Sustainable Sanitation And The Environment

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Sustainable Sanitation And The Environment

  1. 1. Sustainable Sanitation in Armenia March 2004 IST Dan Retz
  2. 2. Presentation Objectives <ul><li>To discuss the importance of sanitation for the health of the people and the health of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss possible solutions for “Sustainable Sanitation” in Armenia </li></ul><ul><li>Open discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. 4 Requirements for Human Civilization Clean Water Food Security Sanitation Shelter
  4. 4. Sanitation Is Practiced to Prevent Disease and Promote Health. Practiced Successfully, the Result Would Be Healthy People and a Healthy Environment. Sanitation Access to water Attitudes Safe Disposition Of Excreta Solid and Industrial Waste mgmt. Education
  5. 5. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 25,000 people throughout the world die every day from waterborne diseases. Every year, nearly 1.5 billion people (mostly children under five) suffer from preventable waterborne diseases <ul><li>Cholera </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul>
  6. 6. No single measure would do more to reduce disease and save lives in the developing world than bringing safe water and sanitation to all. Kofi Annan UN Secretary General
  7. 7. What are the options? <ul><li>Pit Latrines </li></ul><ul><li>Sewers and treatment plants </li></ul><ul><li>Composting </li></ul>
  8. 9. Non-Functioning Sewage Treatment Plant
  9. 10. Leaking Broken Sewer Pipes Within 3 meters of the sidewalk (health disaster due Disease vectors and Pollution!) Not to mention the Stink!
  10. 11. Raw Sewage from broken pipes
  11. 12. * * System Comparison * Depending on operation = Best = Worst = Fair Composting Sewer System Pit Latrine Sustainable Odor Water Use Pollutes ground water Comfort (inside or not) Nutrient Recycling Cost
  12. 13. What is Composting? Bacteria Protoplasm C 5 H 7 0 2 N + CH 4 Methane NH 3 Ammonia H 2 S Hydrogen Sulfur PO 4 Phosphates H 2 0 Water C, O, H, N, P, S Anaerobic Aerobic C, O, H, N, P, S Bacteria Protoplasm C 5 H 7 0 2 N +0 2 enzymes enzymes CO 2 Carbon Dioxide H 2 0 Water NO 3 Nitrates PO 4 Phosphates S0 4 Sulfates +
  13. 14. What is Composting? <ul><li>Composting is simply the method of breaking down organic materials. Bacteria and fungi, and small invertebrates help to complete the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Composting can convert organic waste into rich, dark colored material, or humus, in a matter of a few weeks or months. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural composting, or decomposition, occurs all the time in the natural world. </li></ul><ul><li>Composting can take place in the forest, as well as in heap or a container </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Converts “wastes” into usable products at the point of creation </li></ul>What does Composting do for You? <ul><li>Closes the “organic loop” </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Bacteria Plants Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping N and P in the soil (fertilizer) </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps N and P out of water which would cause pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Produces fertilizer for farmland or in the garden </li></ul>
  15. 16. Who Does it? <ul><li>Composting of human waste is an ancient practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is only in the last 30 years that systems for modern living have been designed and commercialized for the modern domestic home environment. (Sweden has pioneered these systems). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It’s not a developing country solution… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden’s province of Tanum is converting to composting toilets to reduce pollution of beaches and damage to fisheries, AND because it’s cheaper than conventional sewering </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. How do you do it? <ul><li>Provide an environment that isolates excrement from disease vectors </li></ul><ul><li>The correct amount of water </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>The optimum pH level of the compost is between 5.5 and 8. </li></ul><ul><li>C:N Ratio (25:1 to 30:1) </li></ul>
  17. 18. 3 Basic Toilet Configurations <ul><li>Sawdust toilet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically a bucket is kept in the house and emptied weekly into an outdoor compost bin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batch composting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger containers (200 l) are used for the entire composting process and alternated as needed (about every 3 or 4 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous composting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One larger specialized container that needs to be turned and emptied regularly </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Project Goals <ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>Must be affordable </li></ul><ul><li>Can be built easily and cheaply by HCNs with minimal training </li></ul><ul><li>All material must be sourced locally ( In Armenia) </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide tangible benefits to Armenians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More comfortable, as the toilet can be installed inside the house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compost will provide many benefits to the user’s garden (fertilizer, moisture retention) </li></ul></ul>Goal #1 To provide a cheap, safe, environmentally friendly method of waste recycling that will work in rural Armenia. Goal #2 Use the successful (I hope) toilet project to educate communities about other aspects of resource recycling I have designed this project using the batch composting method for many reasons, although the other options are just as feasible
  19. 21. 2 nd Floor Exhaust Pipe W/ fan 25 cm Water pipe Laundry Tub Recycled Wine barrel 1 st Floor
  20. 23. Option #1
  21. 24. Option #2 Fan Ventilation
  22. 25. Composting Chamber
  23. 26. Composting “Bag”
  24. 27. Details… <ul><li>I am in the process of building a working prototype of each design shown, one in my house and one in my neighbor’s house. They should be completed by mid-April. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat for Humanity is interested in incorporating these designs into their housing projects this spring </li></ul><ul><li>All materials are sourced locally and are affordable. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to build </li></ul>
  25. 28. Other Projects? <ul><li>How can we apply the knowledge and experience gained from this project to other environmental projects? </li></ul><ul><li>Other projects include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recycling and solid waste management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used motor oil recycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrap metal recycling </li></ul></ul>For any environmental project to be successful, there needs to be a tangible benefit ($$$$) to the user!
  26. 29. How do we bring Change? <ul><li>For example, how American’s attitude changed between 1950 and 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and Community Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations in the Community (how do others behave) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Things that affect attitudes: </li></ul><ul><li>We need to teach the ideas of sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>People need to be educated how to work with the biological processes of nature opposed to viewing the environment as an infinite resource to be exploited </li></ul>
  27. 30. Society Needs to Face Their Responsibility for Taking Good Care of the Most Precious Resources: Water and Fertile Soil. Contact info: Dan Retz (66) 2 – 37 –61 or dan_retz@yahoo.com

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