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Shows and explains series, parallel and combination circuits. Uses Kirchoff's first and second law in calculations. …

Shows and explains series, parallel and combination circuits. Uses Kirchoff's first and second law in calculations.

**More good stuff available at:

www.wsautter.com

and

http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wnsautter&aq=f

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- 1. Current Electricity & Circuits W. Sautter 2007
- 2. The next slide is a quick promo for my books after which the presentation will begin Thanks for your patience! Walt S. [email_address] More stuff at: www. wsautter .com
- 3. Books available at: www. wsautter .com www.smashwords.com www.amazon.com www.bibliotastic.com www.goodreads.com Walt’s Books for Free!
- 4. Before we begin our study of circuits - Some basic review
- 5. AMPS volts Ammeters measure current in amperes and are always wired in series in the circuit. Voltmeters measure potential in volts and are always wired in parallel in the circuit. Electrical Meters
- 6. Electrical Symbols wiring battery voltmeter ammeter resistance capacitor junction terminal AC generator Variable resistance Variable capacitor + - A V
- 7. ELECTRON PUMP (SOURCE VOLTAGE) [ENERGY IN] LOAD (RESISTANCE) [ENERGY OUT] CONDUCTOR ELECTRONS OUT OF SOURCE ELECTRONS OUT OF LOAD ELECTRONS BACK TO SOURCE ELECTRONS INTO LOAD HIGHER ENERGY ELECTRONS LOWER ENERGY ELECTRONS THE MOST BASIC ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT CONDUCTOR
- 8. V = I R Ohm's Law Drop across a resistance Current passing Through the resistor Potential In volts (joules / coul) Current In amperes (coul / second) Resistance In ohms (volts / amp)
- 9. Battery current Potential Rise Across a Power Source Electrons get An energy boost current volts Electrons have Less Energy Electrons have More Energy
- 10. Resistor current Potential Drop Across a Resistor Energy is lost In the resistor volts Electrons have More Energy Electrons have Less Energy
- 11. There are three generally types of electrical circuits: <ul><li>Series circuits in which the current created by the voltage </li></ul><ul><li>source passes through each circuit component in succession. </li></ul>Arrows show Current path Through each component R 2 A 2 R 1 R 3 A 1
- 12. (2) Parallel circuits in which the current created by the voltage source branches with some passing through one component and while the rest of the current passes through other components. Arrows show Current path Through each component Junction or Branching points A 1 R 1 R 2 R 3 A 2 A 3 A 4 R 4
- 13. (3) Series Parallel circuits or combination circuits which contain series segments and parallel segments. Arrows show Current path Through each component R 1 R 2 R 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 R 4 SERIES P A R A L L E L
- 14. All electrical circuit analysis requires the use of two fundamental laws called Kirchhoff’s Laws
- 15. Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws FIRST LAW All current entering a junction point must equal all current leaving that junction point Current Entering ( I 1 ) Current Leaving ( I 2 ) Current Leaving ( I 3 ) I 1 = I 2 + I 3 Junction point
- 16. Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws SECOND LAW Around any complete loop, the sum of the voltage rises must equal the sum of voltage drops Battery (voltage rise) Resistance 1 (voltage drop 1) Resistance 2 (voltage drop 2) Resistance 3 (voltage drop 3) Current flow Complete loop V (Battery) = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + -
- 17. R 2 R 1 A 2 A 1 A t V 1 EMF <ul><li>Kirchhoff’s Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Around a loop </li></ul><ul><li>V rises = V drops </li></ul><ul><li>A loop is a completed </li></ul><ul><li>Path for current flow </li></ul>Battery V 2 Loop #1 Loop #2 Loop #3 Current Loops + - Complete current Paths in a circuit
- 18. When using Kirchhoff’s laws we apply the principles of conventional current flow. When current leaves the positive (+) terminal of a voltage source and enters the negative (-) terminal a voltage rise occurs across the source. If the current enters the positive and exits the negative a of a voltage source a voltage drop occurs across the source. When tracing a current loop, if the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are the same, a voltage drop occurs across a resistance. If the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are opposite, a voltage rise occurs across the the resistance.
