Prevention and Control
Air and its Components
Air is a mixture of many gases including Nitrogen, Oxygen,
Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor and other trace gases.
What is Air Pollution…??
Any change in the Earth’s atmospheric composition of gases
that has harmful effects.
Volatile Organic Compounds
Six Major Pollutants Categorized by EPA,US
Causes – Natural sources??
Gases released from the body processes of living beings (CO2 during
respiration, CH4 from cattle’s digestion, oxygen from plants during
Smoke from forest fires, volcanos
Evaporation of organic compounds
Evaporation of organic
Large group of carbon-based chemicals that easily evaporate at room
Personal care products such
as perfume and hair spray
Dry cleaning fluid, paints,
Copying and printing machines
From Naturally occurring elements in soil and rock.
Emit 3 kinds of radiations like α-particle (alpha-particle), β-
particles(beta-particle) and γ-rays ( gamma-rays) or γ-radiation
Eg. uranium, thorium, and radium
Causes- Man Made Sources??
Burning of Fossil Fuels – Coal, oil, natural gas and gasoline to produce
electricity and power vehicles. – SO2, CO, NOx, SPM
Agricultural activities – NH3 is very common byproduct.
Landfill activities- CH4
Exhaust from factories and industries - CO, Hydrocarbons, organic
Mining Operation – Dust
Use of chemicals like cleaning products, painting supplies
Happened in 1962
Synthetic pesticides DDT used to
combat typhus and malaria.
It is non degradable so
accumulated in the environment.
Decimated Bald eagle and other
Later turned up in human
breast milk and was linked with
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Happened in April, 1986
Plant’s core went melt down
Released 100 times more
radiation than the atom bombs
dropped on Japan.
19-mile exclusion zone around
the plant remains uninhabitable.
4000 cases of thyroid cancer
were diagnosed among children
and adolescents, mainly due to
Human health – Respiratory and heart problems, Cancer
Global warming – Greenhouse gases like CO2
Acid Rain - Water droplets + NOx, SOx
Eutrophication – Depletion of Oxygen content in water bodies
Depletion of Ozone Layer – Presence of chlorofluorocarbons, hydro
Sulfurous smog (or 'London-type' smog)
Happened in Dec, 1952 due to Industrial revolution.
Use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal
High concentration of Sox, Humidity and low temperature in the air
Smoke + SOx + Fog droplets = Sulfurous Smog
Worst Type of Smog – Thermal Inversion
Abnormal arrangement of air masses
causes pollutants to be trapped near the earth’s surface
Stop horizontal winds
Warm air collects over the polluted air, acting as a lid to stop the
pollutants from being dispersed.
Photochemical smog('Los Angeles-
Happened in 1944
due to Automobile
New York-type' smog
Happened in Nov,1966 in New York
Delhi -type' smog
Due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and
crop burning in adjoining states.
Solutions to reduce Smog
Alkaline Scrubbers reduce SO2 and SO3 levels
Electrostatic precipitators reduce particulates
Catalytic Converters change NO to N2,
Lean burning engines reduce Nox but create more CO and
How does Air Pollution Move?
(i.e., smokestack, chimney, exhaust
(i.e., soil, vegetation, water bodies,
Use public mode of transportation
Conserve energy – Switch off fans and lights – Save
electricity – Save fuel burning
Understand the Concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle
Emphasis on clean energy resources like solar, wind and
Use energy efficient devices – CFL lights against
Air Pollution is one of the major concerns and a challenge we
need to overcome to see a tomorrow.
This is a direct attempt at slacking Global warming.
World wide on personal, industrial and Govt level know the
intensity at which Air Pollution is rising.
We must not forget that air is what we breathe in to survive
Keep the air clean because we
breathe 7 or 8 liters
of Air per minute