Unit 3 a ch 9 s1 studying human populations


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  • I AmNujood, Age 10 and Divorced is the autobiography of a 10 year old 3rd grader from Yemen who is married off to a man 3x her age to help her family. Her father cannot support his family so he basically trades his 10 year old for money/goods. The husband rapes his new wife even though he promised not to consummate the marriage until 1 year after her first menstrual cycle. Shows how women in 3rd world countries are dependent on men, uneducated, and have no rights.
  • Unit 3 a ch 9 s1 studying human populations

    1. 1. THE HUMAN POPULATION Ch. 9, Section 1: Studying the Human Population Standards: SEV5a, b
    2. 2. WHAT IS DEMOGRAPHY?   Demography- study of populations, especially human populations. Includes study of: Historical size of population  Make up of population  Economics  Social structure   Demographers use this info. to make comparisons & predictions about populations.
    3. 3. WHAT 2 CATEGORIES DO DEMOGRAPHERS GROUP COUNTRIES INTO? Developed Countries 1. Have higher avg. incomes  Slower pop. growth  Diverse industrial economies  Ex: US, western Europe 
    4. 4. WHAT 2 CATEGORIES DO DEMOGRAPHERS GROUP COUNTRIES INTO? Developing Countries 2.     Lower avg. incomes Simple, agricultural based economies Rapid population growth Ex: India, China, countries in Africa
    5. 5. HOW HAS THE HUMAN POPULATION CHANGED OVER TIME?   Population grew slowly for 1000’s of years In 1800’s (Modern Age) population grew exponentially   Due to increase in food supply & better hygiene thanks to industrial & scientific revolutions Human population continues to grow exponentially… will it ever reach its carrying capacity?
    6. 6. HOW CAN A POPULATION BE PREDICTED?  Demographers look at many properties of populations to predict: Will community need more schools?  Will community need more retirement homes  Will population increase to point where we need more roads & utilities? 
    7. 7. HOW CAN A POPULATION BE PREDICTED?  Demographers use numerous tools and graphs to predict populations: Age structure graphs  Survivorship curves  Fertility rates  Migration patterns 
    8. 8. AGE STRUCTURE GRAPHS    Graph that shows the distribution of ages in a specific population at a certain time. A.K.A. population pyramids Parts of an age structure graph: Bars = ages  Colors = gender  Numbers on bottom= percentage of the population   3 Categories of Age Structure Graphs Rapid growth  Slow growth  Declining/zero growth 
    9. 9. AGE STRUCTURE GRAPHS  Rapid growth Young people dominate population  Has population momentum- more children will move up to become reproductive  Rapid increase in birth rates once the youngsters reach reproductive age.  EX: Developing countries- many countries in Africa, Mexico, S. America 
    10. 10. AGE STRUCTURE GRAPHS  Slow Growth Birth rates = death rates  All age groups are about equal  EX: Most Western European countries, U.S. 
    11. 11. AGE STRUCTURE GRAPHS  Declining Growth (Zero growth)      Birth rates are lower than death rates Many more older people who are not reproducing Fewer younger people Population will become much smaller when they die. Ex: Germany, Russia
    12. 12. SURVIVORSHIP CURVES Percentage of members of a group that are likely to survive to any given age.  Follows a group of organisms from the time they were born to the time they die to see trends.  3 Types of Survivorship curves:     Type I Type II Type III
    13. 13. SURVIVORSHIP CURVES  Type I Lots of offspring survive and live to old age.  Ex: Developed countries- US, Japan  Ex: Zebras, Bears, etc.   Type II Populations have a similar death rate at all ages  Ex: birds   Type III Lots of offspring die young & very few survive to old age.  Ex: Developing countries- Africa, Asia  Ex: insects, clams 
    14. 14. FERTILITY RATES    Fertility rate- number of babies born each year per 1,000 women in a population. Total fertility rate- avg. number of children a woman gives birth to in her lifetime. Replacement level fertilityavg number of children each parent must have in order to “replace” themselves in the population.   RLF = approximately 2 children Compare Zambia to Europe using the chart to the right.  What conclusions can you draw based on this data? Highest (Zambia) Total Fertility Rate Lowest (W. Europe) Lowest (E. Europe) 6.7 1.3 1.4 GNP/capita/ year $225 $19,000 $3108 Life expectancy 47.6 yrs 77.6 yrs 68.9 yrs Birth Rate per 1000 47.6 9.7 9.9 Death Rate per 1000 17.6 10.0 13.0 Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 120 7 22 Annual Growth Rate 2.9% 0.1% -0.4%
    15. 15. FERTILITY RATES   Keeping total fertility rate below replacement level fertility will help populations decline. This graph shows US population change since 1920. Who are the baby boomers? Lots of babies were born post WWII…when soldiers returned home from war ;)  Why did population start rising in the 1990’s? Children of baby boomers were growing up & having kids 
    16. 16. MIGRATION PATTERNS Immigrationmovement into an area  Emigrationmovement out of an area  US experiences lots of immigration… would our population decline if we didn’t have immigration? 
    17. 17. WHAT FACTORS AFFECT A COUNTRY’S DEATH RATE?    Life expectancy- avg. number of years members of a population are likely to live. Most affected by infant mortality- death rate of infants less than a year old. Infant mortality (death rates) have decreased and life expectancy has increased due to access to      adequate food clean water safe sewage disposal vaccines (around beginning of 20th century) access to education Worldwide Infant mortality rates
    18. 18. WHAT FACTORS AFFECT A COUNTRY’S DEATH RATE?  Threats to life expectancy : As populations increase, population becomes denser  Disease can spread quickly thru dense populations.  Ex: AIDS, tuberculosis  This will increase death rate and decrease life expectancy.  Sign located in South African village.
    19. 19. WHAT FACTORS AFFECT A COUNTRY’S BIRTH RATE?  Birth rates typically are lower in areas where:  Women are educated Academically  Family planning techniques   Women are economically independent Have jobs  So less time for raising many children.   Pensions are available for elderly  no need for kids to help take care of elderly
    20. 20. WHAT FACTORS AFFECT A COUNTRY’S BIRTH RATE? Large families are common when children are needed to work and take care of older family members  As countries modernize, there is less need for lots of kids.  This can decrease birth rates. 
    21. 21. WHAT FACTORS AFFECT A COUNTRY’S BIRTH RATE?  Factors that can increase a population’s birth rate: Lack of birth control due to availability or religion  Need to have children b/c have poor health care and children can die easily  Women are uneducated, repressed, with no rights to make decisions about their own bodies. 
    22. 22. WHAT IS THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION?  Pattern of falling death rates & birth rates due to improved living conditions.  All countries should experience this trend in population change.
    23. 23. WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION?  Preindustrial societiesHigher birth rates- due to need for kids to help on farm; have lots of kids because many will die from disease/malnutrition.  Higher death rates- due to food shortages, malnutrition, lack of sanitation & medicine, accidents, other hazards  Population is low because of high death & birth rates. 
    24. 24. WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION?  Industrialization    Decreasing death ratesdue to improved health care and sanitation. Continuing high birth rates- people still having lots of kids because healthcare is not widespread and may be ignorant about birth control People have better jobs, more income, more people surviving due to rise in standard of living. Population grows exponentially.
    25. 25. WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION?  Mature Industrial Death rates continue declining  Birth rates begin declining  Women realize they don’t need as many kids  Women realize how expensive kids are  Women may have jobs so less time for kids 
    26. 26. WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION?  Postindustrial societieseventually BR & DR level out & population is at equilibrium. W. Europe saw this in 19th & 20th century