<ul><li>DRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES  </li></ul><ul><li>FOR SOLAPUR TOWN </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENT, PROBLEMS & FUTURE...
 
 
Solapur District - Physiographic Map
Introduction  Solapur is an ancient historical place dating back to 90 BC. Solapur is one of the important town place in M...
Solapur City And Surrounding Area in SOI Toposheet 47 0
Solapur City And Surrounding Area in SOI Toposheet 47 0/14
Aerial View of Part of Solapur City
A View of Shri Siddheshwar Temple & Tank surrounding the Temple
 
Solapur Fort
<ul><li>History of Physical Growth   </li></ul><ul><li>Solapur Municipality was established an 1st August 1852  </li></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>On 1/5/1964 Municipal Corporation existed.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to increase in revenue and populati...
Brief  Data of Water Sources tapped by Solapur Municipal Corporation Ekrukh tank is an earthen dam built in (1859-1869) in...
Kambar Tank
Kambar Tank
Ekrukh Tank
A View of Ujani Dam in the year 1998
M.B.R. at Kondi
 
 
 
 
 
Existing Land Use Analysis for Total Area
Groundwater as source Solapur Municipal Corporation is one of the main body in the Maharashtra State which has successfull...
Of these the shallow aquifer is found to get recharged during regular monsoon, while the other two at depths are normally ...
It is roughly estimated that probably there are total about 10,000 bore well drilled in the city area of which nearly 60% ...
In different part of the city where the water are low to moderately polluted, include areas around MIDC areas and small sc...
<ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Filter/ treatment plants – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhavani peth – Mainly for Ekrukh dam water (f...
Distribution of Reservoirs
<ul><ul><li>Development for Water Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 12th century, centrally located beautiful tank w...
With increasing demand and acute problem of water scarcity to meet the needs in 1969 water from Bhima River 30 kms. South ...
Present Situation  Presently if all conditions are fulfilled with good storage at each source then the water availability ...
Demand rate of water supply per capita - estimated by technical committee forecasting population  of city given by Gokhale...
<ul><li>Future & Suggestions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional pipeline similar to present one with double capacity is utmo...
Quarries must be started near Ekrukh tank in acquired areas of Government.  The excavated material must be used for constr...
Corporation can charge heavily for extra and excess use of water than the prescribed or standardized requirement for a fam...
IMAGERY OF PART OF SOLAPUR CITY
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DRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWN DEVELOPMENT, PROBLEMS & FUTURE (A REVIEW FOR LAST 125 YEARS) BY DR. VADAGBALKAR S.K. Head, Geology Department, Dayanand Institutions, Solapur- 413002 Maharashtra State, INDIA

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Attempts are made to take a total review of various water supply schemes implemented for Solapur citizens since last 125 years. Detail studies are carried out to give the management practices and plans for growing population in future.

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DRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWN DEVELOPMENT, PROBLEMS & FUTURE (A REVIEW FOR LAST 125 YEARS) BY DR. VADAGBALKAR S.K. Head, Geology Department, Dayanand Institutions, Solapur- 413002 Maharashtra State, INDIA

