Ukraine The story of the “Wild East”

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Presentation about the background of current problems in Ukraine, as of 22.01.2014

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Ukraine The story of the “Wild East”

  1. 1. Ukraine The story of the “Wild East” Urartu
  2. 2. R.I.P. Serhiy Nigoyan is among the first persons who were shot in Kyiv at the time of their demonstrations www.pravda.com.ua
  3. 3. Introduction Part 1 (Current presentation): Most known opposition activists/journalists: •What is Ukraine? •Georgiy Gongsdze •Yulia Tymoshenko (nee Yulia Grigyan) •Identity formation? •Savik Shuster (Shevelis Shusteris) – Historical insights •Mustafa Nayem •Serhiy Nigiyan Do this names sound Ukrainian? •Post-USSR times Part 2 (Video conference): •What is happening now in Ukraine? •Questions and Answers
  4. 4. Map of Europe Here is Ukraine wikipedia.org: San Jose (map), Hayden120 (retouch)
  5. 5. Ukraine, let’s compare Nord Sea Baltic Sea Ilmenau Venice Kyiv Odessa Azov Sea Crimea Back Sea Armenia Iran
  6. 6. Ukraine vs. Germany Ukraine Germany Area 603 km2 357 km2 Population (million) 44.84 80.58 GDP (PPP), USD 7 422 40 757 GDP (nominal), USD 3 862 45 925 One way bus ticket, EUR 0.2 2.0 Germany Ukraine 12 times!!!
  7. 7. What does “Ukraine” mean? Original name: Rus’ (Kyiv Rus’) Internationally: Ruthenia (Red, While, Black) First time mentioned as “Oukraina” in 1187 – Meaning “Borderland” People: Ruthenians, Rusyn - later: Cossacks, Ukrainians
  8. 8. Ukraine is mostly flat www.freeworldmaps.net
  9. 9. Carpathian mountains
  10. 10. Ukraine is mostly flat www.freeworldmaps.net
  11. 11. Crimean Mountains
  12. 12. Crimean yaila
  13. 13. Crimea
  14. 14. Crimea Relict Juniper Forest
  15. 15. Typical landscape in Ukraine
  16. 16. Ukraine is mostly flat Dnipro river www.freeworldmaps.net
  17. 17. Dnipro (Dnieper) river
  18. 18. The Fortress of Kamyanets-Podilskyi commons.wikimedia.org: seleonov
  19. 19. Bilhorod-Dnistrovsk Fortress ukrainaincognita.com: Roman Malenkov
  20. 20. Hotyn Fortress www.map.meta.ua: hranom
  21. 21. Hotyn Fortress www.map.meta.ua: hranom
  22. 22. Lutsk Fortress www.panoramio.com: hranom
  23. 23. The Swallow's Nest Castle www.eco-turizm.net: ecoturist
  24. 24. Soviet architecture Mother of the Motherland, Kyiv Statue of Lenin, Yalta
  25. 25. Climate of the country commons.wikipedia.org
  26. 26. Steppe
  27. 27. Climate of the country! commons.wikipedia.org
  28. 28. What is special about Ukraine? The widely accepted theory of the Proto-Indo-European homeland places it in Eastern Ukraine Proposed in 1950 Early w:Yamna culture (4000–3500 BC) About 2500 BC About 1000 BC wikipedia.org: Dbachmann
  29. 29. Genetic evidence of this theory Evidence of the Proposed Hypothesis found in 1999 Frequency distribution of R1a1a adapted from Underhill et al (2009) wikipedia.org: User:Hxseek
  30. 30. What else is special about Ukraine? against government It is known for its permanent demonstrations http://www.novayagazeta.ru: Evheniy Feldman
  31. 31. But we will talk about it later http://www.novayagazeta.ru: Evheniy Feldman
  32. 32. Couple words about the lost identity • Who is the modern day Ukrainian?
