• Bangalore ( Bengaluru ) is the capital
city of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Located in the south-eastern part of
• Nickname : Silicon valley of India.
• Geographical location - 12° 58’ N and 77 ° 35’ E
• Altitude – 920 m above MSL.
• Topography of Bangalore is generally flat.
• There are no major rivers flowing in the area.
• Bangalore has a string of freshwater lakes and water tanks, such as
Bellandur, Ulsoor, Hebbal, Madivala tanks etc.
• The soils of Bangalore district consist of red laterite and red fine loamy to
• The climate of Bangalore is classified as the tropical wet and seasonally
• Dry season - December to February.
• Summer season - March to May..
• South-West monsoon - June to September.
• Temperature -mean maximum -33.4 ° C in April/May
mean minimumof 15 ° C in December/January.
• Relative humidity - mean monthly - 44% (min) in March
- 85% (max) in October.
• The mean annual rainfall is 889 mm.
• Wind - easterly and westerly predominant directions.
• May to September - WSW to W.
• November to March -ENE to ESE.
• Bangalore city is located in a seismically stable region (Zone II ).
ORIGIN & EVOLUTION
• In 1537 CE, Kempe Gowda — a feudatory ruler under the Vijayanagara
Empire established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern
• Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions, each called a
• The town had two main streets—Chikkapete Street, which ran east-west,
and Doddapete Street, which ran north-south.
• Their intersection formed the Doddapeté Square—the heart of Bangalore.
• Kempé Gowda's successor, Kempé Gowda II, built four towers that marked
• Following by the Marathas and Mughals, the city remained under the
• Bangalore continued to be a cantonment of the British Raj.
• As a city, Bangalore’s history in the last six decades has undergone many
changes. In the post independence decades Bangalore was known as a
Garden City of retirees’ bunglows, and for a significant public sector
presence, as a large number of centrally owned public sector units as well
as state government owned enterprises were set up from the early to mid
nineteen fifties onwards. The city also saw the growth of several premier
scientific research institutions, set up by the central government.
Garden City Of India
Garden City to Silicon Valley
• As the era of economic reforms began, from the late 1980s, successive
governments in Karnataka, across political parties, pushed an economic
reform agenda due to which as is well known now, the city has now
become the icon of India’s information technology revolution, a major
centre for multi national companies, international banking, finance and
hospitality, and an attractive destination for an upwardly mobile, tech savvy
middle and upper class of citizens with multiple channels of connection to
the global economy and culture.
• All of this has entirely transformed the city’s landscape, as real estate
prices soared in the wake of the economic boom, and the horizontal
architecture of yesteryears gave way to the inevitable multi storied
complexes of offices and residences, malls and multiplexes.
• Bangalore is now known as the Silicon Valley of India because of the large
number of information technology companies located in the city which
contributed 33% of India's IT exports in 2006–07.
• Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters — Software
Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB);
and Electronics City.
Demographic profile -
Description 2011 2001
Population 9,621,551 6,537,124
Growth 47.18% 35.09%
Density/Km² 4381 2985
Average Literacy 87.67 82.96
No. of households 2393845
•Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 18th
most populous city in the world. Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis
after New Delhi between 1991 and 2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade.
•The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other
states to Bangalore.
•Women make up 47% of Bangalore's population.
•The city has a literacy rate of 89%.
•Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums.
Population Density :-
Composition of population growth :
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT -
The growth of Bangalore from a town to a metropolis has been a result of five growth events:
• Shifting the state capital from Mysore;
• Establishment of Cantonment;
• Setting up Public Sector Undertakings/Academic Institutions;
• Development of Textile Industry; and
• Development of Information Technology/ ITES/ Biotech based Industries.
The distribution of economic activities in the city reflects its history, its different stages of
development as well as the underlying socio-spatial contexts. Several distinct areas or
spatial groups emerge from the geographical distribution of activities in Bangalore. These
spatial groups are:
• The “Old Petta”, the historical heart of the city, constitutes a very important centre of
wholesale and retail activities.
• The North-East- form a second commercial hub in the Cantonment area.
• In the East, Chennai railway lime and Whitefield Road are important corridors that includes
the International Technology Park Ltd.
• South-East- Electronic city area with large Public and Private software and IT enterprises.
• Western zone- Housing sector for most manufacturing workers
• North-south axis- Households for those engaged in trade and business.
• North- East- Households for those engaged in public and administrative services.
Five concentric belts:
• · 1st Belt - The core area consisting of the historic Petta, the Administrative Centre
and the Central Business District;
• · 2nd Belt - Peri-central area with older planned residential areas surrounding the
• · 3rd Belt - Recent extensions (2003) of the City flanking
both sides of the Outer Ring Road,
a portion of which lacks services
and infrastructure facilities and is
termed as a shadow area;
• · 4th Belt - New layouts with some
vacant lots and agricultural lands; and
• 5th Belt - Green belt and agricultural area
in the City's outskirts including small villages.
Bangalore gets its water from the Cauvery river about 95km from the city.
Bangalore Water Supply
Bangalore Water Supply
• The supply was augmented in 1933 from Chamaraja
Sagara Reservoir built across River Arkavathi .
• The Cauvery Water Supply Scheme started in 1974.
