Air pollution


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GE2021 Environmental Science and Engineering

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Air pollution

  1. 1. AIR POLLUTIONExcessive discharge of undesirable foreign substances into theatmospheric air thereby adversely affecting the quality of air andcausing damage to human, plants and animal lives.
  2. 2. Air Pollutants• Particulates – Dust, Smoke, Fly Ash• Carbon monoxide (CO)• Carbon dioxide (CO2)• Ammonia (NH3)• Sulphur dioxide (SO2)• Nitrogen Oxides (NxOy) • Phosgene• Hydrogen Cyanide • Asbestos• Hydrogen Sulphide • Aldehydes• Hydrogen fluoride • Radiations• Chlorine • Hydrocarbons
  3. 3. Classification of Air PollutantsPrimary Air Pollutants Secondary Air Pollutants• The poisonous gases and • Derived from Primary Air undesirable chemicals Pollutants which cause air pollution. • In bright sunlight nitrogen, nitrogen• Carbon particles from oxides, oxygen and unburned fuel, Ammonia hydrocarbons – (NH3), Sulphur dioxide photochemical reaction – (SO2), Hydrocarbons, Oxi powerful oxidants – Ozone, Aldehydes, Sulphuri des of nitrogen, Oxides of c acid, Peroxy acetyl nitrate carbon, Lead. (PAN), Peroxides, etc. • They form photochemical Smog
  4. 4. Sources of Air PollutionNatural Man Made• Natural contaminants • Rapid industrialization (fungi, spores, cysts, bacteria, • Automobile Revolution methane, dust, etc.) • Deforestation• Carbon monoxide from Methane Gas• Volcanic Eruptions• Forest fires• Electric storms and Solar flares• Salt spray from oceans• Dust storms
  5. 5. Classification of PollutantsGases Particulates• Oxides of Sulphur • Dust• Oxides of Nitrogen • Smoke• Oxides of Carbon • Fog• Carbon dioxide • Smog• Ozone – London Smog• Hydrogen Sulphide – Los Angels Smog• Chlorofluoro Carbons • Fly Ash• Hydrogen fluoride • Soot• Hydrocarbons • Fumes• Photochemical oxidants • Natural Particulates• Aerosols
  6. 6. Effect of Air Pollution• On Human Health – Irritate respiratory tract – Irritate eyes, nose and throat – Lead particles cause Lead Poisoning – Cadmium particles – Cardio vascular disease, Kidney and Liver damage – Nickel particles – respiratory damage – Mercury – Central nervous system, kidney and brain – Radioactive substances affect future generations
  7. 7. Effect of Air Pollution Contd...• On Animals – Feeding particulate coated plants (fluorine, lead, arsenic) – Arsenic Poisoning – Lead Poisoning – Bronchitis, Lack of appetite in pet animals
  8. 8. Effect of Air Pollution Contd...• On Plants – Spraying Pesticides, Organic manure and agricultural applications – affect growth of plants – Destroy chlorophyll formation – disturb photosynthesis – SO2 – decreases chlorophyll content – causes Chlorosis – NO2 – permanent leaf fall – Ozone – Necrosis - dead area on leaf – damages the leaves
  9. 9. Effect of Air Pollution Contd...• On Materials – Corrosion – Abrasion – Deposition – Chemical attack on surface Acid Rain
  10. 10. Effect of Air Pollution Contd...• On Climate – Increase in CO2 – increase temperature of atmosphere – ice and polar glaciers melt – flooding of coastal towns – change rainfall pattern – agricultural output changes – Depletion of Ozone layer – increase penetration of harmful UV rays on earth – skin diseases, sunburns, inactivation of RNA, DNA and protein molecules
  11. 11. Control of Air Pollution• Planting more trees• Reducing vehicle exhausts• Using less polluting fuels• Using mass transport• Removal of particulate matter using electrostatic precipitator, cyclone filter, etc.• Industrial area should be cited far away from residential area.• Suitable chemical methods applied to remove hydrocarbons• Multi stage combustion process – suggested to remove oxides of nitrogen
  12. 12. Control of Air Pollution Contd...• Activated carbon, charcoal, commercial zeolite and pulvarized lime stones can be used to remove polluting gases by absorption methods• Use of tall chimneys reduces – concentration of air pollutants at ground level
  13. 13. Cyclone Collector
  14. 14. Cottrell Electrostatic Precipitator
  15. 15. SummaryDefinitionAir Pollutants Classification Primary Air Pollutants Secondary Air PollutantsSources of air pollution Natural Man madeClassification of Pollutants Gases ParticulatesEffects of Air Pollution On human health On Animals On Plants On Materials On ClimateControl of Air Pollution Cyclone Collector Cottrell Electrostatic Precipitator