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Technology-mediated Boundary
Objects and Boundary Crossings
in VET
- an instructional design model
Marianne Riis,
Mette Al...
Agenda
Why
 Research background
 RQs and research design
What
 Theory
 Proposed instructional design
model
How
 Field...
Research background - our
context
Danish National Centre for the Development of Vocational
Education and Training
 CPD fo...
The challenge in dual VET
VET-students’ experiences
Ortoleva & Bétrancourt (2015)
 Difficulties in integrating formal kno...
Research purpose and RQs
1. In what ways and why do VET teachers use ICT-based
artefacts as boundary objects to design for...
Research design
 Multiple case study
 Three dominant strands: Technical*, Business and Social & Health
 Numerous school...
From transfer to
boundary crossing
 Boundaries can lead to discontinuity in action or interaction
 Boundary crossing is ...
4 boundary crossing processes
(Akkerman & Bakker, 2011)
Learning mechanisms (dialogical learning processes) that
constitut...
Boundary objects and technology
Boundary objects
 Boundary objects refer to artefacts bridging/mediating the
crossing – a...
Instructional design model 1.0
Field validation
Fall 2016
1. Used as part of an exercise in our Diploma teaching (16 VET
teacher-students)
2. Used as par...
Field validation – cont.
Findings – examples of
technology
Findings – cont.
In relation to the model itself
 The categorisation of TBOs depends on the instructional
design strategy...
Instructional design model 2.0
Scaffolding – the TBOC-matrix
Case x - Linda the Chef
 Linda teaches chef VET-students and is
planning the first day of the return from the
students’ f...
Case x – cont.
Future research
Spring 2017
Interviews and observations of technology in action
– in VET schools
Focus on:
LMS, video a...
Thank you for listening!
Contact
Marianne Riis, Senior Lecturer, Ph.d.
E-mail: marr@phmetropol.dk
Twitter: @MariisMills
Re...
References – cited in the
extended abstract
 Akkerman, S.F., and Bakker, A. (2012). Crossing Boundaries Between School an...
References – cited in the
extended abstract
 Illeris, K., (2009). Transfer of learning in the learning society: How can t...
References – cited in the
extended abstract
 Tangaard, L., (2007). Learning at trade vocational school and learning at wo...
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Technology-mediated Boundary Objects and Boundary Crossings in VET

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Presentation from SFI VET congress March 2017.

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Technology-mediated Boundary Objects and Boundary Crossings in VET

  1. 1. Technology-mediated Boundary Objects and Boundary Crossings in VET - an instructional design model Marianne Riis, Mette Allermand, Anna Brodersen & Carsten Lund Rasmussen VET Congress - 14th -16th March 2017 - Bern/Zollikofen, Switzerland
  2. 2. Agenda Why  Research background  RQs and research design What  Theory  Proposed instructional design model How  Field validation Findings  Model 2.0 + a matrix Future research
  3. 3. Research background - our context Danish National Centre for the Development of Vocational Education and Training  CPD for VET teachers - Diploma (NQF level 6)  Applied R&D  Research on the use of ICT in Danish VET is very limited   Current research project (2015-2017): “ICT, transfer and boundary crossing in VET”  The development of instructional models and materials
  4. 4. The challenge in dual VET VET-students’ experiences Ortoleva & Bétrancourt (2015)  Difficulties in integrating formal knowledge and tacit knowledge Schwendimann et al. (2015)  Gaps between experiences (e.g. abstraction, skills, culture) Tanggaard (2007)  Very dissimilar contexts with different norms and guidelines for action Aarkrog (2005)  VET programs are discontinuous and fragmented
  5. 5. Research purpose and RQs 1. In what ways and why do VET teachers use ICT-based artefacts as boundary objects to design for boundary crossing and continuity in and across different contexts? 1. What didactic and pedagogic recommendations can support VET schools' future work with establishing enhanced school-workplace interaction through the use of ICT?  VET teacher-students Research community Practitioners
  6. 6. Research design  Multiple case study  Three dominant strands: Technical*, Business and Social & Health  Numerous schools – teachers, students/apprentices and trainers  Research methods  Interviews (different types), observations and design experiments  Spring 2016: Six ethnographic interviews (inspired by Spradley, 1979)  Purpose: gain insight into the VET teachers’ experiences and vocabulary regarding boundary crossing and their use of boundary objects and ICT  The need for instructional materials  a design model *) Includes both ”Technology, construction and transportation” and ”Food, farming and experiences”