  1. 1. <ul><li>DRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES </li></ul><ul><li>FOR SOLAPUR TOWN </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENT, PROBLEMS & FUTURE </li></ul><ul><li>(A REVIEW FOR LAST 125 YEARS) </li></ul><ul><li>BY </li></ul><ul><li>DR. VADAGBALKAR S.K. </li></ul><ul><li>Head, Geology Department, </li></ul><ul><li>Dayanand Institutions, Solapur- 413002 </li></ul><ul><li>Maharashtra State, INDIA </li></ul>
  2. 4. Solapur District - Physiographic Map
  3. 5. Introduction Solapur is an ancient historical place dating back to 90 BC. Solapur is one of the important town place in Maharashtra state. It is well linked by rail & road with other cities, and is situated 400 km. SE of Mumbai. It is spread approximately between 17 0 36’ to 17 0 42’ N latitude and 75 0 50’ to 75 0 58’ E longitude. (SOI toposheet 47 0/14. It is the 7th largest city in the state by population size heading towards 10 lakh, to be a metropolitan. Solapur is under the arid to semi arid climatic condition. It receives irregular, erratic scanty rainfall, with annual average of around 500 mm to 700 mm It is included in rain-shadow zone and drought prone region of part of south central India. Solapur experiences relatively higher temperature throughout the year, reaching highest up to 45 0 - 47 0 in April-May months, and has relative humidity varying between 20 to90%. Geologically the area is covered by Deccan basalt of the continental tholeiitic province of India having Cretaceous - Eocene age. Two distinct lava flows are recognized along with various flow units.The thickness of the various flow units in the lava flows vary laterally & vertically through out the city area. Due to which the ground water availability vary. Heterogeneity in the distribution of fracture pattern, weathering mantle etc. has hindered the movement of groundwater, which has resulted in separation of water pockets of different dimensions with variable storage. There is no continuity in groundwater flow mainly at deeper depths. Recharging of upper shallow aquifer during monsoon, takes place. As the stock/storage of water ceases after use, the groundwater availability is at stake, specially at depths.
  4. 6. Solapur City And Surrounding Area in SOI Toposheet 47 0
  5. 7. Solapur City And Surrounding Area in SOI Toposheet 47 0/14
  6. 8. Aerial View of Part of Solapur City
  7. 9. A View of Shri Siddheshwar Temple & Tank surrounding the Temple
  8. 11. Solapur Fort
  9. 12. <ul><li>History of Physical Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Solapur Municipality was established an 1st August 1852 </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal limits were first defined in the year 1865 with 13 pethas and population of 30819 (1851-52 census) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1871 Municipal limits were defined precisely as Shelgi nala on north and GIP railway on the west. </li></ul><ul><li>As per 1872 census there were 15 pethas in the town and the total population was 54,744. </li></ul><ul><li>Municipality demolished the fort wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Till 1880 Siddheshwar Tank-raw water was only source of water along with 20 private wells. </li></ul><ul><li>In the year 1881 water was supplied through pipes to the town from Ekrukh tank. After this the town developed rapidly with industrial development. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1913, Railway station, and in 1927 part of Shelgi village area were added to the municipal limit to make total area of about 1844 hects. (4557 acres). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1938 an area of about 363 hects (900 acres) from south and West Side was included in the municipal limits. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1955 the limits of municipal council was then 23.23 sq. kms. </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><ul><li>On 1/5/1964 Municipal Corporation existed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to increase in revenue and population, with then municipal area of 23.23 sq. kms, and population of about 3,37,583 as per 1961 census. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension of municipal corporation limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st extension- On 1/7/1979 addition of small area of 2.30 sq. kms, of Hotgi and Vijapur roads for implementation of Integrated Urban Development scheme to the area, resulted in total area of 25.53 sq. kms with population of 3,98,361 as per 1971 census. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd extension - From 1/4/1989 with the additional area of 7.5 sq. kms, the new total area became 33.03 sq. kms with the population of 5,11,103 as per 1981 census. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd extension – As per 1991 census populations was 6,20,846 with area of 33.03 sq. kms. To minimize and overcome the difficulties arise due to high density and overload on public utility services in the old city limits and to raise the revenue etc the surrounding area of 13 villages which was about 145.54 sq. kms. was included in the earlier limits to result in total area of 178.57 sq kms. Along with population of 88,471 of new extended area the total population reached to the tune of 7,09,317 as per 1991 census. