ESCUELA : NOMBRES: COMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III  Mgs. Paúl González T. Inglés BIMESTRE : Segundo Octubre 2011-Febrero 2012
ADJECTIVES: COMPARISONS <ul><li>Use  (not) as  +  adjective  +  as   to compare people, places, or things, and show how th...
<ul><li>It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>A:  I lik...
<ul><li>Use  comparative adjectives +  than  to show how people, places, or things are  different . </li></ul><ul><li>This...
<ul><li>Forming  comparative adjectives : </li></ul><ul><li>For  short adjectives  (one or some two-syllable), use  –r  or...
<ul><li>For  long adjectives , use more (+) /less (-)  + adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>For  some adjectives , like  lively ...
<ul><li>It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>The new t...
ADJECTIVES: SUPERLATIVES <ul><li>Use  superlative adjectives  to compare one person, place, or thing with other people, pl...
<ul><li>Forming  superlative adjectives : </li></ul><ul><li>Short adjectives (one syllable and two syllables ending in  –y...
<ul><li>For  long adjectives  (2 or more syllables), use  the most (+) /the least (-)  + adjective . </li></ul><ul><li>For...
GERUNDS: SUBJECT AND OBJECT <ul><li>A  gerund  ( base form + -ing ) is a verb that we use like a  noun . </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>A gerund can be the  subject  of a sentence. It is always  singular . Use the 3 rd -person-singular form of the ve...
<ul><li>A gerund can also be the  object  of certain verbs. Use a gerund  after these verbs :  admit, avoid, consider, den...
<ul><li>We often use  go + gerund  to describe  activities  such as  shopping, fishing, skiing, swimming , and  camping . ...
<ul><li>Because  gerunds  are nouns, they can also follow  prepositions . </li></ul><ul><li>I thanked them  for  helping  ...
<ul><li>INFINITIVES AFTER CERTAIN VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>Some verbs can be  followed by an infinitive  ( to  +   base for...
<ul><li>Some verbs need an  object  (noun or pronoun)  before infinitive . For example:  advise, allow, encourage, force, ...
<ul><li>GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Some  verbs  can be  followed by a gerund or an infinitive . For example...
<ul><li>To make  general statements , you can use: </li></ul><ul><li>Gerund as subject </li></ul><ul><li>Writing  a paper ...
PREFERENCES: PREFER, WOULD PREFER, WOULD RATHER <ul><li>We often use  prefer  to express a general preference. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Prefer  and  would prefer  may be followed by a  noun , a  gerund , or an  infinitive . </li></ul><ul><li>Bob usua...
<ul><li>Would rather  can only be followed by the  base form  of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ d   rather make  coffee at...
FUTURE POSSIBILITY: MAY, MIGHT, COULD <ul><li>May be  and  maybe  both express possibility. </li></ul><ul><li>May be  is a...
<ul><li>Use  may not  and  might not  to express the  possibility  that something  will not happen . </li></ul><ul><li>He ...
<ul><li>Questions  about possibility usually do not use  may, might , or  could . Instead, they use the future ( will ,  b...
CONCLUSIONS: MUST, HAVE (GOT) TO, MAY, MIGHT, COULD, CAN’T <ul><li>When we are  almost 100% certain , we use  must ,  have...
<ul><li>When we are  less certain about our conclusion , we use  may ,  might , or  could  to express that something is  p...
<ul><li>To express  negative conclusions : </li></ul><ul><li>Use  can’t  and  couldn’t  when you are  almost 100 percent  ...
<ul><li>Use  may not  and  might not  when you are  even less certain . </li></ul><ul><li>He  may not  know about the plan...
<ul><li>Use  can  and  could  in questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Could  Vincent  be  in the shop? </li></ul><ul><li>In  short...
<ul><li>Use  might(not) +   be  in short answers to questions that include  be . </li></ul><ul><li>A: Is  Ron still with C...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

UTPL-COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III-II-BIMESTRE-(OCTUBRE 2011-OCTUBRE 2012)

1,440 views

Published on

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Lic. Paúl Fernando González
Ciclo: Tercero
Bimestre: Segundo

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,440
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • utpl
  • utpl
  • Some adjectives have irregular superlative forms. For example good- the best bad-the worst
  • utpl
  • Don’t confuse a gerund with the progressive form of the verb: He is drinking coffee right now. utpl
  • utpl
  • Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive or an object+infinitive. I asked to join the club. I asked them to join the club. utpl
  • Do not use will to talk about preferences. utpl
  • Would prefer + infinitive is more common than would prefer + gerund. utpl
  • We usually do not contract might not , and we never contract may not . utpl
  • We often use have got to instead of have to in informal speech and writing . We usually contract have or has . utpl
  • UTPL-COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III-II-BIMESTRE-(OCTUBRE 2011-OCTUBRE 2012)

