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IBAS 3.2


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Inglés Básico 3 (Todo)

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IBAS 3.2

  2. 2. UNIT 12: Making a difference <ul><li>Grammar: 1) Future simple for predictions and unplanned decisions . </li></ul><ul><li> 2) Probability modals </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: Word families </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Offering to help </li></ul>
  3. 3. FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>FOR PREDICTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>We use Will future to make predictions about the future (we can shorten will to ‘ll) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I think Brazil will win the World Cup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She’ll probably be here in a few minutes. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>We use will when we make sudden or unplanned decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll call back in a few minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s OK. I’ll wash the dishes. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>We can ask questions by changing the order of Will and the subject: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Brazil win the World Cup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you wash the dishes? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. PROBABILITY MODALS <ul><li>Use the modals will, might, could , may and won’t to talk about how probable the future is: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll see you tomorrow (I am 100% certain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I won’t see you tomorrow (I am 100% certian I’m not seeing you) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I might see you tomorrow (I’m 50% certain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I could /may see you tomorrow (I’m 40% certain) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. WORD FAMILIES <ul><li>There are words which come from the same family but changes the kind of word it is: </li></ul>inspired inspiration inspire Active Activist - spoken speeches speak Moved /Moving Movement Move Married Marriaged Marry Protected protection Protect Planted Plant Plant Environmental Environment / Environmentalist - Destroyed Destruction Destroy Interested Interest Interest (in) Discovered Discovery Discover Scientific Scientist/Science / ADJECTIVE NOUN VERB
  8. 8. EXPRESSIONS FOR OFFERING TO HELP Allow me… Why don’t…? Don’t worry, it’s ok Would you like to …? Refusing How about…? That / it would be great! Can you…? Sure Can I…? Accepting Offering
  9. 9. USE OF A, AN, THE ARTICLES <ul><li>We use a to talk about one of something: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bag, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She is a woman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We use an if the next word starts with a vowel sound: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An expensive restaurant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An enormous mountain. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. USE OF A, AN, THE ARTICLES <ul><li>We use the with some country names with more than one word or that end with the expression of Something: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The people’s Republic of China . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We use the when we mention something for the second time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She is the girl I told you about. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We use the when we talk about a special thing (s) that we all know about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Eiffel Tower is in Paris. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. ZERO ARTICLE (= NO ARTICLE) <ul><li>We don’t use a, an, the articles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the names of most countries (or cities): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He went to Russia. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the plural nouns which describe things in general. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I love flowers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When we talk about uncountable nouns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I like milk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. SUPERLATIVE:Short Adjectives <ul><li>We use superlative adjectives with the . </li></ul><ul><li>For short adjectives: add -est </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s the old est person in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For short adjectives with vowel + consonant: final letter x2 + -est </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acapulco is the hot test beach in Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She is the thin nest girls I’ve ever met. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SUPERLATIVE Short Adjectives <ul><li>Short adjectives which end in –y: </li></ul><ul><li>y = i + est . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xalapa is the nois iest city I’ve ever been to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her town is the ugl iest place I’ve ever seen. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. SUPERLATIVE Short Adjectives The ugl iest Ugly The thinn est Thin The narrow est Narrow The long est Long The high est High The funni est Funny The fatt est Fat The fast est Fast The deep est Deep The Cheap est Cheap SUPERLATIVE FORM ADJECTIVE
  15. 15. SUPERLATIVE Long Adjectives: <ul><li>For long adjectives we use the most + adjective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They’re the most beautiful paintings I’ve ever seen. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. EXCEPTIONS <ul><li>Some common adjectives have their own special forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good = Best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad = Worst </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. UNIT 15: A HEALTHY MIND AND A HEALTHY BODY <ul><li>Grammar: Zero conditional </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First conditional </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Conditional VS Zero Conditional. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: The head and face </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Talking about similarities and differences </li></ul>