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Brief Data of Water Sources tapped by Solapur Municipal Corporation Ekrukh tank is an earthen dam built in (1859-1869) in British Rule – 6 km. north of Solapur city having 2200 mt. length and 23 mt. Height Max. Depth of water 21.70 mt.When tank with full capacity total water quantity spread in 17 sq. km. area.With water storage capacity 61.61 mm 3 Watershed basinal area 412 sq. km. No dead stock of water Hotgi tank is an earthen dam built in built in 1944 in British Rule 12 kms. South East of Solapur city. Water quantity spread in 192 hectors with height 12 mt. Water storage 5.27 mm 3 Watershed basinal area - 59.57 sq. km. No dead stock of water Ujani Dam- on Bhima River built in (1968 to 1980) 103 km west north west of Solapur city on the border of Solapur and Pune District 29000 hector of land is under water cover Basin area is 14856 sq. km. Total water reserves - 3,32,000 mm 3 of which 1520.87 mm 3 is usable by gravity flow (46%) 1799.13 mm 3 is as dead stock (54%) Total evaporation (average) in the area is 26.15% per year, i.e. about 581.08 mm 3 This heavy evaporation rate is due to circumferial surface are (exposed) is 33650 hector land and average maximum summer temp to 46  C.It is interesting to note that requirement of Bombay city per day is about 3.00 mm 3 water, and in comparison maximum daily evaporation in summer from Ujani dam is 4.038 mm 3
  12. 15. Kambar Tank
  13. 16. Kambar Tank
  14. 17. Ekrukh Tank
  15. 18. A View of Ujani Dam in the year 1998
  16. 19. M.B.R. at Kondi
  17. 25. Existing Land Use Analysis for Total Area
  18. 26. Groundwater as source Solapur Municipal Corporation is one of the main body in the Maharashtra State which has successfully launched the extraction of ground water through bore wells for the public. Mainly the bore wells are supplied with the hand pumps and very few are with electric pump. However private bore wells are generally having electric pump on large scale for pumping of ground water. In general hand pump working is seasonal and in summer they didn’t work due to depletion of water table. However they get recharged during monsoon. As per record of municipal corporation- 1st bore well in Solapur city – in 1975 for 150’ depth Upto 1977 - 60 bores wells were drilled mainly in old city area. Upto 2001 - 2195 bore wells were drilled including extended area. In Solapur city area by electrical resistivity method, three different possible aquifer zones are investigated. The first one is shallow aquifer met at the depth of around 10 to 20 mts, or 20 to 40 mts. The second one is at deeper depths meeting at either 60 to 80mts. or 80 to 100mts. The third one is at still deeper depth of 120 to130 mts. or 140 to150 mts.
  19. 27. Of these the shallow aquifer is found to get recharged during regular monsoon, while the other two at depths are normally not recharged and are probably stock waters. Reduction in percolation quantity and there by in storage due to urbanization, metallic & tarring of roads, concrete buildings, hardening and packing of grounds etc. caused depletion in ground water availability. Earlier in 1980 and 1990’s bore wells of about 100’ depth were sufficient in general for a small unit of 5 to 6 members of family, with daily requirement of about 500 To 600 liters per day. However with present situations, bores are yielding very less water or no water or intermittently stock water if is available through weak percolation, does not full fill the needs. However some bores are with depth of 300’ to 500’, which are tried in different areas by few individuals, contractors, and industrialist are yielding good waters. However it is found that these are having short duration and a temporary phase. The success rate of good yield of bores for relatively long duration is around 4 to 6 %. However only 5% bores waters are considered usable for drinking purpose as per Standards i.e.95% are only usable waters. However the individual householders / fiat owners, societies industries, commercial centers etc. have drilled bore wells in their private area as standby or as regular source mainly in extended areas where corporation filter water is not available.
  20. 28. It is roughly estimated that probably there are total about 10,000 bore well drilled in the city area of which nearly 60% are seasonal and with low discharge (about 200 to 500 lit/day) nearly 30% are giving medium discharge (about 500 to 2000 lit /day) while nearly 10% are with high to very high discharge (more than 2000 lit /day) As per review study it is estimated that nearly 3 MLD water is made available through groundwater resources. Presently with consecutive drought years and more extraction of ground water more than 60% of bore wells have been modified to low to very low or no yield. With improper casing or damage of casing mixing of sewerage water, industrial liquid waste etc. these bore waters get polluted. The maintenance of these bores is very poor or nil. The quality of bore water is not regularly examined and no data on standards is available, though the water is used for drinking, washing, household and by many industrial sectors too. Ground water quality is deteriorating in many parts of the city. With no regular quality check up, the bore waters are used without any information by the citizens especially in adverse situations, even for drinking purpose with out any treatment. This has produced health regards in these parts.
