Communismvs.nationalismin easterneuropeslides


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Communismvs.nationalismin easterneuropeslides

  1. 1. Communism V.S.Nationalism in Eastern Europe
  2. 2. Yugoslavia• Consists of six republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia• People in Tito’s Yugoslavia were very nationalistic o Yugoslavia started to build up their own independent version of Communism o Tito tried to form a midway between Western democracy and eastern communism which also lead to strained relationship with both the East and the West• Separated from Moscow o Wanted to liberate themselves from the foreign occupiers
  3. 3. Yugoslavia
  4. 4. Josip Tito• Considered to be one of the most successful guerrilla leaders of all time o drove Nazis out of Yugoslavia during World War II• After war joined and became leader of the Yugoslavia Communists• Ethnic tensions were suppressed during his rule
  5. 5. Hungarian Revolution Hungarians topple Stalin Monument
  6. 6. Nikita Khrushchev• communist leader who had helped defend Ukraine from Nazis• took position of first secretary months after Stalins death, making him most powerful man in Moscow• attacked Stalin for "intolerance, brutality, abuse of power" and began more liberal reforms o made it acceptable to publicly question Stalin o within the year Poland and Hungary were revolting
  7. 7. Imre Nagy• prime minister of Hungary July 1953-March 1955• replaced in Soviet crackdown by radical Stalinist Matyas Rakosi, 1955 o tensions increased under his reign; Rakosi called “Stalin’s best disciple”: zealous in anti-Yugoslavia campaign
  8. 8. Hungarian Revolution• first major anti-socialist uprising and first shooting war between socialist states• Revolt by moderate Communists and anti- Communists against Soviets• Hungarian leader Imre Nagy did not try to call Soviets to stop revolution; he encouraged them and tried to break from Warsaw Pact (treaty network designed to unify East Europe against West)
  9. 9. Hungarian Revolution-Causes• feb. 1956: Khrushchev exposed Stalin’s crimes, promised new direction for USSR• hardcore Stalinists not exactly happy: non- Stalinists gained popularity, Nagy among them o disposed by radical Stalinist Matyas Rakosi, 1955  tensions increased under his reign; Raksi called “Stalin’s best disciple”: zealous in anti-Yugoslavia campaign  by Oct. 1956, gov. had lost control of situation
  10. 10. Hungarian Rev.- Reasons• Hungarians did not like the collective farms--used by Soviets to extract more wealth• 1956 height of power struggle; Stalin had died 1953, new leaders denounced his policies, emboldening revolutionary leaders• became Stalinists vs. everyone else• Stalinists had power after seizing it from liberal, anti- collective farms gov.• encouraged by Yugoslavias refusal to follow Stalinism and mass strikes in Poland
  11. 11. Hungarian Rev.- Key events• Oct. 23, 1956: demonstration in Budapest to show solidarity in Poland, who had mass strikes in June o demanded Nagy take over gov. again o fighting in Budapest, other cities; continued throughout night o Nagy declared prime minister the next morning
  12. 12. Hungarian Rev- Effects• anti communists gathered strength; Nagy took full power, brought back multiparty system• thousands of political prisoners released
  13. 13. Hungarian Rev- Aftermath• Nov. 1: Khrushchev ordered Soviets to retake Hungary when gov. planned to leave Warsaw Pact o Hungarians not prepared at all• Nov. 4: Soviets took Budapest, revolution collapsed o West unable to do much; busy with Suez Canal crisis, Soviet action too swift o Nagy and revolution leadership deported; Nagy executed in 1958• high point of Soviets blocking self-determination• discouraged more revolutions for over a decade• Mass exodus, arrests and deportations cut out large part of Hungarian populations o 200,000 refugees fled Hungary
  14. 14. Prague Spring-Causes• Brief period of liberalism in Czechoslovakia• stopped by USSR Warsaw Pact invasion
  15. 15. Prague Spring- Key Events• 5 January 1968: Communist leaders ousted Stalinist First Secretary Antonin Novotny• political economic and nationalist tensions• no reforms; repressed workers, intellectuals and students who questioned the system• replaced by Alexander Dubcek, leader of Slovak Communists• “Socialism with a human face”--reforms to integrate democracy, individual rights while keeping relations with Moscow• Period known as Prague Spring• really got started 9 April 1968: Czech Communists announced creation of Action Program