  18. 18. FIRST CONDITIONAL <ul><li>Use if sentences to talk about things that will probably happen if something else happens . </li></ul><ul><li>Use the present simple in the if clause , and will for the result clause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it rains , I ’ll get wet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If my brother wins , I ’ll be very happy. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. FIRST CONDITIONAL <ul><li>We can change the order of the clauses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll get wet if it rains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll be very happy if my brother wins. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. FIRST CONDITIONAL Negative Form <ul><li>Use do not (don’t) or does not (doesn’t) and will not (won’t) to make a negative contidional sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t hurry, we won’t arrive on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If he doesn’t arrive soon, we’ll be late. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. ZERO CONDITIONAL <ul><li>Use if sentences to talk about things that are always true if something else happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the present simple in the if clause and in the result clause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If ice gets warm, it melts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If something is funny, I always laugh. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. ZERO CONDITIONAL <ul><li>Use do not (don’t)/ does not (doesn’t) or is not (isn’t) / are not (aren’t) to make negative zero conditional sentences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If ice doesn’t warm, it doesn’t melt. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. USE OF SO <ul><li>So is used to show agreement with positive statements. </li></ul><ul><li>The Auxiliary needs to agree with the verb tense in the original statement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So + Auxiliary + Subject (pronoun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I can speak two languages. So can I. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> He should study more. So should I. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Examples: So have I. They have finished their homework. So had I. My brother had eaten too much. So am I. I'm going to Brazil in the summer. So will I. He will win a prize. So did I. We went to the concert last night. So does Mary. Stephanie has a new boyfriend. So do you. You look nice today. So am I. I am happy. Person B <ul><ul><li>Person A </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. USE OF SO and TOO <ul><li>It is similar to using Too at the end of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I can speak two languages too . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You look nice today. You look nice too . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephanie has a new boyfriend. Mary has a new one too </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We went to the concert last night. I went to the concert too . </li></ul><ul><li>I would love a coffee right now. I would love a coffee too . </li></ul><ul><li>He will win a prize. I will win one too . </li></ul><ul><li>They have finished their homework. I have finished too . </li></ul>
  26. 26. USE OF NEITHER <ul><li>Neither is used to show agreement with negative statements. </li></ul><ul><li>The Auxiliary needs to agree with the verb tense in the original statement. Neither + Auxiliary + Subject (pronoun) A: I don't understand Spanish. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B: Neither do I. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. USE OF EITHER <ul><li>It is similar to using Either at the end of a sentence, although Neither is more commonly used, especially in spoken English: </li></ul><ul><li>A: I don't understand Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>B: I don't understand Spanish either . A: I can not swim. </li></ul><ul><li>B: I can't swim either . </li></ul>
  28. 28. USE OF NEITHER <ul><li>Sometimes people respond Me Neither instead of Neither + Auxiliary + Subject though this is very informal spoken English : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: I don't understand Spanish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: Me neither. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. HOW + ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS <ul><li>How far is New Zealand from Australia? It´s about 2,000 km. </li></ul><ul><li>How big is Singapore? It’s 620 square km. </li></ul><ul><li>How high is Mount Everest? It’s 8,848 meters high . </li></ul><ul><li>How deep is the Grand Canyon? It’s about 1,900 meters deep . </li></ul>
  30. 30. HOW + ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS <ul><li>How long is the Mississippi River? It’s about 6019 km l ong . </li></ul><ul><li>How hot is New Zealand in the summer? It gets up to about 23°Celsius. </li></ul><ul><li>How cold is it in the winter? It goes down to about 10°Celsius. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Cause - Effect : So- Such that <ul><li>Emphasizing the quality or characteristic of something (cause-effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Using a modifying phrase indicating </li></ul><ul><li>so ... that </li></ul><ul><li>such ... that </li></ul><ul><li>so much / such </li></ul>
  32. 32. CAUSE AND EFFECT CONNECTORS For this reason, For all these reasons because, since, now that, as, as long as, inasmuch, because of, due to, owing to so . . . That (emphasis on cause) such . . . That (emphasis on cause) for (reason or cause) Cause Therefore, Consequently, As a consequence, As a result, Thus, Hence so that (purpose-result) in order that (purpose-result) So (result) Effect TRANSITION SUBORDINATING CORRELATIVE COORDINATING
  33. 33. Expressing a cause and effect relationship <ul><li>coordinating –  so : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His computer froze, so he hit it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>correlative - so that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He hit it so hard that he damaged the keyboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>subordinating – because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He took it to a repair center because it needed a new keyboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>transition – For this reason </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He paid a lot to have it fixed.  As a consequence, he never hit his computer again. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Emphasis on the [adjective + noun] in the CAUSE clause. Emphasis on the adverb or adjective in the CAUSE clause. that we watched it all night. It was such a beautiful meteor storm (adjective + noun) that we watched it all night. The meteor storm was so beautiful (adjective) EFFECT: We watched it all night. CAUSE:  It was a beautiful meteor storm. EFFECT: We watched it all night. CAUSE:  The meteor storm was beautiful . that it went by in one night. It was such a quick meteor storm (adjective + noun) that it went by in one night. The meteor storm passed so quickly (adverb) SUCH  (adj + noun)  THAT SO (adj / adv)  THAT
  35. 35. CONTRAST: SO MUCH that it will be hard to count them. We will see so many beautiful stars (so many – adjective + count noun) that it will take years to process it. We will learn so much interesting information (so much – adjective + noncount noun) Emphasis on quantity
  36. 36. CONTRAST: SUCH <ul><li>Emphasis on quality </li></ul>that we'll be amazed. We'll see such beautiful stars (such – adjective + count noun) that we will want to read more. We will learn such interesting information (such – adjective + noncount noun)
  37. 37. <ul><li>THIS IS </li></ul><ul><li>OF THE GROUP COUNSELING AND YOUR ENGLISH COURSE. </li></ul><ul><li>SEE YOU ON YOUR EXAM DAY! </li></ul>