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Air Pollution
Basics
Causes
Pollutants
Effects
Prevention and Control
Air and its Components
 Air is a mixture of many gases including Nitrogen, Oxygen,
Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor and other ...
What is Air Pollution…??
 Any change in the Earth’s atmospheric composition of gases
that has harmful effects.
Air Pollutants…??
CO
SO2
Pb
Ozone
Nox
PM2.5, PM10
CFCs
HCFCs
Hg
Aerosols
Asbestos
Volatile Organic Compounds
Propellants
S...
Causes – Natural sources??
 Dust
 Gases released from the body processes of living beings (CO2 during
respiration, CH4 f...
Dust Pollution
Wind erosion
Sweeping of Roads
Other Gases Pollution
CO2, O2 Release
NH3 Release
Pollen Dispersal
Allergic Reaction
Lifted by Wind
Smoke Pollution
Forest Fire Forest Fire
Volcano eruption
Uttarakhand Forest Fire
Forest Fire
Evaporation of organic
Compounds
Large group of carbon-based chemicals that easily evaporate at room
temperature.
E.g :
Pe...
Natural Radioactivity
From Naturally occurring elements in soil and rock.
Unstable nucleus
Emit 3 kinds of radiations like...
Causes- Man Made Sources??
 Burning of Fossil Fuels – Coal, oil, natural gas and gasoline to produce
electricity and powe...
Fossil Fuel Burning
Vehicular Emission
Allergic Reaction
Agricultural Activities
Landfill Activities
Exhaust from factories and
Industries
Bhopal Gas Leak
 Happened in Dec, 1984
 Company Responsible : Union Carbide
(Now Dow Chemicals)
 Leak of Methyl Isocyan...
Mining Operations
Chemical Products
Pesticide DDT
 Happened in 1962
 Synthetic pesticides DDT used to
combat typhus and malaria.
 It is non degradable so
a...
Artificial Radioactivity
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
 Happened in April, 1986
 Plant’s core went melt down
 Released 100 times more
radiation tha...
Effects…??
 Human health – Respiratory and heart problems, Cancer
 Poor Visibility
 Global warming – Greenhouse gases l...
Poor Visibility - Smog = Smoke + Fog
Sulfurous smog (or 'London-type' smog)
Happened in Dec, 1952 due to Industrial revolution.
Use of sulfur-bearing fossil fu...
Worst Type of Smog – Thermal Inversion
 Abnormal arrangement of air masses
 causes pollutants to be trapped near the ear...
Photochemical smog('Los Angeles-
type' smog)
Happened in 1944
due to Automobile
Pollution
London-type smog in Beijing, China
New York-type' smog
Happened in Nov,1966 in New York
Delhi -type' smog
Due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and
crop burning in adjoining states.
Solutions to reduce Smog
 Alkaline Scrubbers reduce SO2 and SO3 levels
 Electrostatic precipitators reduce particulates
...
Global Warming
Major Greenhouse Gases Major Sectors releasing
Greenhouse Gases
Acid Rain
Eutrophication
Eutrophication Decrease in Oxygen Content
in water bodies
Depletion of Ozone Layer
How does Air Pollution Move?
Emission Source
(i.e., smokestack, chimney, exhaust
pipe)
Receptor
(i.e., soil, vegetation, w...
Solutions…??
 Use public mode of transportation
 Conserve energy – Switch off fans and lights – Save
electricity – Save ...
Conclusion…??
 Air Pollution is one of the major concerns and a challenge we
need to overcome to see a tomorrow.
 This i...
Keep the air clean because we
breathe 7 or 8 liters
of Air per minute
Air Pollution Basics
Air Pollution Basics
Air Pollution Basics
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Air Pollution Basics

