ESCUELA : NOMBRES: COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III  I BIMESTRE FECHA: Lic. Paúl González T. ABRIL  – AGOSTO 2009 Inglés
PAST PERFECT <ul><li>By the end of the evening, it  had won  four Oscars. </li></ul><ul><li>…  (more than any foreign lang...
<ul><li>Use the  past perfect  to show that something happened  before a specific time  in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>We ...
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE <ul><li>For six years, his wife  had been working  as a researcher, … </li></ul><ul><li>…  he  ha...
<ul><li>Use the past  perfect progressive  to talk about an action that  was in progress before a specific time  in the pa...
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (unit 5) <ul><li>Her son  will be waking up  soon </li></ul><ul><li>Use the  future progressive  to tal...
FUTURE PERFECT (unit 6) <ul><li>A typical college freshman  will have gotten  eight credit card offers by the end of the f...
<ul><li>Use the  future perfect  to talk about a future action that will already be  completed  by a certain time in the f...
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE <ul><li>… By the end of tonight’s Money Talks, we ’ll   have been traveling  for a month, … </l...
<ul><li>Use the  future perfect progressive  to talk about an action that will be  in progress  at a certain time in the f...
<ul><li>Use negative yes/no questions and tag questions to: </li></ul><ul><li>Check  information you believe to be true. <...
TAG QUESTIONS <ul><li>That’s not in Seoul,  is it ? </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not from Rio,  are you ? </li></ul><ul><li>It...
<ul><li>TAG QUESTIONS:  statement + tag </li></ul><ul><li>The  statement  expresses an assumption. The  tag  means  Right?...
<ul><li>Use the  same auxiliary  that is in the statement. </li></ul><ul><li>If the statement does not use be or an auxili...
NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS <ul><li>Don’t you  miss your family …? </li></ul><ul><li>Hey,  didn’t you  buy anything? </li></...
ADDITIONS  USING  SO ,  TOO ,  NEITHER ,  NOT EITHER , and  BU T <ul><li>We use  additions  to avoid repeating information...
SO AND BUT <ul><li>Paul is a firefighter, and  so  is Gerald. </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul is a firefighter. Gerald is a firefi...
TOO <ul><li>Paul  likes  hunting … Gerald  does   too . </li></ul><ul><li>Paul  is  a firefighter, and  Gerald  is   too. ...
NOT EITHER AND NEITHER <ul><li>Clearly, heredity doesn’t completely govern our lives. Our environment  doesn’t either . </...
<ul><li>Use  neither  or  not either  if the addition follows a  negative statement . </li></ul><ul><li>So ,  too ,  neith...
EXPRESSING AGREEMENT USING  SO ,  TOO ,  NEITHER  and  NOT EITHER <ul><li>A:  I  like  spicy food. </li></ul><ul><li>B:   ...
GERUNDS <ul><li>Dining  on fast food has become a way of life… </li></ul><ul><li>But apart from the speed of  ordering  an...
<ul><li>A gerund can be used as a  noun . </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming  is good exercise. (Subject) </li></ul><ul><li>She li...
<ul><li>Many verbs are followed by gerunds. </li></ul><ul><li>She enjoyed  swimming  with the team. </li></ul><ul><li>They...
<ul><li>Many adjectives (and prepositions) are followed by gerunds.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald is  interested in  joining t...
<ul><li>You can use a  possessive  before the gerund. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t like  his ordering  fries. </li></ul><ul>...
INFINITIVES <ul><li>… it’s easy  to see  that fast-food restaurants … aren’t going away. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a high pri...
<ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother  needs to read  this book. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Many verbs that are followed by an infinitive may take a noun or pronoun between them.  </li></ul><ul><li>I  urged...
<ul><li>The infinitive can often  follow an adjective . </li></ul><ul><li>We are  ready to start  the course. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>The infinitive can also  follow certain nouns . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s  time to eat . </li></ul><ul><li>Paul made ...
MAKE, HAVE, LET, HELP  and  GET <ul><li>But how do trainers …  make them “dance” ? </li></ul><ul><li>…  a trainer  lets an...
<ul><ul><li>LET  (let + object + verb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This construction means &quot;to allow someone to do som...
<ul><li>MAKE  (make + object + verb) </li></ul><ul><li>This construction means &quot;to force someone to do something.&quo...
<ul><li>HAVE  (have + person + verb) </li></ul><ul><li>This construction means &quot;to give someone the responsibility to...
<ul><li>GET  (get + person + to + verb) </li></ul><ul><li>This construction usually means &quot;to convince to do somethin...