  16. 16. Prague Spring- Reforms• what Action Program promised: o more freedom for in industry, agriculture o economic equality between Czechs, USSR o protection of civil liberties o independence for Slovakia o party would stay in power, but more responsive to people• what did happen: o abolition of censorship, creation of workers’ councils on factories,increased trade w/ West, writing of new constitution to make democratic regime o Rehabilitation Act passed: retrials for people convicted of political crimes against communists
  17. 17. Prague Spring- PeoplesReaction• Czech population thrilled; hadnt had level of freedom since Feb. 1948 o mass media raised about political purges, show trials, concentration camps o by summer public wanted independent political parties, purer democracy, more radical economic reforms
  18. 18. Prague Spring- Aftermath• Moscow reaction o saw reforms as rejection of USSR policies, worried Czechs might withdraw from Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO)  alliance system in East Europe to counter NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization; group of Western countries allied against USSR) o similar fears in East Germany, Polish conservative communists who feared Czech reforms would destabilize their countries
  19. 19. Prague Spring- Aftermath• 16 July: letter from USSR, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria asking for reforms to stop o blamed recent events on reactionaries still upset by imperialism o claimed Czechs were breaking away from socialism, reforms threatened entire socialist system o Dubcek (Czech Leader) said reforms should not be seen as anti- Soviet, they weren’t going to leave WTO o annoyed USSR; military intervention  20-21 August 1968: 500,000 WTO troops invade, met little resistance  Dubcek brought to Moscow 21 August 1968, gave into USSR demands  27 August: told Czechs reforms were over  restored old system, annulled most radical reforms
  20. 20. Prague Spring- Aftermath• Dubcek removed from office April 1969; successor supported by Russian Red Army, led one of most repressive regimes in East Europe• Moscow justification: the Brezhnev Doctrine (No individual Communist party could make decisions that threatened socialism as a whole. If they did other socialist countries were duty-bound to intervene militarily and suppress the deviation.)
  21. 21. Soviet Opinion"The Soviet Government expresses confidence that the peoples of the socialist countries will not permit foreign and internal reactionary forces to undermine the basis of the peoples democratic regimes, won and consolidated by the heroic struggle and toil of the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia of each country." - Friendship and Co-operation Between the Soviet Union and Other Socialist States, October 30, 1956
  22. 22. Works CitedDeHart, Bruce J. “Prague Spring.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. < ay%2f309904%3fterms%3dprague+spring&token=6D1DC24554D17738B39D0F52FEB40805&casError=False>.“Events: Hungarian Revolution of 1956.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.Fredriksten, John C. “Individuals: Josip Broz Tito.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. <>.Granville, Johanna. “Hungarian Revolution.” Encycopedia of Russian History. Gale: World History In Context, 2004. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. < ghlighting=false&prodId=WHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE|CX3404100569&mode=view>.Haschikjan, Magarditsch. “Events: Soviet/Yugoslav Split.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. <>.“Hungarian Revolution.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Gale: World History in Context, n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. < ghlighting=false&prodId=WHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE|CX3404100569&mode=view>.“Nikita Khrushchev.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <>.“Places: Yugoslavia.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. <>.Soviet Union. Freindship and Co-operation between the Soviet Union and Other Socialist States. N.p.: n.p., 1956. Print.“Yugoslavia.” Europe Since 1914/; Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Gale, 2006. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. < ghlighting=false&prodId=WHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE|CX3447000924&mode=view>.