  33. 33. Formation of Ukrainians commons.wikipedia.org
  34. 34. Traditional Ukrainian Clothes commons.wikipedia.org
  35. 35. Traditional Ukrainian Clothes/Art/Music “Cossack Mamai”, XIX century
  36. 36. “Ukrainian peasant”, 1786 Serhii Vasylkivsky, “Sotnyk of Uman”
  37. 37. Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kyiv (1037) commons.wikipedia.org
  38. 38. Ukrainian Heritage Orthodox Church in Kyiv
  39. 39. Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra commons.wikipedia.org
  40. 40. Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra www.map.meta.ua: hronom
  41. 41. Traditional Ukrainian House wikipedia.org: Ievhen
  42. 42. Typical Ukrainian Countryside
  43. 43. The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans, Chernivtsi
  44. 44. The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans, Chernivtsi http://ridersontheglobe.com/stages/270: Unknown
  45. 45. Greek and Roman Heritage wikipedia.org: Andrei nacu
  46. 46. commons.wikimedia.org: MapMaster
  47. 47. Greek temple in Chersoneses commons.wikimedia.org: Dmitry A. Mottl
  48. 48. Greek Amphitheatre in Chersoneses wikipedia.org: Kamelot
  49. 49. Genovese fortress in Sudak
  50. 50. Genovese temple in Sudak
  51. 51. Greeks and Armenians were deported from their homelands in 18th century!
  52. 52. German settlements in Ukraine
  53. 53. Remains of the “Kingdom of Gothia”
  54. 54. German settlements today
  55. 55. German settlements today
  56. 56. German settlements today
  57. 57. German settlements today
  58. 58. German settlements today
  59. 59. German settlements today
  60. 60. German settlements today
  61. 61. German settlements today
  62. 62. Germans were deported from their homelands during 20th century!!!
  63. 63. Jewish communities in Ukraine
  64. 64. Jewish population of Eastern Europe, about 1900
  65. 65. Jewish population change after 1945 1939 – 2.72 million 1945 – 0.84 million 2010 – 0.07 million
  66. 66. Jews were killed and the survivors had no chance but to leave their homeland during 20th century!!!
  67. 67. Turkish people of Ukraine
  68. 68. Tatar cultural heritage
  69. 69. Tatar cultural heritage The Big Khan Mosque, 1532 Mosque in Mariupol, 2010
  70. 70. Tatar cultural heritage
  71. 71. Tatar cultural heritage Page from the medieval Koran
  72. 72. Medieval Muslim Cemetery in Crimea
  73. 73. The siege of Ismail, 1790
  74. 74. Crimea Tatars were deported in 1945
  75. 75. On the way to the lost Identity • • • • • • • • • • Deportation of Greeks and Armenians (18 cent.) Liquidation of Cossacks (18 cent.) German resettlement (18 cent.) Serbo-Croatian resettlement (18 cent.) Deportation of Nogai people (19 cent.) Holodomor (a man-made famine, 1932-1933) Holocaust (1941-1943) Deportation of Crimean Tatar and Germans (1945) Polish-Ukrainian population exchange (1947) Return of Crimean Tatars (1989 – now)
  76. 76. • Empty settlements were resettled/colonized by new people (mostly Ukrainians) • New people had no interest in the past history of their new homelands • It was during the time of a strong influence of Russian empire/USSR People have lost their identity and understanding of the homeland
  77. 77. Some statistics and facts
  78. 78. Ukrainian population in Russian Empire, 1897 Wikimedia Commons
  79. 79. The dominant ethnicity by population, 1897 wikipedia.org: User Tovel
  80. 80. The dominant ethnicity in urban areas by population, 1897 wikipedia.org: User Tovel
  81. 81. Nobility in Ukraine, 1897 wikipedia.org: User Tovel
  82. 82. Wikimedia Commons
  83. 83. Modern Ukraine • Independence from the USSR: 1991 – Economical collapse – Cultural recovery Dilemma of the lost identity • No responsibility  corruption • Three key freedoms: 1.Personal freedom 2.Economical freedom 3.Social responsibility
  84. 84. Freedom 1: Personal freedom • Achieved • As a result of the collapse of USSR • Cultural recovery, starting from Perestroika (end of 1980s) – End of political repressions – Return of deported nations (Crimean Tatars) – End of religious and cultural repressions – Freedom of Mass media