    1. 1. ESCUELA : NOMBRES: COMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III Mgs. Paúl González T. Inglés BIMESTRE : Segundo Octubre 2011-Febrero 2012
    2. 2. ADJECTIVES: COMPARISONS <ul><li>Use (not) as + adjective + as to compare people, places, or things, and show how they are (or aren’t) similar . </li></ul><ul><li>A: This restaurant is as good as Joe’s. </li></ul><ul><li>B: But Joe’s is n’t as expensive as this one. </li></ul>Source: http://www.sanfranciscosentinel.com/
    3. 3. <ul><li>It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>A: I liked the old menu. It had more choices. </li></ul><ul><li>B: Too bad the new one is n’t as varied . (… as the old menu) </li></ul>Source: http://www.promovalencia.com/despensadelvalle/index.php/menus
    4. 4. <ul><li>Use comparative adjectives + than to show how people, places, or things are different . </li></ul><ul><li>This office is bigger than the old one. </li></ul><ul><li>The new employees are more responsible than the old employees. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Forming comparative adjectives : </li></ul><ul><li>For short adjectives (one or some two-syllable), use –r or -er : </li></ul>ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE tall taller large larger hot hotter happy happier
    6. 6. <ul><li>For long adjectives , use more (+) /less (-) + adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>For some adjectives , like lively , lovely or quiet , you can use either –er or more . </li></ul><ul><li>This place is more lively than Joe’s. </li></ul><ul><li>This place is livelier than Joe’s. </li></ul>ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE generous more generous intelligent more intelligent
    7. 7. <ul><li>It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>The new tables are smaller than the old one. </li></ul><ul><li>The new tables are smaller. </li></ul>Source: http://www.revelryeventdesigners.com/tables /
    8. 8. ADJECTIVES: SUPERLATIVES <ul><li>Use superlative adjectives to compare one person, place, or thing with other people, places, or things in a group . </li></ul><ul><li>Rob is the wisest person I know. </li></ul><ul><li>Rob’s house in the mountain is the most peaceful place in the world. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Forming superlative adjectives : </li></ul><ul><li>Short adjectives (one syllable and two syllables ending in –y ): the + adjective + -est </li></ul>ADJECTIVE SUPERLATIVE tall the tallest large the largest hot the hottest happy the happiest
    10. 10. <ul><li>For long adjectives (2 or more syllables), use the most (+) /the least (-) + adjective . </li></ul><ul><li>For some adjectives , like lively , lovely or quiet , you can use either the … –est or the most/the least . </li></ul><ul><li>This is the liveliest place in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the most lively place in the world. </li></ul>ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE generous the most generous intelligent the most intelligent
    11. 11. GERUNDS: SUBJECT AND OBJECT <ul><li>A gerund ( base form + -ing ) is a verb that we use like a noun . </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy swimming in the lake. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is responsible for several diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Not exercising is bad for you. </li></ul><ul><li>I suggest not drinking too much beer. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>A gerund can be the subject of a sentence. It is always singular . Use the 3 rd -person-singular form of the verb after gerunds. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhaling smoke has devastating effects on one’s health. </li></ul>http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_6980000/newsid_6980300/6980325.stm
    13. 13. <ul><li>A gerund can also be the object of certain verbs. Use a gerund after these verbs : admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, miss, practice, quit, suggest, understand . </li></ul><ul><li>The president denies ordering audit. </li></ul><ul><li>She practiced signing autographs. </li></ul><ul><li>I suggested not drinking too much beer. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>We often use go + gerund to describe activities such as shopping, fishing, skiing, swimming , and camping . </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s go fishing in the river! </li></ul><ul><li>Sandra will go camping in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>They went skiing with their family. </li></ul>http://www.weissesroessl.at/en-holidays-lake-wolfgang-skiing.htm
    15. 15. <ul><li>Because gerunds are nouns, they can also follow prepositions . </li></ul><ul><li>I thanked them for helping me. </li></ul><ul><li>He believes in doing the right thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Marge is afraid of flying . </li></ul><ul><li>She’s happy about not working today. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>INFINITIVES AFTER CERTAIN VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive ( to + base form of the verb). For example: begin, decide, fail, hope, learn, plan, promise, refuse, try . </li></ul><ul><li>He hopes to be promoted. </li></ul><ul><li>She refuses to go to the show. </li></ul><ul><li>I began to use an ipod. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack promised not to be late. </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Some verbs need an object (noun or pronoun) before infinitive . For example: advise, allow, encourage, force, invite, order, remind, tell, warn . </li></ul><ul><li>This program allows students to interact . </li></ul><ul><li>I encourage you to access EVA. </li></ul><ul><li>He forced himself to be silent. </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive . For example: begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeff hates studying . </li></ul><ul><li>Jeff hates to study . </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>To make general statements , you can use: </li></ul><ul><li>Gerund as subject </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a paper is hard. </li></ul><ul><li>it + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>It ’s hard to write a paper. </li></ul>http://virginsheets.blogspot.com/2010/12/writing-for-yourself.html
