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The use of scaffolding to motivate adult learners in vus presentation


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The use of scaffolding to motivate adult learners in vus presentation

  1. 1. The use of scaffolding to motivate adult learners in VUS Phan Thi Thu Huong
  2. 2. OUTLINE  Introduction  Literature review  Discussion and recommendations
  3. 3. I. Introduction  Because the reason of motivation lacking among adult learners in VUS (Vietnam USA Society Language Centers  This presentation aims to give some information about using scaffolding effectively and properly, which is one of essential ways to motivate learners
  4. 4. II. Literature review a. Definition of adult learners - According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2005), an adult who is “fully-growth” and “developed”. - Roger (1996) said that adults who are fully- developed and mature and have the intention of studying themselves. - Malcolm S. Knowles (1996) has made an assumption that an adult is someone who has achieved the concept themselves of being responsible for their own decision in their life
  5. 5. II. Literature review b. Characteristics of adult learners  Ur (2012) has described adult learners as disciplined and motivated students and have a tendency to increase their wisdom. However, adults seem to be “critical and demanding”, and they can easily complain to the school about the insufficient teaching quality or any other problems that affect their learning.  Bernat (2000) assumed that adult learners “they are more strongly motivated by internal pressures than external rewards”
  6. 6. According to Harmer (2007)  They can absorb abstract concepts better than younger learners and adolescents.  They have first-hand experience which can help them in language learning.  They have expected outcomes of their learning process.  They are more disciplined than other learners.  They have their own motivation for their study in order to achieve their goals.
  7. 7. Knowles (1996)  They need to know the reason why they decide to do something before starting doing this.  Their motivation is increasing if they can see the advantages of language learning and the consequences of not studying.  They are responsible for their own decision in studying and working.  They have valuable experiences which can be a great number of advantages for them in studying, working or making decisions.  They are willing to learn in order to achieve the goals that they had set before.
  8. 8. c. Psychological, linguistics and other external problems of adult learners:  Bernat (2000) has presented some of adult learner difficulties such as - they seem to be anxious about losing their self-respect - they have many concerns in their life such as family, work and social connection, which may have an effect on their learning.  Burn and Richards (2012) the more demand of learning increases the more adults lose their motivation in learning  Burn and Richards (2012) also assumed that “L1 literacy skills” can lead to the success in learning L2. This means that the lacking of “L1 literacy skills” can be one of adult learners’ struggles
  9. 9.  Kumavavadivelu (2006) has presumed two kinds of factors – internal and external ones which may be measured as obstacles for adults in L2 learning. - The internal factors a. individual (age and anxiety) b. affective (attitude and motivation) c. tactical (learning and communication strategies) d. knowledgeable (language and metalanguage knowledge) - The external factors a. negotiable (interaction and interpretation) b. environmental (social and educational)
  10. 10. d. Using scaffolding in teaching adults :  1. Definition of scaffolding  Thornbury (2006) considered scaffolding a term which includes literal and metaphorical meanings: - 1st meaning: It means the short-term assistance which is set outside the building under construction for workers to reach and work in higher place - 2nd meaning: teachers, parents, or other more knowledgeable people regarded as facilitators who assist learners to accomplish a task that is above their present capacity
  11. 11.  According to Ovando, Collier & Combs, 2003, p345, cited in Bradley: - “ Scaffolding refers to providing contextual supports for meaning through the use of simplified language, teacher modeling, visuals and graphics, cooperative learning and hands-on learning”  Vygotsky (1978) and Moll (1990) emphasized that scaffolding is certain support given to learners to reach to the level that is higher than their own ZDP (Zone of Proximal Development).
  12. 12. An illustrative model of scaffolding (Northern Illinois University, 2008)
  13. 13. 2. Kinds of scaffolding in language teaching  Fortune (2004), Echevarria, Vogt, et al (2004) have divided into three kinds of scaffoldings - verbal instruction which involves improving language - procedural involving in grouping and how to conduct activities step by step - instructional scaffolding which is educational supporting equipment  Hogan and Pressley (1997) only paid attention to instructional scaffolding  Dickson, Chard, & Simmons (1993) expressed the term as "scaffolded instruction which is the systematic sequencing of prompted content, materials, tasks, and teacher and peer support to optimize learning" cited in Larkin (2002).
  14. 14. 3. How scaffolding motivates adult learners  Base on Northern Illinois University (2008) learners with instructional scaffolding can achieve some of advantages: - They can continue their deep learning and encounter new knowledge - They can be motivated to be better students who know how to self-learn. - They are given opportunities to co-learning and co- teaching between other students. - They are offered a “welcoming” and “caring” environment.
  15. 15. 3. How scaffolding motivates adult learners  Larkin (2002) stated that instructional scaffolding enhances student learning by providing supportive aid as well as accelerating student independence.  McKenzie (1999) clarified the use of scaffolding can explain the purpose of what students do in class, lessen the vagueness, amaze and disappointment; and gather momentum in learners.
  16. 16. III. Discussion and recommendations 1. Background information about VUS and adult learners in VUS - Vietnam USA Society English Centers - high-quality English training centers - 15 campuses located in different districts in Ho Chi Minh City - About 700 qualified foreign and Vietnamese teachers - Adult learners: 16 years old to 60 years old with different background, leaning styles, motivation and occupations in Tan Binh campus.
  17. 17. III. Discussion and recommendations 2. Difficulties in ESL learning among VUS adult learners - Age and anxiety - more passive and quieter - older students seem to be more passive and afraid of making mistakes because they are scared of losing their faces - mixed-classes with different literacy background - students are not notified the importance of CEF with the abbreviation meaning as Common European Framework
  18. 18. III. Discussion and recommendations 3. Recommendations - providing friendly and relaxed atmosphere in ESL classrooms in which adult learners feel more relaxed and eager to share their feeling and work better in class - using scaffolding appropriately by providing divergent activities which meet student needs - educators should take of the guidelines and advantages of the CEF (Common European Framework) into consideration in order to pick appropriate materials for learners to fit their level
  19. 19. References  (2005). Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. O. U. Press. New York, Oxford University Press.  (2008). Instructional Scaffolding to improve learning, Northern Illinois University.  Bernat, E. (2000) Attending To Adult Learners - Effective Domain In ESL Classroom.  Burns, A. and J. C. Richards (2012). The Cambridge Guide to Pedagogy and Practice in Second Language Teaching. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.  CEF (2001). Teacher's Guide to the Common European Framework, Pearson Longman.  Echevarria, J. J., M. Vogt, et al. (2004). Making content comprehensible for English learners.  Fortune, T. (2004). Scaffolding techniques in CBI classrooms.  Harmer, J., Ed. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson Education Limited.
  20. 20. References  (Hogan, K. and M. Pressley (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and issues. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.  Knowles, M. S. (1996). Adult Learning.  Kumavavadirelu, B. (2006). Understand Language Teaching. Erlbraum Lawrence.  Larkin, M. (2002). "Using Scaffolded Instruction To Optimize Learning."  McKenzie, J. (1999). "Scaffolding For Success."  Moll, L. C., Ed. (1990). Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications and Applications of Socialhistorical Psychology. Cambridge Cambridge University Press  Oblinger, D. (2003). "Boomers Gen-Xers Millennials - Understand the new students.  Rogers, A. (1996). Teaching Adults, Open University Press.  Thornbury, S. (2006). A dictionary of terms and concepts used in English Language Teaching.  Ur, P. (2012). A course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.  Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, Harvard University Press
  21. 21. Thank you for listening  All of your questions are welcomed now!