<ul><li>HELP  ( help + base form) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(help + infinitive) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Help + base f...
PHRASAL VERBS <ul><li>A  phrasal verb  (two-word verb) has two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>come back </li></ul><ul><li>come  ...
TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS <ul><li>He had  set  it  up  on a busy street. </li></ul><ul><li>The desperate owner  tore down  ...
<ul><li>Transitive  – take objects. </li></ul><ul><li>He  picked out  a nice suit. </li></ul><ul><li>pick out  – phrasal v...
<ul><li>Most transitive phrasal verbs are  separable . This means that  noun objects  can go: </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off  ...
<ul><li>If the direct object is a  pronoun , it must go  between  the verb and the article. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn  it  of...
INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS <ul><li>But customers rarely  came back . </li></ul><ul><li>His action  paid off . </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Some phrasal verbs are  intransitive . They do not take an object. They are always inseparable. </li></ul>
INSEPARABLE TRANSITIVE <ul><li>…  write down  the date and time of the call. </li></ul><ul><li>(This direc object is too l...
<ul><li>Some transitive phrasal verbs are  inseparable . This means that both noun and pronoun objects always go  after  t...
SEPARABLE TRANSITIVE <ul><li>You hesitate to  pick  it  up . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Junk mail”  fills up  our mailboxes (and ...
<ul><li>A small group of transitive phrasal verbs must be separated. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to  call   Gerald   back ....
<ul><li>Some transitive phrasal verbs are used in combination with certain prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination...
INTRANSITIVE (INSEPARABLE) <ul><li>You just  got back  from a long, hard day at the office. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I ’m   han...
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>For some, a friend can be a person  who chats with you on the Internet . <...
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>For French friends,  who enjoy arguing about intellectual issues , disagr...
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>It was a place  where life was lived intensely . </li></ul><ul><li>… she f...
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>… her friendship with Marek,  whose apartment she visited almost daily , ...
<ul><li>ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH SUBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>Use adjective clauses to  identify or give addi...
<ul><li>In most cases the adjective clause  directly follows the noun  (or pronoun) it is identifying or describing. </li>...
<ul><li>Relative pronouns that can be the subject of the verb clause are  who, that, which,  and  whose . </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>that  is less formal than  who  and  which  and more frequently used in conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use  whose...
IDENTIFYING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Use an  identifying  adjective clause (sometimes called restrictive) to identify  wh...
NONIDENTIFYING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Use an  nonidentifying  adjective clause (sometimes called nonrestrictive) to giv...
<ul><li>My best friend , who lives in Chicago,  visits me often. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use that to introduce  nonidenti...
<ul><li>Without commas the same sentence has a very  different meaning . </li></ul><ul><li>My sister , who lives in Seattl...
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH OBJECTIVE RELATIVE PRONOUNS OR WHEN AND WHERE <ul><li>Relative pronouns can also be the  object  of...
<ul><li>Relative pronouns that can be the object of the adjective clause are  who(m), that, which,  and  whose . </li></ul...
<ul><li>When  and  where  can also be used to begin adjective clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Where  refers to a  place . </li>...
<ul><li>When  or  that  refers to a  time . </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t forget the moment  when  you saw the snakes . </li><...
Communicative Gramar I Bimestre
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Use the past perfect progressive to talk about an action that was in progress before a specific time in the past. The progressive emphasizes the continuing activity, not the end result.