  85. 85. Socio-cultural recovery: Ethno-style restaurant in the countryside
  86. 86. Socio-cultural recovery: Ethno-style restaurant in the countryside
  87. 87. Socio-cultural recovery: The Sviatohirsk Lavra
  88. 88. St. Michael's cathedral in Kyiv, Ukraine wikimedia.org/Petar Milošević
  89. 89. Socio-cultural Recovery Crimean-Tatar Marriage, 2013
  90. 90. Socio-cultural recovery: Modern Tatar architecture
  91. 91. Socio-cultural Recoveryin Donetsk region Mosque Catholic Cathedral in Kamyanets
  92. 92. Pilgrimage to the founder’s of Chasidism tomb in Uman’
  93. 93. Time of pilgrimage in Uman’
  94. 94. Restoration of the Karaite minority temple
  95. 95. Socio-cultural recovery: Vietnam Buddhist Temple
  96. 96. Socio-cultural recovery: “Donbas Arena”, Donetsk GdeFon.com
  97. 97. Freedom 2: Economical freedom • Failed (from 1991 until 2000) • As a result of the collapse of USSR • No state owner  no responsibility – Corruption – Mafia and Oligarchs • No interest in “Freedom 3” as long as life is survival – Need for a “strong” leader 1. 2. 3. Personal freedom Economical freedom Social responsibility
  98. 98. Freedom 2: Economical freedom (against corruption) GDP real annual growth rate since 1990 President Kuchma was selected
  99. 99. Freedom 2: Economical freedom (against corruption) • Start of recovery (from 2000 until 2004) • Interest in “Freedom 3” – Life not survival anymore – Need for elimination of corruption – Thoughts about fair future (Western vs. Post Soviet) 1. 2. 3. Personal freedom Economical freedom Social responsibility
  100. 100. Freedom 2: Economical freedom (against corruption) GDP real annual growth rate since 1990 President Kuchma was selected Orange revolution First demonstrations against the President (Kuchma)
  101. 101. Freedom 2: Economical freedom (against corruption) • Recovery failed (from 2005 until 2009) • From 2008 (world economic crisis) – no more interest in “Freedom 3” – Life is survival again – Need for a strong leader – Yanukovych wins fair presidential elections 1. 2. 3. Personal freedom Economical freedom Social responsibility
  102. 102. Freedom 2: Economical freedom (against corruption) GDP real annual growth rate since 1990 ? President Kuchma was selected Orange revolution First demonstrations against Yanukovych First demonstrations against the President (Kuchma) President Yanukovych was selected
  103. 103. Freedom 2: Economical freedom (against corruption) • Recovery failed (from 2010 until now) • Economy recovered from the crisis – Interest in “Freedom 3” again – Need for elimination of corruption – Thoughts about fair future (EU vs. Post Soviet) 1. 2. 3. Personal freedom Economical freedom Social responsibility
  104. 104. Freedom 2: Economical freedom (against corruption) GDP real annual growth rate since 1990 ? President Kuchma was selected Orange revolution First demonstrations against Yanukovych First demonstrations against the President (Kuchma) President Yanukovych was selected
  105. 105. Ukrainian dilemma Western Ukraine: life in EU is much better Eastern Ukraine: life in Custom Union is much better Poland Russia Belarus Ukraine
  106. 106. As a result: Social collapse Independence of Ukraine wikipedia.org: LokiiT
  107. 107. Typical sub-urban life in Ukraine
  108. 108. Typical sub-urban life in Ukraine
  109. 109. Typical sub-urban life in Ukraine
  110. 110. Typical sub-urban life in Ukraine
  111. 111. Typical sub-urban life in Ukraine
  112. 112. Typical sub-urban life in Ukraine
  113. 113. End of November Beginning as a peaceful demonstration Simple demand: EU integration news.liga.net
  114. 114. November, 30th The dispersal of protesters by government www.forbes.ru: AFP/East-News
  115. 115. 22.01.2014 www.bbc.co.uk
  116. 116. The response form the government
  117. 117. The response form the government
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