- 19. Current flow V = + 6 v Current flow V = - 6 v When using Kirchhoff’s laws we apply the principles of conventional current flow. When current leaves the positive (+) terminal of a voltage source and enters the negative (-) terminal a voltage rise occurs across the source. If the current enters the positive and exits the negative a of a voltage source a voltage drop occurs across the source. Battery ( 6 volts) + -
- 20. When tracing a current loop, if the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are the same, a voltage drop occurs across a resistance. V = + 6 v A voltage rise Assumed Current flow V = - 6 v A voltage drop Loop direction Assumed Current flow Loop direction If the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are opposite, a voltage rise occurs across the the resistance. resistor
- 21. Series Circuit Relationships Derived from Kirchhoff's Laws Series Resistance R t = R 1 + R 2 + …. EMF = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V i <ul><li>In a series circuit: </li></ul><ul><li>The total resistance of the circuit is the sum of </li></ul><ul><li>the resistance values in the circuit. </li></ul>( 2) The sum of all voltage drops across the resistors in the circuit equals the voltage rise of the source. The through each resistance is the same. I TOTAL = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = I i
- 22. A Series Circuit R 2 A 2 V 2 R 1 EMF R i R 3 V 1 V 3 A 1 R = Resistance In ohms Voltmeters In parallel Ammeters In series Series Resistance R t = R 1 + R 2 + …. Ammeters read The same everywhere In the circuit A 1 = A 2 EMF = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V i
- 23. A Series Circuit
- 24. Parallel Circuit Relationships Derived from Kirchhoff's Laws <ul><li>In a parallel circuit: </li></ul><ul><li>The reciprocal of the total resistance of the circuit is the sum </li></ul><ul><li>of the reciprocals of the resistance values in the circuit. </li></ul>Parallel Resistance 1/R t = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 …. ( 2) The sum of the voltage drops across the resistors in a branch of the circuit equals the voltage rise of the source. V source = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = V i (3) All current entering a junction = all current leaving the junction I TOTAL = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I i
- 25. R 1 R 2 R 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 V 2 V 3 EMF V 1 A Parallel Circuit Parallel Resistance 1/R t = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 …. <ul><li>Kirchhoff’s Laws </li></ul><ul><li>All current entering </li></ul><ul><li>A junction = all current </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving the junction </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Around a loop </li></ul><ul><li> V rises = V drops </li></ul>Junction points Voltmeters In parallel Ammeters In series Battery R = Resistance In ohms
- 26. A Parallel Circuit
- 27. Another Parallel Circuit
- 28. R 1 R 2 R 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 V 1 R 4 V 4 Series - Parallel Circuit V 2 V 3 EMF R i P A R A L L E L SERIES Parallel Resistance 1/R t = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 …. Series Resistance R t = R 1 + R 2 + …. <ul><li>Kirchhoff’s Laws </li></ul><ul><li>All current entering </li></ul><ul><li>A junction = all current </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving the junction </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Around a loop </li></ul><ul><li> V rises = V drops </li></ul>
- 29. A Typical Circuit Board resistors capacitors Integrated circuits
- 30. THE END

I have written six books

'Sticks - A Golfer’s Tale' - A hacker’s dream comes true.

'Fish Farm' - Revenge of the old people.

'Coach' - A mystery in Old school football town in a rural, bigoted, fifties town.

'The Three Dollar Phoenix' - A mystery set in Newark, New Jersey in the 1970s.

'The Divine Comedy MMIX' - A humorous play about Jesus returning.

'The Blood of Judas' - A horror story of revenge set in Nazi Germany.

All are available at www.smashwords.com

I have video trailers for 'Coach', 'Fish Farm' and 'The Blood of Judas' at:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXSD5Kz-fDY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9PTRb14ldc

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToPp9k9Oq-o

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Please take a look. Thanks.

Walt Sautter - wsautter@optonline.net