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  • Communicative Gramar I Bimestre

    1. 1. ESCUELA : NOMBRES: COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III I BIMESTRE FECHA: Lic. Paúl González T. ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009 Inglés
    2. 2. PAST PERFECT <ul><li>By the end of the evening, it had won four Oscars. </li></ul><ul><li>… (more than any foreign language film had ever gotten ) </li></ul><ul><li>Before this, Lee had made big, successful English language movies … </li></ul><ul><li>By 9:00 A.M., I hadn’t even gotten up! </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Use the past perfect to show that something happened before a specific time in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>We often use the past perfect and the past perfect progressive with By (a certain time) </li></ul><ul><li>By 2000, I had left my hometown. </li></ul><ul><li>By the time I graduated, I had been working in a restaurant. </li></ul>
    4. 4. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE <ul><li>For six years, his wife had been working as a researcher, … </li></ul><ul><li>… he had been writing scripts … </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Use the past perfect progressive to talk about an action that was in progress before a specific time in the past. The progressive emphasizes the continuing activity, not the end result. </li></ul>
    6. 6. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (unit 5) <ul><li>Her son will be waking up soon </li></ul><ul><li>Use the future progressive to talk about actions that will be in progress at a specific time in the future. </li></ul>
    7. 7. FUTURE PERFECT (unit 6) <ul><li>A typical college freshman will have gotten eight credit card offers by the end of the first semester. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything you bought on that card will have cost twice as much as the actual price. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Use the future perfect to talk about a future action that will already be completed by a certain time in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>We often use already and yet with the future perfect to emphasize which event will happen first . </li></ul><ul><li>By the time I graduate, I will have already gotten a job. </li></ul>
    9. 9. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE <ul><li>… By the end of tonight’s Money Talks, we ’ll have been traveling for a month, … </li></ul><ul><li>… I ’ll have been paying interest for nine months on pizzas I ate last September! </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Use the future perfect progressive to talk about an action that will be in progress at a certain time in the future. The action may start sometime in the future or it may have already started. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Use negative yes/no questions and tag questions to: </li></ul><ul><li>Check information you believe to be true. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on a situation. </li></ul>NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS AND TAG QUESTIONS
    12. 12. TAG QUESTIONS <ul><li>That’s not in Seoul, is it ? </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not from Rio, are you ? </li></ul><ul><li>It gets awfully hot here in the summer, doesn’t it ? </li></ul><ul><li>You could tell right away by my accent, couldn’t you ? </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>TAG QUESTIONS: statement + tag </li></ul><ul><li>The statement expresses an assumption. The tag means Right? Or Isn’t that true? </li></ul><ul><li>If the statement verb is affirmative, the tag verb is negative. </li></ul><ul><li>If the statement verb is negative, the tag verb is affirmative. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Use the same auxiliary that is in the statement. </li></ul><ul><li>If the statement does not use be or an auxiliary verb, use an appropriate form of do in the tag. </li></ul><ul><li>In the tag, only use pronouns. </li></ul>
    15. 15. NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS <ul><li>Don’t you miss your family …? </li></ul><ul><li>Hey, didn’t you buy anything? </li></ul><ul><li>Haven’t we met before? </li></ul><ul><li>Aren’t I right? </li></ul><ul><li>We almost always use contractions in negative questions. </li></ul>
    16. 16. ADDITIONS USING SO , TOO , NEITHER , NOT EITHER , and BU T <ul><li>We use additions to avoid repeating information. </li></ul><ul><li>Additions express similarity or contrast . </li></ul>
    17. 17. SO AND BUT <ul><li>Paul is a firefighter, and so is Gerald. </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul is a firefighter. Gerald is a firefighter- SIMILARITY ) </li></ul><ul><li>Andrea stayed in Germany, but Barbara didn’t. </li></ul><ul><li>(Andrea stayed in Germany. Barbara didn’t stay in Germany- CONTRAST ) </li></ul>
    18. 18. TOO <ul><li>Paul likes hunting … Gerald does too . </li></ul><ul><li>Paul is a firefighter, and Gerald is too. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul can play chess, and Gerald can too . </li></ul><ul><li>Additions always use a form of be , an auxiliary verb, or a modal. </li></ul>
    19. 19. NOT EITHER AND NEITHER <ul><li>Clearly, heredity doesn’t completely govern our lives. Our environment doesn’t either . </li></ul><ul><li>Mark has never been married, and neither has Gerald. </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Use neither or not either if the addition follows a negative statement . </li></ul><ul><li>So , too , neither , or not either express similarity. </li></ul><ul><li>But is used in additions of contrast . </li></ul>
    21. 21. EXPRESSING AGREEMENT USING SO , TOO , NEITHER and NOT EITHER <ul><li>A: I like spicy food. </li></ul><ul><li>B: So do I . (or I do too ). </li></ul><ul><li>Informal: Me too. </li></ul><ul><li>A: I don’t like spicy food. </li></ul><ul><li>B: Neither do I . (or I don’t either ). </li></ul><ul><li>Informal: Me neither. </li></ul>
