Unit 3 a ch 8 s2 how species interact with each other


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  • When P. aurelia and P. caudatum are grown separately they grow exponentially until their populations level out.When these paramecia are put in the same dish the P. aurelia outcompetes the P. caudatum and P. caudatum dies off. P. caudatum was not able to compete with the other paramecium species for the food resources.
  • Some caterpillars look like bird poopLizard camouflagePoison dart frogBee fly has same color patter as bees but no stingerMonarch butterfly has bad taste. Viceroy butterfly does not but because they look like monarch butterflies they are left alone.
  • Caterpillar has been parasitized by a parasitic wasp. The parasitic wasp laid eggs on the caterpillars back. These eggs will hatch into larva that will burrow inside caterpillar and eat caterpillar from inside out.Mistletoe grows inside the tree branch stealing its nutrients/water
  • Bacteria help you break down nutrients; you provide home/nutrients for bacteriaAcacia tree provides ants with home & sugary nectar glands; ants protect tree from herbivores
  • Orchids use tree to get to sunlight but do not get anything from the tree.Clownfish live in anemones but don’t help/hurt the anemone in any wayRemoras attach to sharks with suction cup like head. When shark eats they detach and eat scraps of food. Don’t hurt shark or help it.
  • Parasitism, mutualism, commensalism (predation probably not considered symbiosis b/c two species don’t really live in close association.
  • This bee orchid has a dark region with yellow spots that resemble the abdomen of a female bee. Male bees will try to copulate with the orchid and in the process will pollinate the orchids.
  • Unit 3 a ch 8 s2 how species interact with each other

    1. 1. Ch8, Section 2: How Species Interact with Each Other Standards: SEV3e, SEV5a, b
    2. 2. What is a specie’s niche?   Niche- role a species has within an ecosystem.  Includes:  Species physical home  Factors needed for survival  Interactions with other organisms  Ex: Bison are grazers & help control tree sapling populations as well as fertilize soil for grass  Ex: Fungi & bacteria are decomposers, recycling nutrients to soil.
    3. 3. What is a specie’s habitat?   Place where a species lives  An organism performs its niche in its habitat.
    4. 4. How do species interact with each other?  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Competition Predation Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism
    5. 5. 1. Competition   Relationship where individuals or populations share limited resources  Both species are harmed  -/- interaction  Intraspecific competitionwithin the same species.  Ex: caterpillars of the same species eating the same leaf.  Interspecific competitionbetween different species  When members of different species compete we say their niches have overlapped.  Ex: hyenas compete for kill with lions
    6. 6. 1. Competition   Indirect competitioncompete even though they do not come in contact with each other.  Ex: An insect that eats a leaf during the day competes indirectly with an insect that eats the same leaf at night.  Ex: Plants compete for pollinators; humans compete with insects for food crop.
    7. 7. 1. Competition   Adaptations to competition When 2 species compete for a resource, usually only one will win.  The other species must move to find new resources.  This is called competitive exclusion.
    8. 8. 1. Competition   Competitive exclusion can lead to niche restriction.  These species share the same niche & habitat but use a smaller portion of it.  Ex: Two barnacle species Chthamalus & Balanus  share the same intertidal zone of a rocky shore line  Chthamalus lives at higher tide line (realized niche)  When Balanus is removed, Chthamalus will move further down into the original Balanus habitat. (fundamental niche) Realized niche- where the species actually lives Fundamental niche- where the species could live if given a chance.
    9. 9. 2. Predation   Predator feeds on prey  Predator benefits, prey is harmed  +/- interaction  Some predators are very specific about what they eat  Canadian lynx only eat snowshoe hares  Creates predator/prey oscillations  Most predators generally eat any prey they can capture  Not all predators are carnivores
    10. 10. 2. Predation   Animals adapted to avoid predation:  Camouflage- hard to see; blend in  Ex: some caterpillars; lizards  Warning coloration- alert potential predator that they are dangerous  Ex: poison dart frogs  Mimicry- look like something more dangerous even if it isn’t  Ex: some flies have same coloration as bees  Protective coverings- too hard for predator to eat.  Ex: porcupine, turtle, cactus
    11. 11. 3. Parasitism   Parasite lives and feeds on host organism.  Parasite benefits, host is harmed  +/- interaction  Parasites are different from predators because they do not usually kill their host (what else would they eat if they killed their host?)  Parasite can weaken host & make them more susceptible to disease.  Ex: ticks, leeches, mistletoe, fleas
    12. 12. 4. Mutualism   Each species benefits from the relationship  +/+ interaction  Some species couldn’t live without each other  Ex: bacteria in your intestine; acacia tree & ants; insects & flowers
    13. 13. 5. Commensalism   One species is benefited and the other is neither harmed nor helped.  +/0 interaction  Ex: orchids in trees; clownfish & anemones; remoras and sharks
    14. 14. What is Symbiosis   Relationship where two species live in close association  Often one species benefits.  Which of the five species interactions are considered symbiosis?
    15. 15. What is Coevolution?   When species have such close relationships they often coevolve.  These two species would be less likely to survive if one were missing.  Ex: bee orchids