    20. 20. PREFERENCES: PREFER, WOULD PREFER, WOULD RATHER <ul><li>We often use prefer to express a general preference. </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you prefer – comedies or westerns? </li></ul><ul><li>We use would prefer or would rather to talk about a preference in a specific situation. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ d rather study the Calculus course. </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Prefer and would prefer may be followed by a noun , a gerund , or an infinitive . </li></ul><ul><li>Bob usually prefers action movies. </li></ul><ul><li>Does Jack prefer reading comics? </li></ul><ul><li>She would prefer to go to the beach. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Would rather can only be followed by the base form of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ d rather make coffee at home. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ d rather not drink alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>We often use I’d rather not , by itself, to refuse an offer, suggestion, or invitation. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Let’s see the movie at Cineworld. </li></ul><ul><li>B: I’d rather not . I hear it’s terrible. </li></ul>
    23. 23. FUTURE POSSIBILITY: MAY, MIGHT, COULD <ul><li>May be and maybe both express possibility. </li></ul><ul><li>May be is a modal + be . (two words) </li></ul><ul><li>He may be wrong about that issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe is an adverb (not a modal). It is always one word and it comes at the beginning of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe he’ll change his mind. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Use may not and might not to express the possibility that something will not happen . </li></ul><ul><li>He has good intentions, but he might not solve the problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Use couldn’t to express the idea that something is impossible . </li></ul><ul><li>A: Why don’t you cut class tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I couldn’t do that. I have to give a presentation . </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Questions about possibility usually do not use may, might , or could . Instead, they use the future ( will , be going to , the present progressive) or phrases such as Do you think…? or Is it possible that…? </li></ul><ul><li>A:Do you think it will rain tomorrow too? </li></ul><ul><li>B: It could stop tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>The answers to these questions often use may , might or could . </li></ul>
    26. 26. CONCLUSIONS: MUST, HAVE (GOT) TO, MAY, MIGHT, COULD, CAN’T <ul><li>When we are almost 100% certain , we use must , have to , or have got to to state affirmative conclusions . </li></ul>FACT CONCLUSION Wilson has only one clerk. His shop must be quite small Wilson applied for a job. He has to need money. They pay men for debating with the president. It’ s got to be a joke.
    27. 27. <ul><li>When we are less certain about our conclusion , we use may , might , or could to express that something is possible . </li></ul>FACT CONCLUSION His hand is swollen. He may write a lot. Watson knows a lot about medicine. He might be a doctor. Vincent knows a lot about cameras. He could be a photographer.
    28. 28. <ul><li>To express negative conclusions : </li></ul><ul><li>Use can’t and couldn’t when you are almost 100 percent certain that something is impossible . </li></ul><ul><li>He can’t be dead! I just saw him! </li></ul><ul><li>Use must not when you are slightly less certain . </li></ul><ul><li>He must not have enough money. He never buys new clothes. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Use may not and might not when you are even less certain . </li></ul><ul><li>He may not know about the plan. His boss doesn’t tell him everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use have to and have got to to draw negative conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECT: It can’t be true! </li></ul><ul><li>INCORRECT: It doesn’t have to be true! </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Use can and could in questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Could Vincent be in the shop? </li></ul><ul><li>In short answers , use a modal alone . </li></ul><ul><li>A: Does he still work at Wilson’s? </li></ul><ul><li>B: She may not . I saw a new clerk there. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Use might(not) + be in short answers to questions that include be . </li></ul><ul><li>A: Is Ron still with City Bank? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I’m not sure. He might not be . </li></ul>http://www.12minutos.com/depositos-tradicionales-de-citibank/

    ×