    22. 22. GERUNDS <ul><li>Dining on fast food has become a way of life… </li></ul><ul><li>But apart from the speed of ordering and getting served, …customers talk about… </li></ul><ul><li>… fast-food restaurants may prevent families from spending quality time together… </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>A gerund can be used as a noun . </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming is good exercise. (Subject) </li></ul><ul><li>She likes swimming every day. (Direct object of the verb like) </li></ul><ul><li>She is crazy about swimming in the ocean. (Object of preposition). </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Many verbs are followed by gerunds. </li></ul><ul><li>She enjoyed swimming with the team. </li></ul><ul><li>They considered reducing fats in the food. </li></ul><ul><li>I keep searching for an answer. </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Many adjectives (and prepositions) are followed by gerunds. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald is interested in joining the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald is excited about joining the team. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t approve of eating fast food. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m tired of eating pork. </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>You can use a possessive before the gerund. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t like his ordering fries. </li></ul><ul><li>I dislike Julio’s eating fast foods. </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE FORM: not + gerund </li></ul><ul><li>I considered not cycling up the mountain. </li></ul>
    27. 27. INFINITIVES <ul><li>… it’s easy to see that fast-food restaurants … aren’t going away. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a high price to pay for convenience. …people don’t want to waste time. </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother needs to read this book. </li></ul><ul><li>She refuses to eat fast food. </li></ul><ul><li>I chose not no give up meat. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Many verbs that are followed by an infinitive may take a noun or pronoun between them. </li></ul><ul><li>I urged him to order fries. </li></ul><ul><li>She convinced Bob to join the team. </li></ul><ul><li>My classmates expected me to say something smart. </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>The infinitive can often follow an adjective . </li></ul><ul><li>We are ready to start the course. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob was surprised to read the number of calories. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>The infinitive can also follow certain nouns . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s time to eat . </li></ul><ul><li>Paul made a decision to quit smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a high price to pay . </li></ul>
    32. 32. MAKE, HAVE, LET, HELP and GET <ul><li>But how do trainers … make them “dance” ? </li></ul><ul><li>… a trainer lets an animal act freely. </li></ul><ul><li>… parks wanted to have dolphins do tricks . </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Priest … helped the keepers train the elephants… </li></ul><ul><li>But how do trainers get a nine-ton whale to do acrobatic tricks </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>LET (let + object + verb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This construction means &quot;to allow someone to do something.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John let me drive his new car. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will your parents let you go to the party? </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>MAKE (make + object + verb) </li></ul><ul><li>This construction means &quot;to force someone to do something.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. </li></ul><ul><li>Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? </li></ul><ul><li>She made her children do their homework. </li></ul>Make FORM [make + person + verb] USE This construction means &quot;to force someone to do something.&quot; Examples: My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? She made her children do their homework.
    35. 35. <ul><li>HAVE (have + person + verb) </li></ul><ul><li>This construction means &quot;to give someone the responsibility to do something.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Please have your secretary fax me the information. </li></ul><ul><li>I had the mechanic check the brakes. </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>GET (get + person + to + verb) </li></ul><ul><li>This construction usually means &quot;to convince to do something&quot; or &quot;to trick someone into doing something.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible. </li></ul><ul><li>How can parents get their children to read more? </li></ul><ul><li>The government TV commercials are trying to get people to stop smoking . </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>HELP ( help + base form) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(help + infinitive) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Help + base form of the verb is more common. He helped me understand the problem. He helped me to understand the problem.
    38. 38. PHRASAL VERBS <ul><li>A phrasal verb (two-word verb) has two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>come back </li></ul><ul><li>come – main verb </li></ul><ul><li>back – particle </li></ul><ul><li>Particles often change the meaning of the main verb. </li></ul>
    39. 39. TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS <ul><li>He had set it up on a busy street. </li></ul><ul><li>The desperate owner tore down the old entrance and put up a new one. </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Transitive – take objects. </li></ul><ul><li>He picked out a nice suit. </li></ul><ul><li>pick out – phrasal verb </li></ul><ul><li>a nice suit - object </li></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>Most transitive phrasal verbs are separable . This means that noun objects can go: </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the TV . </li></ul><ul><li>(after the particle) </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the TV off . </li></ul><ul><li>(between the verb and the particle) </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>If the direct object is a pronoun , it must go between the verb and the article. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn it off. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn it down. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick me up at 7 P.M. </li></ul>
    43. 43. INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS <ul><li>But customers rarely came back . </li></ul><ul><li>His action paid off . </li></ul><ul><li>Feng shui has caught on with homeowners and architects everywhere. </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Some phrasal verbs are intransitive . They do not take an object. They are always inseparable. </li></ul>
    45. 45. INSEPARABLE TRANSITIVE <ul><li>… write down the date and time of the call. </li></ul><ul><li>(This direc object is too long to go before the particle.) </li></ul><ul><li>… get off the phone. </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable . This means that both noun and pronoun objects always go after the particle. You cannot separate the verb from its particle. </li></ul><ul><li>We should stick with the plan . </li></ul><ul><li>We should stick with it . </li></ul>
