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Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution
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Air pollution

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  • 1. Air Pollution Environmental Science
  • 2. What Causes Air Pollution? <ul><li>Air Pollution is the contamination of the atmosphere by solid, liquid, or gasses </li></ul><ul><li>Most air pollution is the result of human activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automobile Exhaust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some pollutants are </li></ul><ul><li>natural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen and spores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions (sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dioxide) </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Primary and Secondary Pollutants <ul><li>Primary Pollutants – a pollutant put directly into the atmosphere by humans or nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. CO from car exhaust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Pollutants – a pollutant that is formed by a chemical reaction between a primary pollutant and another compound in the atmosphere (either natural or man-made) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Ground level ozone </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Types of Pollutants <ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mainly comes from car exhaust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxides (NO X ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>auto exhaust, power plants and some industrial processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burning fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burning fuel (gasoline vapors) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particulate Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tiny particles (can be solids or liquids) – construction, agriculture, fires, vehicles, industry </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Automobile Emissions <ul><li>One third (1/3) of air pollution comes from cars </li></ul><ul><li>Americans drove 2.6 trillion miles in 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 10% of that was done by busses or trucks </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Clean Air Act of 1970 <ul><li>Gives the EPA authority to regulate automobile emissions </li></ul><ul><li>The EPA required: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of leaded gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lead pollution has decreased 90% as a result </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalytic converters had to be installed into cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause a chemical reaction that changes the pollutants to less harmful substances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA estimates cars burn fuel 35% more efficiently and pollute 95% less now than 30 yrs ago </li></ul>
  • 7. Zero-Emission Vehicle <ul><li>California began the Zero-Emission Vehicle program to encourage the development of less-polluting vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric cars are the only true ZEV cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 types of partial ZEV’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline/Electric Hybrids (Toyota Prius) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methanol Fuel Cells (all still prototypes) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Industrial Pollution <ul><li>Most power plants generate electricity by burning fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Power plants emit at least 2/3 of all sulfur dioxide and more than 1/3 of all nitrogen oxides that pollute the air. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry cleaning, oil refineries, chemical manufacturing plants, furniture refinishers, and automobile repair shops all contribute to the VOCs in the air. </li></ul>
  • 9. Industrial Air Pollution <ul><li>Clean Air Act also requires that industries remove pollution from their emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubbers – remove gasses by spraying water into the exhaust to dissolve many soluble pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Electrostatic Precipitators – gasses containing dust particles are blown through an electrically charged chamber – the dust sticks to each other and the side of the chamber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 tons of ash generated by coal burning power plants each year </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Smog <ul><li>Air pollution that hangs over cities and reduces visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Smog is the result of chemical reactions involving sunlight, air, car exhaust, and ozone </li></ul>
  • 11. Temperature Inversions <ul><li>Usually temperature decreases with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>A temperature inversion is when warm air is higher and the cold air is trapped beneath </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes pollution is trapped beneath the warm air </li></ul>

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