  21. 29. In different part of the city where the water are low to moderately polluted, include areas around MIDC areas and small scale hand looms & power looms & dying industries running through the residential houses and quarters mainly concentrated in eastern part of the city, the wells & bore water are polluted with traces of toxic compounds, complexes, metals & metalloids. In and around the main Shelgi nala in parts of NE, North, NW & western part of the city the wells and bore water at places are of saline in nature due to thick black soil cover & sewerage mixing. In southern part of the city the water are relatively good but are naturally medium hard. It is an extension area, with no proper under ground drainage system. There is fear of mixing of surface drainage water with ground water and may pollute the source.
  22. 30. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Filter/ treatment plants – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhavani peth – Mainly for Ekrukh dam water (from 1881 and extended 1946) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soregaon – Mainly for Bhima river water (from 1969 and extended 1983) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakani – Mainly for Ujani dam water (from 1998) </li></ul></ul>Total number of Existing ESR 24 Capacity 27.22 ML Total number of Existing GSR 8 Capacity 49.81 ML Total 32   77.03 ML
  23. 31. Distribution of Reservoirs
  24. 32. <ul><ul><li>Development for Water Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 12th century, centrally located beautiful tank was enlarged by Shri. Sidheshwar for the people and by the people, which has served drinking water resources for very long time along with 20 private dug wells till 1881. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water was made available for growing population by the then municipality authorities from an major irrigation tank- Ekrukh or Hipparaga tank, built by Britisher’s in 1859-1869 on Adila river. Situated about 6 kms. North wards of the city. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On 6th Nov. 1879 the water works (filter plant / treatment plant at Bhavani peth,) started working and supplied treated tap water for the citizens- nearly 27 MLD by storing in two reservoirs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply was augmented with water supply from Hotgi tank situated near village Hotgi, about 12 kms. South east of Solapur, built in 1944 on Hotgi nala. This raw water is used by nearly village populations and industries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As per 1962 records through Ekrukh tank (filter water) was 30.9 MLD and through Hotgi tank (raw water) 2.7 MLD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1858 Municipality built a small tank Kambar / Sambhaji tank- 2 kms. S-SE of Solapur City. But it was captured by then military Administration & is of no use as source. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 33. With increasing demand and acute problem of water scarcity to meet the needs in 1969 water from Bhima River 30 kms. South of Solapur city on the Maharashtra Karnataka boundary was tapped as important source. From jack well in river bed through pump house, the water is brought to Soregoan filter / treatment plant and then supplied to city. This was mainly for extended land limits. However this scheme ran efficiently for nearly 14 years (1969 - 1983). In fullest capacity the supply was 54 MLD, further augmented with additional 54 MLD to get around 90 MLD as per design. However actually about 70 - 75 MLD is available in good conditions of storage water, along with nearly 22.50 MLD of water from Ekrukh tank. With nearly 20 dams up stream in Pune district and less rains, the continuous flow in the Bhima river was not maintained for last decade and again the supply became uneven and irregular with many times nil with total drying of river. A new proposal scheme of lifting water from Ujani dam by Corporation was sanctioned by Maharashtra Govt. Ujani dam a tail end dam on Bhima river is 103 kms. WNW of Solapur city on the boundary of Solapur Pune districts. Water is made available through pipe line lifting up to Khandali, then by gravity movement to Pakni filter / treatment plant and then lifting upto Kondi to stock in two MBR elevated resevoir of 25 lakh liter capacity of each. From these reseviors gravity distribution is adopted. Due to dead stock available in Ujani dam even in present adverse conditions of no water in dam (gravity storage) the system is working. It is supplying about 60 MLD water from 1998.
