architectures and tools) for
      • learners (enactment)
      • teachers (design, orchestration, monitoring, assessment)
      • researchers (evaluation, interventions)
    • For …Computer Supported CL (CSCL)
    • That takes into account …
      • standards, interoperability and third-party tools
      • experience
      • and … teachers!
  • And a tool-oriented talk …
    • How pedagogical patterns contribute in designing CSCL scripts ( Collage )
      • And even instantiating them ( InstanceCollage )
      • or enacting them e.g. in a Wiki ( IntegrationManager )
    • And how learning and assessment patterns may aid in an integrated design ( WebCollage )
  • Starting with patterns … Collaborative Learning Flow Patterns-CLFP
    • Collection of
      • Broadly accepted techniques repetitively used by CL practitioners ( best practices ) when structuring the flow of types of ( collaborative ) learning activities
    • Formalized as patterns (recurrent solutions to recurrent problems)
      • What flow of activities is recommended from educational practice to promote desired objectives?
  • Expected advantages of CLFP
    • Capture, communicate and promote use of existing expertise with respect to CL (and CSCL) macro-scripts
    • Provide conceptual common ground among practitioners, developers and researchers
    • Serve as an intermediate step for computer-interpretable representation and the subsequent enactment in a TEL environment
  • Another example of CLFP: Jigsaw (I)
      • … SCRIPTED Collaborative Learning…
      • This pattern gives the collaborative learning flow for a context in which several small groups are facing the study of a lot of information for the resolution of the same problem.
      • ***
      • The collaborative learning flow must enable the resolution of a complex problem/task that can be easily divided into sections or independent sub-problems
      • Jigsaw CLFP (1)
    (related “larger” patterns) CONTEXT PROBLEM
  • Another example of CLFP: Jigsaw (II)
      • Jigsaw CLFP (2)
      • (E.g.) To promote the feeling that team members need each other to succeed (positive interdependence)
      • High-risk: more appropriate for collaborative learning experienced individuals
      • Each participant in a group (“Jigsaw Group”) studies a particular sub-problem . The participants of different groups that study the same problem meet in an “Expert Group” for exchanging ideas. These temporary groups become experts in the section of the problem given to them. At last, participants of each “Jigsaw group” meet to contribute with their “expertise ” in order to solve the whole problem.
    (educational objectives) (complexity) SOLUTION
  • Another example of CLFP: Jigsaw (III)
      • Jigsaw CLFP (3)
    (diagram representing the solution) Introductory individual (or initial group) activity Collaborative activity around the sub-problem Collaborative activity around the problem and solution proposal Individual or initial group Teacher
  • And a pattern language with CLFP http://titan.tel.uva.es/wikis/yannis/images/e/e1/Appendix-chapter3-patternsbook.pdf CLFPs Jigsaw Collaborative Learning Scripted Collaboration (11 of E-LEN report) Structured discussion Facilitator Roles and common CL mechanisms level Collaborative Learning flow level Resource level Activity level Asynchronous Pedagogical approaches Didactics of subject matters CSCL scripting patterns Debate PL (Goodyear, 2005)
  • The Collage pattern-based CSCL macro-script authoring tool (COLlaborative LeArning desiGn Editor) http://gsic.tel.uva.es/collage
      • (Graphic-based high-level specialized authoring tool for collaborative learning. Based on Reload. IMS-LD level A compliant)
  • Sample creation of a script (I)
    • “ CTM2” script (applied in the “Network Management” case study)
      • Optional undergraduate course on Network Management technologies
    (Evaluation methodology) Sample of Collage use (I) Teacher I want to design a collaboration script that guides the students in the collaborative understanding of a complex long technical paper that can be divided into 3 different sections (3 versions of a network management protocol). I want that the students discuss and reach agreement on the main ideas of the paper…
  • Selecting the CLFPs Sample of Collage use (II)
      • Checking educational benefits, types of problems, complexity
      • Reading information and examples
  • Authoring a CLFP-based LD-script
      • Combining the CLFPs
    Sample of Collage use (III)
  • Authoring a CLFP-based LD
      • Refining the
      • CLFPs
    Sample of Collage use (IV)
  • Collage evaluation
    • Multicase study (Stake, 2005)
