Ni Kadek Widiantari
Ni Made Lia Indra Dewi
There three purposes of this paper.
The first, it was aimed to know the
definition of subjective test. The
second, it was aimed to know
strengths and limitations of Subjective
test. The last, it was aimed to find out
the way to score Subjective test in the
Assessment is the process of
obtaining or collecting data that is
used for making decision about
It can include the test or non-test
Arikunto (2007) states that Subjective test is
generally a test which needs answers in form
of essay, explanation or description.
Usually in doing this test, students will be
given about 90-120 minutes for 5-10
When a teacher uses subjective test
questions, that means students need to use
their mind and feelings to make logical
Classification of Essay
According to Osuji.,et.al (2006)
mention that Essay tests are divided in
to two variations. These are
Extended – response type and
Restricted response type .
The classification is based on the
degree of freedom of response
associated with the question.
– Allows student to:
any information they think is
Organize the answer in accordance
with their best judgment
Integrate and evaluate ideas as they
Imagine that you and a friend found a
magic wand. Write a story about an
adventure that you and your friend had
with the magic wand.
The nature of Restricted response
Limits both content and response.
Content is limited by scope of topic.
Response is limited in the directions.
Most appropriate for learning objectives
that require the interpretation or
application of data in a specific area.
Why is the barometer one of the most
useful instruments for forecasting
weather? Answer in a brief paragraph
It is easy to be prepared and organized
It does not give any opportunities to speculate
It encourages students to dare in expressing
opinions and arranging good sentences.
It provides opportunities for students to
express their opinion by using their own style.
It can identify the students’ understanding
about the problem that being tested.
It’s validity and reliability are low due to it’s difficult to be
known in which aspects the students have understood the
Limited material can be tested. This means less
representative in terms of representing the entire material.
The ways to score and evaluate are often influenced by
It requires more individualized consideration of the teacher
It takes much times to evaluate it and the assessor can not
be replaced by other.
Avoid open-ended questions.
Let the students’ answer the same questions. Avoid
Use students’ numbers instead of their names, to conceal their
Score all the answers to each question for all students at a time.
Do not allow score on one question to influence you while
marking the next. Always rearrange the papers before you mark.
Do not allow your feelings or emotions to influence your marking
Avoid distractions when marking
Compare or match
Contrast or distinguish
Discuss or describe
Enumerate, name, list, outline
Provide details or features
Identify major points
Sequence, arrange, trace, or
List information in order
Demonstrate, or show
Relate or associate
Summarize, paraphrase, or
Provide a short synopsis
Explain, defend, or document
Give reasons for support
Criticize or analyze
Review or evaluate features or
Arikuto (2007) notes that there are two types of
scoring standard in subjective test, those are
giving scores based on Norm referenced test
and Criterion referenced test.
Budhyani,et.al (2010) and Osuji.,et.al (2006)
mention that there are two methods of scoring
for subjective test (essay), those are analytic
and holistic method.
Norm referenced test
a student’s achievement is compared
with the other student in his/her group.
The quality of a student’s achievement
is influenced by the quality of the
Criterion referenced test
In using criterion referenced, a student
is compared with particular standard
score. This means that each individual
is compared with a preset standard for
acceptable achievement. A student's
score is usually expressed as a
The Point or Analytic Method
In this method each answer is
compared with already prepared
ideal marking scheme (scoring
key) and marks are assigned
according to the adequacy of the
The Global/Holistic of Rating
According to Osuji.,et.al (2006)
sate that students first sort the
response into categories of
varying quality based on their
general or global impression on
reading the response.
– Focus attention on one characteristic at a
time, i.e. purpose, organization, details,
– Yields a single overall score taking into
account the entire response.
Procedures f or Scoring Essay
Prepare the ideal answer or outline of expected
answer immediately after constructing the test .
Use the scoring method that is most appropriate
for the test item. That is, use either the analytic
or global method
Decide how to handle factors that are irrelevant
to the learning outcomes being measured.
These factors may include of handwriting,
spelling, sentence structure, punctuation.
Evaluate the answers without consider
whose work you are scoring. This
helps in controlling bias in scoring the
Make comments during the scoring of
each essay item. These comments act
as feedback to students
Finding : example
1. Explain the meaning and function of
the following punctuation!
2. Please find a story and make a short
paragraph by using your own
3. Make a dialogue about
agreement/disagreement based on the
“You’re involved in discussion with a
friend. Your friend explains his/her
opinion, and you have your own. You
disagree with your friend’s opinion”
Example of rubric
1. The content is good and grammar is correct
2. The content is good and some occasional errors
3. Limited content and grammar is correct
4. Limited content and frequent errors
5. Content and grammar are errors
In scoring the tests, consideration of a teacher is need.
When the test is restricted response questions, it will be
better if teacher uses analytic method in scoring the
students’ work. When the test is extended response
questions, teacher is suggested to use holistic method in
scoring students’ work.
The way to score also tend to be used a rubric. The
rubric itself is standard performance of assignment by
listing the criteria, or what counts, and describing levels
of quality from excellent to poor. Rubric is almost similar
with method of scoring by analytic or holistic method.