Net Primary Production Method: Satellite data (Landsat TM)+ Metero+ GDD+PAR…. Example: Pahang state in Malaysia, 2004 (Ibrahim, 2006) Thefive main types of forest; (i) the upper montane forest, (ii) lower montane forest, (iii) upper dipterocarp forest, (iv) hill dipterocarp forest, (v) low land forest.
Values An analysis of NPP from Landsat TM image for the states of Pahang indicated that the average value of NPP for forest area is about 3,500 gCm2yr-1. Most of the area with high value of NPP is areas covered inland and hill forest. (Ibrahim, 2006) (80% is Dipterocarp forest) Litter fall ranged from 6.6-7.3 up to 11 Mg Ha-1 yr-1 for primary forests on acidic soils. Litter decay constants were in the range 1.3 – 1.7 up to 2.9 yr-1, for leaf or coarse leaf. (compare to those of woodland and woody savanna, litterfall rates are 2.12 and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1) Peat soils contain 100 times the average C content per ha and, 199 times the average of non-peat soils. (M. van Noordwijk et al., 1997)
Mean Annual Net Primary Productivity of Peninsular Malaysia 2004 (NOAA) Part of southern swamps has already been converted to agricultural land such as oil palm and other development activities, thus showing lower value of NPP.
Forest Functions Dominate Species Dipterocarpforestscomprise of at least 3/4 of the forests inSoutheast Asia(WWF) General flowering events: too many seeds are dropped in too short a time to be all consumed by the reduced numbers of seed predators, allowing more seeds to escape by germinating and growing out of the predation-vulnerable stages.
Biodiversity Researchers discovered 240 different plant species growing withinone ha in Borneo. (WWF); species numbers are found more than 120 in mammals, 340 in birds, 75 in reptiles, 60 in amphibians, 40 in fish, and 15,000 inArthropoda (De, 2009).
Threats Deforestation: an average of 250,000 hectare of forest being lost annually during 1983 to 2003! (4 times the size of a Singapore!) Unsustainable logging Illegal removal of forest products Encroachment Medicine
Oil Palm Industry Supported by Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture and Indonesia Ministry of Industry
Both Indonesia and Malaysia are exporting large amount of the product to China: Malaysian exports to that country alone are expected to grow more than 20 percent from 2.9 million metric tons in 2005 to more than 3.5 million metric tons in 2006, representing almost 1 percent of the value of Malaysia's total exports.
Reference Ibrahim, 2006http://eprints.utm.my/2572/1/analysis-2006-Ab.Latif.pdf WWF: http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/borneo_forests/http://assets.panda.org/downloads/treasureislandatrisk.pdf SEARRP: http://www.searrp.org/research_sabah_biodiversity.cfm http://sunbears.wildlifedirect.org/sun-bear-helarctos-malayanus/ De, T.S. 2009. Habitat Use by Malayan Sun Bears（Helarctosmalayanus） in the Lowland Rainforests of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Thesis of National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Institute of Wildlife Conservation. http://sarawakriver.blogspot.com/2009/11/seed-wings.html Rhett Butler http://news.mongabay.com/2006/0425-oil_palm.html http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/veget_map_insulare-sea/images/TREES_insularSEA_map_fullres2.jpg