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environmental pollution

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environmental pollution

  1. 1. EVS-I ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Presented by: Abhiniti Sneha
  2. 2. CONTENT  Solid waste management Causes Effects Control measures of waste  Role of an Individual in prevention of Pollution  Pollution case studies
  3. 3. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT(SWM)  Waste, which is non-affective and comes from city, town or village as domestic and biomedical waste is termed as solid waste.  The process of transportation, storage, collection and processing of solid waste in a protective and economic manner is termed as solid waste management.
  4. 4. NATURE OF THE PROBLEM  SWM is a civic problem and it has to evolve optimally &continuously to serve the future generation.  Solid wastes if unchecked cant not only be a health hazard but will impart multidimensional threats.  A complete and environmentally sound SWM requires effective contribution from all those who are involved in this problem.  Everyone is involved in solid waste generation problem so everyone should be involved in the proper disposal of it.
  5. 5. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT - CAUSES  Over population - Pollution naturally increases with the growing number of persons, produce more waste.  Affluence - The tendency to pronounce the things as fashion and check them out, when not required as out of fashion.  Packaging - Packaging of most of the gifts is considered as the source of solid waste pollution as most of these are non- biodegradable.  Poor implementation of environment protection laws, urbanization  Lack of awareness and lack of participation from the public, the problem of solid waste has increased at the highest level.  Growth in consumption leads to consumption of items and on the other hand, wastes production.
  6. 6. SOLID WASTE POLLUTION - EFFECTS  Contaminates water and air, resulting into diseases in Human beings.  Mosquitoes breed in the stagnant water, blocked due to waste choked in the drains.  Decomposition of solid waste spreads obnoxious odour in the air, thus polluting it.  Burning of waste, especially plastic adds up obnoxious fumes in the air.  Garbage dumps and decomposed waste helps many harmful species to breed in them.  The infected water supply also leads to large scale epidemics.
  7. 7. DISPOSAL PROCESS  Sanitary landfill - The people in the city dump around 90% of the solid waste into natural or constructed pit or depression which compacts due to the surrounding dust.  Composting - In this process, the materials like glass, rubber and plastic etc. are separated and the rest waste is exposed for bacterial action for decomposition for several months to produce manure.  Incineration: Burning of waste to warm up residential units is termed as incineration. It is a convenient and quick method.
  8. 8. DISPOSAL PROCESS  Pyrolysis - It’s the process of burning the waste in absence of 02- In it organic compounds split into gaseous and gaseous fractions (CO, C02, CH4, tar and charred carbon).  Disposal into sea - It’s a simple and cheap method in which the solid waste is disposed under deep sea water at a remarkable distance from the coastal areas. Not a preferred option due to degradation issues.
  9. 9. VERMI-COMPOSTING  Nature has perfect solutions for managing the waste it creates, if left undisturbed. The bio- geochemical cycles are designed to clear the waste material produced by animals and plants.  We can mimic the same methods that are present in nature. All dead and dry leaves and twigs decompose and are broken down by organisms such as worms and insects, and is finally broken down by bacteria and fungi, to form a dark rich soil-like material called compost.  These organisms in the soil use the organic material as food, which provides them with nutrients for their growth and activities. These nutrients are returned to the soil to be used again by trees and other plants. This process recycles nutrients in nature.  This soil can be used as a manure for farms and gardens.
  10. 10. Steps for Vermi-Compost  Dig a pit about half a meter square, one meter deep.  Line it with straw or dried leaves and grass.  Organize the disposal of organic waste into the pit as and when generated.  Introduce a culture of worms that is now produced commercially.  Ensure that the contents are covered with a sprinkling of dried leaves and soil everyday.  Water the pit once or twice a week to keep it moist.  Turn over the contents of the pit every 15 days.  In about 45 days the waste will be de- composed by the action of the microorganisms.  The soil derived is fertile and rich in nutrients.
  11. 11. SWM – CONTROL MEASURES The main purpose of solid waste management is to minimize the adverse effects on the environment. The steps involved are:  Collection of solid wastes  Disposal of solid wastes  Utilization of wastes
  12. 12. Collection of solid wastes:  Collection of waste includes gathering the waste, transporting it to a centralized location, and then moving it to the site of disposal.  The collected waste is then separated into hazardous and non- hazardous materials.  There are a number of waste separation technologies available such as air stripping, stream stripping, carbon absorption, and precipitation.
  13. 13. Disposal of solid wastes Before the final disposal of the solid wastes, it is processed to recover the usable resources and to improve the efficiency of the solid waste disposal system. The main processing technologies are compaction, incineration, and manual separation. The appropriate solid waste disposal method has to be selected, keeping in view the following objectives:  should be economically viable  should not create a health hazard  should not cause adverse environmental effects  should not result in unpleasant sight, odor, and noise
  14. 14. Utilization of wastes The solid wastes can be properly utilized to reap the benefits such as:  conservation of natural resources  economic development  generate many useful products  employment opportunities  control of air pollution
  15. 15. SYNOPSIS  As a part of human life, solid wastes are generated.  The disposal of solid waste should be part of an integrated solid waste management system.  The method of collection, transportation, processing, resource recovery, and final disposal should be synchronized for effective implementation.  This will help in having a clean and healthy environment devoid of diseases.