    QUINTAIN: The proposed pattern-based design process for CSCL macro-scripts computationally represented with IMS LD ISSUE: Does the design process implemented in Collage facilitate the reuse of CLFPs in the creation of particularized LD-represented CSCL scripts in a way that allows teachers to focus on the CSCL critical elements? Creating CSCL scripts based on CLFPs using Collage ISSUE: Can we use Collage for creating a script representing a scenario proposed by a third-party? Solving a third-party scenario ISSUE: Can we use CSCL scripts created with Collage in real situations ? Putting into practice a CSCL script created with Collage “ Collage workshops” Case Study Lab. uni. of Valladolid and Cádiz, Spain Hands-on sessions Mixed method Questionnaires Observations Focus groups Mini-cases “ Planet game” Case Study ICALT conference Pre-work Presenting Discussing Achieved CSCL script, papers, discussion “ Network Management” Case Study Two f2f and a distance session Lab. Uni. of Valladolid Mixed method
  • Instantiating scripts: InstanceCollage (ETS, October 2009)
    • But the script produced by Collage is general …
    • How a teacher assigns learners of a specific (instance) class to roles/groups
      • In a flexible, efficient and transparent way using the same visual representations
      • But also … Respecting the intrinsic characteristics of the patterns involved in the scripts
      • And producing a computer-interpretable IMS LD-compliant representation
  • Instantiating scripts: InstanceCollage
  • And enacting scripts …
    • The resulting script may serve for modeling, reflection …
    • Or …
      • for … effective enactment in a known VLE …
      • In … a flexible way that can be tailored by teachers …
      • Using … third party tools selected by the teachers …
      • So that … personal learner environments (mash-ups) are created for each learner
    • Use architecture based on IntegrationManager
      • for script enactment in a Wiki VLE
  • Enacting scripts ( IntegrationManager ) Educator Third-party external tool providers Integration Manager Learners + VNC Tools
  • And an example for … expert groups in a jigsaw-based script
  • Embedding assessment in scripts … The problem
    • Assessment should be
      • considered as an integral part of the learning design
      • reflected in the CSCL script
    • There are assessment patterns that can form part of the pattern language
    • But how can we …
      • Model the integrated design process?
      • Support the pattern-based process with tools?
  • Embedding assessment in scripts … The process
  • Embedding assessment in scripts … The augmented pattern language
  • WebCollage http :// ulises.tel.uva.es / ~evilfer / webcollage /
  • WebCollage Selecting an assessment pattern
  • WebCollage Creating a new integrated flow
  • Embedding assessment in scripts … Evaluation
    • Four workshops carried out
    • Four workshops run with university teachers using successive versions of the tool
    • Users consider necessary and useful the joint design of learning and assessment activities
    • Many different paths in the integrated design process that is considered to be complex
  • A snapshot of current work (with LKL and IET-OU)
    • Four workshops carried out
    • Elicitate and share the augmented pattern language and support the complex design process with WebCollage
    • Analyze how the CL patterns (together with other Learning Design representations) may help effective repurposing of Open Educational Resources
  • Some conclusions and challenges
    • “ A script scaffolds the emergence of interaction patterns which have been shown to predict the cognitive outcomes of collaborative learning ”
    • Creating a CSCL macro-script is difficult and pedagogical patterns (and especially CLFP) can effectively inform teachers
    • Interweaving learning and assessment patterns in the design process is envisaged through an augmented pattern language
  • Some conclusions and challenges
    • The full script lifecycle can be flexibly enabled by ICT ( Collage, IntegrationManager and InstanceCollage)
      • script creation, instantiation, integration of third-party tools, creation of personalized learning environments, in flexible and familiar VLE
    • But we have to
      • Share concepts, tools, patterns … in the community
      • Find an effective and sustainable way to support the complex process of adaptive and flexible “orchestration”
  • A pattern-based approach for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) scripts Yannis Dimitriadis, Eloy Villasclaras, Davinia Hernández, Juan Ignacio Asensio and the GSIC/EMIC team University of Valladolid, Spain http://gsic.tel.uva.es/index.php?lang=en LKL June 25, 2009