    47. 47. SEPARABLE TRANSITIVE <ul><li>You hesitate to pick it up . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Junk mail” fills up our mailboxes (and later our trash cans when we throw it out ). </li></ul>
    48. 48. <ul><li>A small group of transitive phrasal verbs must be separated. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to call Gerald back . </li></ul><ul><li>( NOT You need to call back Gerald) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your coat on . </li></ul><ul><li>( NOT Keep on your coat) </li></ul>
    49. 49. <ul><li>Some transitive phrasal verbs are used in combination with certain prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination phrasal verb + preposition ( three-word verb ) is usually inseparable. </li></ul><ul><li>This scientist came up with a new idea. </li></ul>
    50. 50. INTRANSITIVE (INSEPARABLE) <ul><li>You just got back from a long, hard day at the office. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I ’m hanging up now.” </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs are more common in informal writing than their one-word synonyms. </li></ul>
    51. 51. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>For some, a friend can be a person who chats with you on the Internet . </li></ul><ul><li>… friendship is a relationship that emphasizes sharing your innermost feelings … </li></ul><ul><li>We may not be able to select … the people that ride the bus with us … </li></ul>
    52. 52. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>For French friends, who enjoy arguing about intellectual issues , disagreement is “the breath of life.” </li></ul><ul><li>… for Germans, whose friendships are based on mutuality of feeling , deep disagreement on any subject that matters to both is … a tragedy. </li></ul>
    53. 53. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>It was a place where life was lived intensely . </li></ul><ul><li>… she feels no connection to the English name of anything that she feels is important . </li></ul><ul><li>… he only has the Chinese that he had learned as a child . </li></ul>
    54. 54. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE <ul><li>… her friendship with Marek, whose apartment she visited almost daily , deepened… </li></ul><ul><li>… many of the problems that he describes are… connected to the language. </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH SUBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>Use adjective clauses to identify or give additional information about nouns (people, places, or things). </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective clauses can also identify or describe indefinite pronouns such as one, someone, somebody, something, another , and other(s). </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>In most cases the adjective clause directly follows the noun (or pronoun) it is identifying or describing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences with adjective clauses can be seen as a combination of two sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns . </li></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>Relative pronouns that can be the subject of the verb clause are who, that, which, and whose . </li></ul><ul><li>who or that – people </li></ul><ul><li>I have a friend who lives in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>which or that – places or things </li></ul><ul><li>Ibarra is a city which attracts a lot of tourists. </li></ul>
    58. 58. <ul><li>that is less formal than who and which and more frequently used in conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use whose + noun to show possession or relationship . </li></ul><ul><li>She is the neighbor whose house is for sale </li></ul>
    59. 59. IDENTIFYING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Use an identifying adjective clause (sometimes called restrictive) to identify which member of a group the sentence talks about. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use commas with this kind of adjective clause. </li></ul><ul><li>My friend who lives in Chicago visits me often. </li></ul>
    60. 60. NONIDENTIFYING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Use an nonidentifying adjective clause (sometimes called nonrestrictive) to give additional information about the noun it refers to. </li></ul><ul><li>The information is not necessary to identify the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma before and after the adjective clause. </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>My best friend , who lives in Chicago, visits me often. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use that to introduce nonidentifying adjective clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Use who (people) and which (places and things). </li></ul>
    62. 62. <ul><li>Without commas the same sentence has a very different meaning . </li></ul><ul><li>My sister , who lives in Seattle, came to visit this year. </li></ul><ul><li>(The adjective clause gives additional information, but it isn’t needed to identify the sister) </li></ul><ul><li>My sister who lives in Seattle came to visit this year. </li></ul><ul><li>(I have several sisters. This one lives in Seattle) </li></ul>
    63. 63. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH OBJECTIVE RELATIVE PRONOUNS OR WHEN AND WHERE <ul><li>Relative pronouns can also be the object of an adjective clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The object relative pronoun comes at the beginning of the adjective clause. </li></ul><ul><li>I love the books which he writes. </li></ul>
    64. 64. <ul><li>Relative pronouns that can be the object of the adjective clause are who(m), that, which, and whose . </li></ul><ul><li>I read a book (that) she wrote . </li></ul><ul><li>Use whose to show possession or relationship . </li></ul><ul><li>That’s the author whose book I read . </li></ul>
    65. 65. <ul><li>When and where can also be used to begin adjective clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Where refers to a place . </li></ul><ul><li>This is the place where I work . </li></ul><ul><li>It was a place where life was lived intensely . </li></ul>
    66. 66. <ul><li>When or that refers to a time . </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t forget the moment when you saw the snakes . </li></ul><ul><li>I remember the day that I met her . </li></ul>

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