  16. 16. Role of Individual in Prevention of POLLUTION  Develop respect for all forms of life.  Plant trees wherever you can and more importantly take care of them. They reduce air pollution.  Reduce the use of wood and paper products wherever possible.  Do not buy furniture, doors, window frames made from tropical hardwoods such as teak and mahogany. These are forest based.  Reduce the use of fossil fuels by either walking up a short distance using a car pool, sharing a bike or using public transport. This reduces air pollution.
  17. 17. Contd............. Role of Individual in Prevention of POLLUTION  Shut off the lights and fans when not needed.  Don’t use aerosol spray products and commercial room air fresheners. They damage the ozone layer.  Use rechargeable batteries.  Try to avoid asking for plastic carry bags when you buy groceries or vegetables or any other items. Use your own cloth bag instead.  Use sponges and washable cloth napkins, dish towels and
  18. 18. Contd............. Role of Individual in Prevention of POLLUTION  Don’t use throwaway paper and plastic plates and cups when reusable versions are available.  Recycle all newspaper, glass, aluminium and other items accepted for recycling in your area.  Set up a compost bin in your garden or terrace and use it to produce manure for your plants to reduce use of fertilizers.  Do not litter the roads and surroundings.  Take care to put into practice what you preach. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION BEGINS WITH YOU.
  19. 19. Pollution case studies  Donora air pollution disaster  Bhopal gas tragedy  Love canal tragedy  Arsenic pollution in ground water  Chernobyl nuclear disaster
  20. 20. Donora air pollution disaster  Donora (Pennsylvania, USA) is a mill town - Steel mill, Zinc smelter, Sulphuric Acid plant.  Donora is in a valley on Monongahela river surrounded by steep hills on each side of the river.  25-31 October 1948 - fog due to accumulation of cold air due to inversion. Inversion is trapping of cold layer below the warm laver.  Effect of inversion- ◦ Top fog layer reflected away the solar radiation during day time. ◦ Insufficient heat to break the inversion ◦ Pollutants of the mills got trapped in lower layer and remained for 4 days. ◦ 6000 of 14000 people living in Donora fell ill, 20 died .
  21. 21. Bhopal gas tragedy  2-3rd December 1984 – Union Carbide Company, Bhopal – major disaster. UCC Manufactured Carbaryl pesticide using Methyl Isocyanite(MIC).  Cause of accident - Accidental entry of water in processing tank -Overheating of mixture - Failure of cooling system- Safety Devices in not working condition - EXPLOSION.  40 tons of MIC leaked into atmosphere.  Lungs, eye and skin damage in 40km2 area. 5100 people died. 250000 people got exposed to MIC. 65000 people suffered from severe diseases. 1000 people became blind.  $570 million to clean up and settlement of damages all because of lack of safety measurements in proper working condition.
  22. 22. Love canal tragedy  Love Canal was built by William Love in suburb of Nigeria falls, New York. It was later dug up and used to dump sealed steel drums of chemical wastes by Hooker chemicals corporation (1942-1953).  In 1953 the site was covered with clay and top soil and sold to city board of education. Elementary school and houses were built.  1976- residents complain about foul smell. Children playing in canal area received chemical burns.  Cause- steel containers got corroded- leaking of chemicals into storm sewers, basement of homes and school playgrounds.  Remedy- 1. Wastes were pumped to the new treatment plant 2. Families were relocated.  Threat- there could be many more dumping sites hidden all over the world polluting underground water sources. Their presence will only be know after we suffer from pollution problems.
  23. 23. Arsenic pollution in ground water  West Bengal and Bangladesh are severely infected by toxic heavy metal Arsenic(study report of 1978- west Bengal)(1993- Bangladesh)  Residents have been taking low doses of Arsenic for 10-14 years through contaminated water.  Result-white/black spots called Melanosis affecting the skin - Leprosy like skin lesions on palms and soles. Eventually rotting into ulcers. Long exposure results in cancer. Affected people are socially boycotted.  24-Parganas, Hooghly, Murshidabad districts are the most Arsenic risk zone.   Cause- excess use of lead Arsenate, copper arsenate as pesticides in summer paddy and jute crops.  Short term remedy-contaminated tube wells in the state are being painted red whereas safe water tube wells are painted green for the use of people.
  24. 24. Chernobyl nuclear disaster  Worst nuclear disaster-26 April 1986 in Chernobyl, Ukraine.  The power plant designed to produce 1000MW electrical energy, was working continuously for 2years. Shut down on 25th April for normal repair work.  Due to faulty shutting down process - SEVERE EXPLOSION  severity- 1000 tonne steel concrete lid blew off - Fire started - Temperature rose to 2000 deg C - Fuel and Radioactive debris spread out on volcanic cloud – neighbouring countries Poland, Sweden, Demark and Norway were also affected.  Damage-506000 people were affected - Risk of severe diseases like cancer and leukemia- People also suffered from anemia, loss of hair, damaged skin - 2000 people died - Flora and fauna destroyed -agriculture produces were damaged for years.  Future precaution- nuclear energy is a cheap, non polluting source of energy but lack of proper care and safety measures can create huge disasters.
  25. 25. Thank You