  26. 34. Present Situation Presently if all conditions are fulfilled with good storage at each source then the water availability is as follows. 1 From Ekrukh 20 MLD 2 From Bhima 70 MLD 3 From Ujani dam 60 MLD Total 150 MLD With requirement of 110 liters per capita: per day for 10 lakh population water required will be 110 MLD. Additional water requirement is considered 30 MLD which totals up to requirement of 140 MLD i.e. present system is just sufficient to meet the demand in good environment. However presently Ekrukh and Bhima river are dry and citizens are facing a acute water problem. Therefore for future there must be new augmenting schemes otherwise the water scarcity will ride over the citizens.
  27. 35. Demand rate of water supply per capita - estimated by technical committee forecasting population of city given by Gokhale Institute, Pune. Year Population 2001 9,12,941 2006 10,87,538 2011 13,28,322 Water supply Demand MLD YEAR 1996 2011 2026 Total demand 149.60 182.50 256.00 Existing water supply 112.50 112.50 112.50 Net demand 40.00 70.00 140.00 For design purpose for the year 20ll - 24 hours capacity is considered as 80 MLD. Due to leakages and wastage of water in old city area it is considered 155 lit / pc / day. Due to new connections in extension area it is considered 70 lit / pc / day, as available water supply.
  28. 36. <ul><li>Future & Suggestions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional pipeline similar to present one with double capacity is utmost essential and is an urgent need to implement the scheme at earliest from Ujani dam to existing Bhavani & Soregaon filter plants along with plant at Pakani. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of additional pipeline is that there will be no evaporation loss or percolation loss of water which is presently occurring when water is supplied through canals and stream and river beds. Moreover gravity water is not available continuously. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present sources of Ekrukh & Bhima which are directly depending on regular monsoon are no more guaranted sources, and the water supply of the city is at stake. This is possible as deadstock of water in Ujani dam may be made available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New elevated reservoirs in different areas should come up at earliest to cater the needs of the growing population. The reservoirs position must be sector wise and may also be interconnected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributaries in different areas must be restricted to the number of populations of the sectors. The planning should be as per capacity of reservoir and the requirement of population of the sector. If required the sectors should be divided accordingly. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 37. Quarries must be started near Ekrukh tank in acquired areas of Government. The excavated material must be used for construction and as road material. The large excavated areas after few decades will serve as storage tanks. Further these quarries may be interconnected to get the supply of raw water. Artificial recharge / rain water harvesting schemes must be implemented in the Geologically suitable areas of the town, specially in the extended areas. Through percolation pits, with proper care of not polluting the water i.e. treated water after use, must be passed into the ground or through bore wells, dug wells etc. if are available. It may be stored in dug wells, artificial tanks etc. and may be reused after proper treatment specially for sanitation, washing,gardening etc. Ground water resources are depleting and must be used only in adverse and severe scarcity period i.e. they must be considered as stand by source or arrangement and not as permanent and regular dependable source. Underground inverted bunds in suitable cases and places will serve for the storage of ground water when monsoon is available. New sites for preparation of minor to medium size tanks must be located scientifically in the different parts of the city specially in the parts of extended areas of corporation. This may be used as alternative source for nearby sectors.
  30. 38. Corporation can charge heavily for extra and excess use of water than the prescribed or standardized requirement for a family / individuals etc. The recyclation of used water / waste water from industries, drainages filter plant etc. must be implemented. A real need is to educate the people for proper, disciplined and minimum use of water. The filter water use must be restricted. They must be trained for using raw water, re-circulated water. Getting water from Alamatti Dam in Bijapur District of Karnataka may be thought as one of the option in special cases or as permanent source. Inter connecting Bhima & Krishna rivers at upper reaches in Sahyadri Ghat, if considered, may fulfill the required conditions of flooding of Ujani Dam regularly as ghat region receives regular and high rain fall.
  31. 39. IMAGERY OF PART OF SOLAPUR CITY
  32. 40. Happy Greetings

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