  7. 7. From transfer to boundary crossing  Boundaries can lead to discontinuity in action or interaction  Boundary crossing is a concept that has been proposed as an enriched notion of transfer  Boundary crossing includes ongoing, two-sided actions and interactions in and across practices  Boundary crossing acknowledges conflicts and contradictions as potential for learning and development  Boundary crossing is about finding productive ways of relating intersecting dissimilar practices (Akkerman & Bakker, 2012 & 2011)  Boundary crossing needs to be facilitated
  8. 8. 4 boundary crossing processes (Akkerman & Bakker, 2011) Learning mechanisms (dialogical learning processes) that constitute the ideal crossing between dissimilar practices 1. Identification – focus on differences and similarities 2. Coordination – focus on establishing communicative connections 3. Reflection – focus on realising and articulating differences 4. Transformation – focus on the recognition of a shared problem solving space
  9. 9. Boundary objects and technology Boundary objects  Boundary objects refer to artefacts bridging/mediating the crossing – analogue or digital (Akkerman & Bakker, 2011) Technology  New technologies provide opportunities for creation of a third space of learning and integration of theory and practice (Schwendimann et al, 2015; Nortvig & Eriksen, 2013) Transfer-mediating tools (Henningsen & Mogensen, 2013) 1. Documentation tools 2. Simulation tools 3. Construction tools 4. Interaction tools Technology-mediated boundary objects (TBOs)
  10. 10. Instructional design model 1.0
  11. 11. Field validation Fall 2016 1. Used as part of an exercise in our Diploma teaching (16 VET teacher-students) 2. Used as part of an exercise in two workshops at a Danish VET conference (approx. 40 participants, incl. consultants and leaders)  Does it make sense – and why/not?  How would the teachers (consultants etc.) classify technology – and why?  What else (knowledge, materials) is needed in terms of designing for technology-mediated boundary crossing?
  12. 12. Field validation – cont.
  13. 13. Findings – examples of technology
  14. 14. Findings – cont. In relation to the model itself  The categorisation of TBOs depends on the instructional design strategy  The model needs to reflect the dynamic nature of this categorisation  Instructional design model version 2.0 In relation to the use of the model  The use needs to be further scaffolded  A matrix Case examples
  15. 15. Instructional design model 2.0
  16. 16. Scaffolding – the TBOC-matrix
  17. 17. Case x - Linda the Chef  Linda teaches chef VET-students and is planning the first day of the return from the students’ first workplace period.  Linda has experienced difficulties in terms of connecting the students’ work-based experiences with the school practice  Linda decides to have the students make sauce bearnaise as a good (contested) example  Linda also wants to use technology in her teaching 
  18. 18. Case x – cont.
  19. 19. Future research Spring 2017 Interviews and observations of technology in action – in VET schools Focus on: LMS, video and electronic portfolios Field validation of instructional model 2.0 and the scaffolding matrix – in our diploma teaching Fall 2007 Final analyses Final dissemination
  20. 20. Thank you for listening! Contact Marianne Riis, Senior Lecturer, Ph.d. E-mail: marr@phmetropol.dk Twitter: @MariisMills Research blog: https://iktogtransferieud.wordpress.com/
  21. 21. References – cited in the extended abstract  Akkerman, S.F., and Bakker, A. (2012). Crossing Boundaries Between School and Work During Apprenticeships. Vocations and Learning, 5(1), p. 153, DOI 10.1007/s12186-011-9073-6  Akkerman, S.F., and Bakker, A. (2011). Boundary Crossing and Boundary Objects. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 132-169  Billett, S. (1996). Situated learning: Bridging sociocultural and cognitive theorizing. Learning and Instruction, 6(3), p. 263-280  Christensen, O., Christiansen, R.B., Gynther, K., Helms, N.H., and Schlüntz, D. (2014). Kan vi lære af de andre? – Udenlandske erfaringer med e-læring og blended learning I erhvervsuddannelser og læreruddannelser for erhvevsskolelærere [Can we learn from others? – Foreign experiences with e-learning and blended learning in vocational educations and teacher educations for vocational teachers]. University College Sjælland  Engle, R.A. (2012). The resurgence of research into transfer: an introduction to the final articles of the transfer stand. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21:3, 347-352.  Engeström, Y., Engeström, R. & Kärkkäinen, M. (1995). Polycontextuality and boundary crossing in expert cognition: Learning and problem solving in complex work activities. Learning and Instruction, Vol. 5. pp. 219-336.  Hahn, C., (2012). Apprenticeship in higher education in France: an experimental device to help apprentices to link academic knowledge and work experience. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 64(1), p. 75, DOI: 10.1080/13636820.2011.622446  Henningsen, S.E. and Mogensen, F. (red.) (2013). Mellem teori og praksis. Om transfer i professionsuddannelser [Between theory and practice. About transfer in vocational educations]. VIA Systime  Heilesen , S. , Mogensen , K. & Gleerup , J. (2012). Designing for Learning in Coupled Contexts. In Hodgson, V., Jones, C., de Laat, M., McConnell, D., Ryberg, D. & Sloep, P., (eds), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Networked Learning 2012. Maastricht School of Management , pp. 89-96
  22. 22. References – cited in the extended abstract  Illeris, K., (2009). Transfer of learning in the learning society: How can the barriers between different learning spaces be surmounted, and how can the gap between learning inside and outside schools be bridged? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 28(2), p. 137, DOI: 10.1080/02601370902756986  Lobato, J. (2006). Alternative perspectives on the transfer of learning. History, issues, and challenges for future research. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(4), 431-449.  Messman, G., and Mulder, R.H., (2015). Conditions for apprentices’ learning activities at work. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 67(4), p.578, DOI: 10.1080/13636820.2015.10947457  Motta, E., Cattaneo, A., and Gurtner, J.L., (2014). Mobile devices to bridge the gap inVET: Ease of use and usefulness as indicators for their acceptance. Journal of Education and Training studies, 2(1), p. 165-179, DOI:10.11114/jets.v2i1.184  Nortvig, A.M. and Eriksen, K.K., (2013). Teknologistøttet simuleringsundervisning – som translokation for teoretisk viden og praktisk handlen [Technology-supported simulation instruction – as translocation for theoretical knowledge and practical action]. Læring & Medier, 11(1), p. 1-21  Ortoleva, G. and Bétrancourt, M. (2015). Collaborative writing and discussion in vocational education: Effects on learning and self- efficacy beliefs. Journal of writing research, 1(1), p. 1-19, DOI: 10.17239/jowr-2015.07.05  Riis, M., Bergstedt, P. & Rasmussen, C.L. (unpublished). Undervisningsdifferentiering og it i de erhvervsrettede uddannelser – en eksploartiv forundersøgelse. [Differentiation and ICT in Vocational Education - an explorative pre-study]. Internal report.  Schwendimann, B.A., Cattaneo, A.A.P., Zufferey, J.D., Gurtner, J.L., Bétrancourt, M., and Dillenbourg, P., (2015). The ‘Erfahrraum’: a pedagogical model for designing educational technologies in dual vocational systems. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 67(3), p.367, DOI: 10.1080/13636820.2015.1061041
  23. 23. References – cited in the extended abstract  Tangaard, L., (2007). Learning at trade vocational school and learning at work: boundary crossing in apprentices’ everyday life. Journal of Education and Work, 20(5), p. 153, DOI: 10.1080/13639080701814414  Tuomi-Gröhn, T. Engeström, Y., & Young, M. (2003). From transfer to boundary crossing between school and work as a tool for developing vocational education: An introduction. In T. Tuomi-Gröhn & Y. Engeström (Eds.), Between school and work: New perspectives on transfer and boundary-crossing pp. 1–18. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Pergamon.  Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research. Design and methods. 4th edition. SAGE.  Aarkrog, V. (2010). Erhvervsuddannelsesforskningen i Danmark. [Vocational Education Research in Denmark]. Størner, T. & Hansen, J.A. (red.) Erhvervspædagogik – mål, temaer og vilkår i eud’s verden. s. 73-82. Erhvervsskolernes Forlag.  Aarkrog, V. (2005). Learning in the workplace and the significance of school-based education: a study of learning in a Danish vocational education and training programme. International Journal of lifelong education, 24(2), 12.

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