check basin , furrow and border strip method

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  • 1. DESIGN ASPECTS IN BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION, CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION & FURROW IRRIGATION METHOD PREPARED BY - TILVA RAJ KOYANI UMANG JADEJA DEVRATSINH DODIYA RAVI CHAROLA ANAND
  • 2. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION
  • 3. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION  WHAT IT IS ?  Borders are long, uniformly graded strips of land , seperated by earth bunds.
  • 4. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION  WHAT IT IS ?  In contrast to basin irrigation these bunds are not to contain the water for ponding but to guide it as it flows down the field.  In contrast to furrows these bunds are prevents lateral movement of water within the bunds where as furrows are provided for lateral percolation of the water in the sub soil directly.
  • 5. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION WHEN it USED ? Larger merchanized farms Where machines operations are involved in agriculture Less suited to small scale farms involving hand labour or animal powered cultivation methods. Uniform slope(min. 0.05% and max. 2% slope) Deep homogenous loam or clay of medium infiltration rate. For close growing crops
  • 6. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION DESIGN ASPECTS Border layout The dimensions and shape of borders are influenced by the soil type, stream size, slope, irrigation depth and other factors such as farming practices and field or farm size.
  • 7. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION
  • 8. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION
  • 9. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION IRRIGATING BORDERS BORDERS ARE IRRIGATED BY DIVERTING A STREAM OF WATER FROM THE CHANNEL TO THE UPPER END OF THE BORDER. ON CLAY SOILS(INFLOW STOPPED AT 60% OF THE BORDER) ON LOAMY SOILS(IT IS AT 70% - 80% OF BORDER) ON SANDY SOILS(ENTIRE BORDER COVERED)
  • 10. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION INFILTRATION RATE & STREAM SIZE(BORDER SIZE) STREAM SIZE TOO SMALL
  • 11. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION INFILTRATION RATE & STREAM SIZE(BORDER SIZE) STREAM SIZE TOO LARGE
  • 12. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION CROSS-SLOPE OF BORDER if the land is not properly graded and there is a cross-slope,the irrigation water will not spread evenly over the field. it will flow down the slope always seeking the lowest side of the border.(as shown in fig.)
  • 13. BORDER STRIP IRRIGATION MAINTENANCE OF BORDERS BORDERS ARE KEPT FREE FROM WEEDS.  UNIFORMLY SLOPED BORDERS FREQUENT BUND REPAIRATION CHANNEL AND DRAINS ARE TO BE WEEDED REGULARLY
  • 14. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION
  • 15. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION WHAT IT IS ? Check basins are rectangular or square small plots surrounded by levees or checks.
  • 16. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION WHEN It USED ? Crops roots which required submergence in water for periods longer than 24 hours. i.e.Potatoes,beet,carrots,rise,citrus,banana,clover, tobacco. The flatter the land surface,the easy to construct basins. It is also possible to construct basins on sloping land,even when the slope is quite steep.
  • 17. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION DESIGN ASPECTS BASIN LAYOUT Basin layout not only refers to the shape and size of the basins but also to the shape and size of the bunds. ♠ What is the shape of the basin : Square,rectangular or irregular ? ♠ How high should be the bund be : 10,50 or 100cm? ♠ What is the shape of bund?