• 1st stage – 1974 - 135 MLD
• 2nd stage- 1983 - 135 MLD
• 3rd stage- 1993 - 270MLD
• 4TH stage Phase I -2002 - 270 MLD
• 4th stage Phase II-2012 - 500MLD
• TOTAL : 1310 MLD
• Bangalore Water Supply and Sewage Board(BWSSB)
formed in 1964 now adequate water supply for the
Present Water Supply Scenario
• Present Population as on 2011 : 9.5 Million
• Present Demand : 1283 MLD
• Present Supply : 900 MLD
• Water deficit : 383 MLD
• The Per Capita Supply : 90 to 100 ltrs
• No. of Connections (Consumers) : 6.47 Lakhs
• Total Length of Water Supply Line : 5975 Km
• Total Length of Sewer Line : 3712 Km
• No. of Service Stations : 106
• No. of Reservoirs in the city : 52
• No. of Booster Pumping Stations : 62
• Pumping Capacity -------- Number : 247
• Capacity : 169240 Hp
• Power charges per year : Rs. 305 Crores
• Sanction Strength of Employees : 3500
• The number of households connected to the sewage network increased
from 157,000 in 1991 to 344,000 in 2001, and the population grew from
18.9% to 30%.
• The significance of this rate, which just concerns the connections to the
formal well-to-do category of the population, indicates, the lack of sewage
network on one hand and on the other, the fact that often covered storm
water drains are used for sewage disposal.
• The result is that about 70% ofthe BMP population uses a drainage
system that translates to a geographical area of about 40% of the total LPA
Solid Waste Disposal
• The production of Waste in Bangalore is approximately 2200 tons per day,
with 0.4 kg of Waste produced per day per person. While collection is
carried out regularly, Waste treatment is an issue of concern.
• Only 300 to 350 tons of Waste is currently treated every day for
composting and the remaining Waste is disposed in an unhygienic manner.
• At present the City has treatment and disposal facilities with combined
capacity of 2000 MT and 1600 MT, respectively.
• New dump sites and landfill sites are to be identified and developed to
serve the purpose.
• The growing geographic spread of Bangalore and accompanying construction
activity has interrupted the natural valley system of the region.
• Construction has also resulted in tilling up small Water bodies and low-lying areas.
The flooding of drains during each monsoon exposes its poor state and their
inadequate capacity, and impacts the City’s overall infrastructure.
• With the growth of the City, the number of lakes has reduced to 64 from 400, and
small lakes and tank beds have vanished because of encroachment and
• This has resulted in storm-Water drains reducing to gitters of insutlicient capacity,
leading to flooding during monsoon.
• Dumping of municipal solid Waste (MSW) in the drains compounds the problem
and leads to blockages.
• To control floods, it is important to remove silt and Widen these storm Water
drains to maintain the chain flow and avoid Water from stagnating at one point.
• Health infrastructure and facilities have improved and today
Bangalore has high quality super speciality health institutions
compared to other big cities.
• The number of hospital beds for 1000 people have increased in ten
years from 2.4 to 4.08 .
• Access to different levels of health care (primary, secondary,
tertiary) is generally satisfactory in spite of the shortage of
amenities in the poorer areas such as Kenrpapura, Agralrara and
Baiyyappanahalli. etc and the concentration of facilities in the city’s
core area in relation to the peripheral areas.
• Nearly three fourths of health services is provided by the private
sector while the health services offered by parastatal agencies play
an important role at the primary level and needs greater attention.
• Areas deficient in health and education in the city is depicted in Figure as
• Bangalore known for its high quality educational system and training institutions
has about 80% literacy rate, which is high in comparison with the state average of
• The numbers and reputation of universities, engineering colleges and other
training institutions confirm, beyond the boundaries of the State.
• At the city level. the existing norms (number of students per' institution) for higher
primary schools (1.64) and for high schools (3.15) are higher than that of primary
• Primary level education faces unfavorable conditions as compared to secondary
and pre-university level education. which benefit from more facilities.
• With a ratio of one primary school for 2450 persons and 32 students per teacher
for the primary level (compared to a generally accepted average of 40 students
per' teacher), the situation seems quantitatively satisfactory.
• However. the major problem is the ratio of public and private educational facilities.
Private schools represent 75% of institutions and this is a concern for all the
categories of the population.
• Public institutions have limited resources and their objective is to eliminate
illiteracy particularly among the poorer section.
Types of Slums :-
1. Notified Slums
2. Non Notified Slums
• Bangalore has a radio-concentric system structured by ring roads, five
major radial roads and five secondary radial roads that converge towards
the centre of the city.
• The major and secondary radial roads that form a ten-pointed star
constitute the organizational system of the city and are important as they
support both industrial and commercial development.
The environmental impacts of the problems associated with urban planning and
growth are listed below:
• ground water contamination due to soak pits and improper drainage system
near open wells,
• decrease in groundwater recharge due to increasing surface runoff due to
• polluting surface water bodies like tanks by the letting sewage into the lakes,
• health problems due to uncollected garbage strewn around,
• health problems due to crowding of families in one- room or two-room
• increase in temperatures due to radiation from buildings and paved roads
(heat islands), and In adequate tree cover to counter this rise in temperature.
Air circulation is also reduced due to the dense residential development and
loss of vegetation/tree cover,