Dipterocarp prod&fun
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Dipterocarp prod&fun Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Coastal Forest Seminar Productivity and Function ofDipterocarp forests in SE Asia
    Yuhsin Hsueh
  • 2. Forest cover of SE. Asia 1998-2000
  • 3. Net Primary Production
    Method: Satellite data (Landsat TM)+ Metero+ GDD+PAR….
    Example: Pahang state in Malaysia, 2004 (Ibrahim, 2006)
    Thefive main types of forest; (i) the upper montane forest, (ii) lower montane forest, (iii) upper dipterocarp forest,
    (iv) hill dipterocarp forest,
    (v) low land forest.
  • 4. Values
    An analysis of NPP from Landsat TM image for the states of Pahang indicated that the average value of NPP for forest area is about 3,500 gCm2yr-1. Most of the area with high value of NPP is areas covered inland and hill forest. (Ibrahim, 2006) (80% is Dipterocarp forest)
    Litter fall ranged from 6.6-7.3 up to 11 Mg Ha-1 yr-1 for primary forests on acidic soils. Litter decay constants were in the range 1.3 – 1.7 up to 2.9 yr-1, for leaf or coarse leaf. (compare to those of woodland and woody savanna, litterfall rates are 2.12 and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1)
    Peat soils contain 100 times the average C content per ha and, 199 times the average of non-peat soils. (M. van Noordwijk et al., 1997)
  • 5. Mean Annual Net Primary Productivity of Peninsular Malaysia 2004 (NOAA)
    Part of southern swamps has already been converted to agricultural land such as oil palm and other development activities, thus showing lower value of NPP.
  • 6. Forest Functions
    Dominate Species
    Dipterocarpforestscomprise of at least 3/4 of the forests inSoutheast Asia(WWF)
    General flowering events: too many seeds are dropped in too short a time to be all consumed by the reduced numbers of seed predators, allowing more seeds to escape by germinating and growing out of the predation-vulnerable stages.
  • 7. Biodiversity
    Researchers discovered 240 different plant species growing withinone ha in Borneo. (WWF); species numbers are found more than 120 in mammals, 340 in birds, 75 in reptiles, 60 in amphibians, 40 in fish, and 15,000 inArthropoda (De, 2009).
  • 8. Threatened species……..
    Pongopygmaeus
    Elephasmaximus
    Dicerorhinussumatrensis
    Pantheratigrisjacksoni
    Green turtle
    Helarctosmalayanus
    Orang-utan
    Sun Bear
    Green turtle© WWF-Malaysia/K. Chin
    Elephasmaximus
    © WWF-Malaysia/Stephen Hogg
    Sumatran Rhinoceros© WWF-Malaysia/S.Hogg
    Malayan tiger© WWF-Malaysia/M.Kavanagh
  • 9. Threats
    Deforestation: an average of 250,000 hectare of forest being lost annually during 1983 to 2003! (4 times the size of a Singapore!)
    Unsustainable logging
    Illegal removal of forest products
    Encroachment
    Medicine
  • 10. Sarawak (sarawakriver.blogspot)
    Sarawak (sarawakriver.blogspot)
  • 11. Oil Palm Industry
    Supported by Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture and Indonesia Ministry of Industry
  • 12. Both Indonesia and Malaysia are exporting large amount of the product to China: Malaysian exports to that country alone are expected to grow more than 20 percent from 2.9 million metric tons in 2005 to more than 3.5 million metric tons in 2006, representing almost 1 percent of the value of Malaysia's total exports.
  • 13. Reference
    Ibrahim, 2006http://eprints.utm.my/2572/1/analysis-2006-Ab.Latif.pdf
    WWF: http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/borneo_forests/http://assets.panda.org/downloads/treasureislandatrisk.pdf
    SEARRP: http://www.searrp.org/research_sabah_biodiversity.cfm
    http://sunbears.wildlifedirect.org/sun-bear-helarctos-malayanus/
    De, T.S. 2009. Habitat Use by Malayan Sun Bears(Helarctosmalayanus) in the Lowland Rainforests of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Thesis of National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Institute of Wildlife Conservation.
    http://sarawakriver.blogspot.com/2009/11/seed-wings.html
    Rhett Butler http://news.mongabay.com/2006/0425-oil_palm.html
    http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/veget_map_insulare-sea/images/TREES_insularSEA_map_fullres2.jpg