  • 18. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION SHAPE AND SIZE OF BASINS ♠ BASIN WIDTH Main limitation of basin width is land slope. (Steep slope then narrow basins) Factors affect basin width 1)depth of fertile soil 2)method of basin construction 3)agricultural practices
  • 19. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION SHAPE AND SIZE OF BASINS ♠ BASIN SIZE Main limitation of basin width is land slope. (Steep slope then narrow basins) Factors affect basin SIZE 1)soil type 2)available water flow to the basin 3)land slope
  • 20. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION SHAPE AND SIZE OF BASINS
  • 21. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION WHAT IS BUNDS ? Bunds are earth embankments which contain irrigation water within basins. They are sometimes called ridges,dykes,or levees. The height is governed by 1) irrigation depth 2) free board
  • 22. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION TEMPORARY BUND
  • 23. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION  PERMANENT BUND
  • 24. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION BASIN CONSTRUCTION 1) SETTING OUT OF THE MARKERS
  • 25. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION BASIN CONSTRUCTION 2) MARKING A CONTOUR LINE
  • 26. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION BASIN CONSTRUCTION 3) MAKING THE BUNDS BY WOODEN FRAME & SMOOTHING THE LAND
  • 27. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION IRRIGATING BASINS 1) DIRECT METHOD
  • 28. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION IRRIGATING BASINS 2) CASCADE METHOD
  • 29. CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION MAINTENANCE OF BASINS  Erosion control is made which may be caused by rainfall,flooding or the passing of people when used as footpaths Rats may dig holes in the sides of the bunds. Levelling of basins also required at regular time.
  • 30. FURROW IRRIGATION
  • 31. FURROW IRRIGATION  WHAT IT IS ?  Furrows are small,parallel channels,made to carry water in order to irrigate the crop.  The crop is usually grown on the ridges between the furrows.
  • 32. FURROW IRRIGATION  WHEN IT USED ?  Furrow irrigation is suitable for many crops,especially row crops.  Crops that would be damaged if their stems or crown should be irrigated by furrows.  I.E. Maize,sunflower,sugarcane,soybean,tomatoes,wheat, Vegetables,potatoes,citrus,grapes  Land slope does not exceed 0.5%.
  • 33. FURROW IRRIGATION DESIGN ASPECTS  FURROW LAYOUT ♠ FURROW LENGTH ( CLAY: 300 TO 400 m SAND: 60 to 300 m ) 1) SLOPE 2) SOIL TYPE 3) STREAM SIZE 4) IRRIGATION DEPTH 5) FIELD LENGTH
  • 34. FURROW IRRIGATION  FURROW LENGTH
  • 35. FURROW IRRIGATION  FURROW LENGTH
  • 36. FURROW IRRIGATION DESIGN ASPECTS ♠ FURROW SHAPE STABLE      Shape is either u-shaped, V-shaped, Parabolic shaped or Trapezoidal shaped
  • 37. FURROW IRRIGATION DESIGN ASPECTS ♠ FURROW SHAPE  LATERAL INFILTRATION IS HIGH
  • 38. FURROW IRRIGATION DESIGN ASPECTS ♠ FURROW SIZE  For low permeability of soils wide and shallow furrow is preferred.  For highly permeable soils narrow and deep furrows is provided.  Furrows of 75mm to 125 mm depth are provided for ROW crops.
  • 39. FURROW IRRIGATION DESIGN ASPECTS  FURROW LAYOUT ♠ FURROW SPACING 1) SOIL TYPE  SANDY (30-60 cm, 30 cm for coarse and 60 cm for sand)  CLAY (75-150 cm)  Normally 1 m-2 m is provided
  • 40. FURROW IRRIGATION  FURROW CONSTRUCTION
  • 41. FURROW IRRIGATION  FURROW CONSTRUCTION
  • 42. FURROW IRRIGATION  WETTING PATTERNS
  • 43. FURROW IRRIGATION  IDEAL WETTING PATTERN
  • 44. FURROW IRRIGATION  SPACING OF FURROWS
  • 45. FURROW IRRIGATION  STREAM SIZE  1) STREAM SIZE TOO SMALL
  • 46. FURROW IRRIGATION  STREAM SIZE  1) STREAM SIZE TOO LARGE
  • 47. FURROW IRRIGATION  PLANTING TECHNIQUES
  • 48. FURROW IRRIGATION  PLANTING TECHNIQUES
  • 49. FURROW IRRIGATION  PLANTING TECHNIQUES
  • 50. FURROW IRRIGATION MAINTENANCE OF furrows  water should be reach the d/s end of all furrows is regularly checked. There should be no dry places or spots where water stays ponding. Overtopping of ridges should not occur. Field channels and drains should be kept free from weeds.
  • 51. Thank you