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Air Pollution Basics

  1. 1. Air Pollution Basics Causes Pollutants Effects Prevention and Control
  2. 2. Air and its Components  Air is a mixture of many gases including Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor and other trace gases.
  3. 3. What is Air Pollution…??  Any change in the Earth’s atmospheric composition of gases that has harmful effects.
  4. 4. Air Pollutants…?? CO SO2 Pb Ozone Nox PM2.5, PM10 CFCs HCFCs Hg Aerosols Asbestos Volatile Organic Compounds Propellants Six Major Pollutants Categorized by EPA,US
  5. 5. Causes – Natural sources??  Dust  Gases released from the body processes of living beings (CO2 during respiration, CH4 from cattle’s digestion, oxygen from plants during photosynthesis)  Pollen Dispersal  Smoke from forest fires, volcanos  Evaporation of organic compounds  Natural radioactivity
  6. 6. Dust Pollution Wind erosion Sweeping of Roads
  7. 7. Other Gases Pollution CO2, O2 Release NH3 Release
  8. 8. Pollen Dispersal Allergic Reaction Lifted by Wind
  9. 9. Smoke Pollution Forest Fire Forest Fire Volcano eruption
  10. 10. Uttarakhand Forest Fire Forest Fire
  11. 11. Evaporation of organic Compounds Large group of carbon-based chemicals that easily evaporate at room temperature. E.g : Personal care products such as perfume and hair spray Cleaning agents Dry cleaning fluid, paints, Lacquers, varnishes, Hobby supplies Copying and printing machines
  12. 12. Natural Radioactivity From Naturally occurring elements in soil and rock. Unstable nucleus Emit 3 kinds of radiations like α-particle (alpha-particle), β- particles(beta-particle) and γ-rays ( gamma-rays) or γ-radiation Eg. uranium, thorium, and radium
  13. 13. Causes- Man Made Sources??  Burning of Fossil Fuels – Coal, oil, natural gas and gasoline to produce electricity and power vehicles. – SO2, CO, NOx, SPM  Agricultural activities – NH3 is very common byproduct.  Landfill activities- CH4  Exhaust from factories and industries - CO, Hydrocarbons, organic compounds.  Mining Operation – Dust  Use of chemicals like cleaning products, painting supplies  Artificial radioactivity
  14. 14. Fossil Fuel Burning
  15. 15. Vehicular Emission Allergic Reaction
  16. 16. Agricultural Activities
  17. 17. Landfill Activities
  18. 18. Exhaust from factories and Industries
  19. 19. Bhopal Gas Leak  Happened in Dec, 1984  Company Responsible : Union Carbide (Now Dow Chemicals)  Leak of Methyl Isocyanate Gas
  20. 20. Mining Operations
  21. 21. Chemical Products
  22. 22. Pesticide DDT  Happened in 1962  Synthetic pesticides DDT used to combat typhus and malaria.  It is non degradable so accumulated in the environment.  Decimated Bald eagle and other bird populations  Later turned up in human breast milk and was linked with premature births.
  23. 23. Artificial Radioactivity
  24. 24. Chernobyl Nuclear Accident  Happened in April, 1986  Plant’s core went melt down  Released 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Japan.  19-mile exclusion zone around the plant remains uninhabitable.  4000 cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed among children and adolescents, mainly due to contaminated milk.
  25. 25. Effects…??  Human health – Respiratory and heart problems, Cancer  Poor Visibility  Global warming – Greenhouse gases like CO2  Acid Rain - Water droplets + NOx, SOx  Eutrophication – Depletion of Oxygen content in water bodies  Depletion of Ozone Layer – Presence of chlorofluorocarbons, hydro chlorofluorocarbons
  26. 26. Poor Visibility - Smog = Smoke + Fog
  27. 27. Sulfurous smog (or 'London-type' smog) Happened in Dec, 1952 due to Industrial revolution. Use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal High concentration of Sox, Humidity and low temperature in the air Thermal Inversion Smoke + SOx + Fog droplets = Sulfurous Smog
  28. 28. Worst Type of Smog – Thermal Inversion  Abnormal arrangement of air masses  causes pollutants to be trapped near the earth’s surface  Stop horizontal winds  Warm air collects over the polluted air, acting as a lid to stop the pollutants from being dispersed.
  29. 29. Photochemical smog('Los Angeles- type' smog) Happened in 1944 due to Automobile Pollution
  30. 30. London-type smog in Beijing, China
  31. 31. New York-type' smog Happened in Nov,1966 in New York
  32. 32. Delhi -type' smog Due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states.
  33. 33. Solutions to reduce Smog  Alkaline Scrubbers reduce SO2 and SO3 levels  Electrostatic precipitators reduce particulates  Catalytic Converters change NO to N2,  Lean burning engines reduce Nox but create more CO and Hydrocarbons.
  34. 34. Global Warming
  35. 35. Major Greenhouse Gases Major Sectors releasing Greenhouse Gases
  36. 36. Acid Rain
  37. 37. Eutrophication
  38. 38. Eutrophication Decrease in Oxygen Content in water bodies
  39. 39. Depletion of Ozone Layer
  40. 40. How does Air Pollution Move? Emission Source (i.e., smokestack, chimney, exhaust pipe) Receptor (i.e., soil, vegetation, water bodies, human lungs)
  41. 41. Solutions…??  Use public mode of transportation  Conserve energy – Switch off fans and lights – Save electricity – Save fuel burning  Understand the Concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle  Emphasis on clean energy resources like solar, wind and geothermal  Use energy efficient devices – CFL lights against conventional lights
  42. 42. Conclusion…??  Air Pollution is one of the major concerns and a challenge we need to overcome to see a tomorrow.  This is a direct attempt at slacking Global warming.  World wide on personal, industrial and Govt level know the intensity at which Air Pollution is rising.  We must not forget that air is what we breathe in to survive every day.
  43. 43. Keep the air clean because we breathe 7 or 8 liters of Air per minute

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