Mycorrhizae
Benefits
Utah Green Industriy
Conference
Monday 25, 2010


Atul Nayyar, Ph. D., Biol.
Agenda

• Brief intro to our company: Premier Tech
• Mycorrhizal fungi, what they are and what they do!
• Soil nutrient ch...
Seven business units gathered in three groups
                         One mission
                            To become t...
Premier Tech Biotechnologies has
acquired over the years a unique
expertise in industrial scale production of
top quality ...
Mycorrhizal fungi
• Mycorrhizal fungi colonize the plant’s root system and develop a
  symbiotic association called a “myc...
Types of mycorrhizae

                   All arbutus and
Arbutoid, Orchid   orchid plants
                   Not obligate ...
Types of mycorrhizae

                  15% of plants
Ectomycorrhizae   Most conifers,
                  deciduous excepti...
Ectomycorrhizae
                        15% of plants
  Ectomycorrhizae       (Pine, Spruce, Fir,
                        ...
Endomycorrhizae   (Arbuscular Mycorrhizae)

                      • Arbuscules: transfer
                        organs of...
How to identify species
• Spore morphology
                             • DNA fingerprint

                             Re...
Mycorrhizal Research

A 1995 detailed analysis of databases of mycorrhizal research
containing almost 12,000 references (K...
Mechanism of symbiosis


Spore
germination
(signal)
Mechanism of symbiosis

External            Spore
exploration         production
Network




Spore

            Root


Hypha,
pipeline
Endomycorrhizae at work


               LIVE!
Mycorrhizae advantages
• Allow plants to draw more nutrients and water from
 the soil, including phosphorus

• Result in v...
Some basic soil
physico-chemico properties
Nutrient
availability and
micro-organisms
activities vs pH
Nutrient uptake mecanisms
Mass flow: water movement into the soil toward the roots
Radical interception: Interception of s...
Facts
1.     Plants absorb P from solution in proportion to the
       concentration of phosphate ions in the solution
   ...
Challenges of inoculum production

 Mass production of viable inoculum has been a
  challenge for large-scale application...
Challenges of inoculum production
Conventional process
Production of host-plant in greenhouses
Challenges of inoculum production
In vitro process
Production under controlled environmental conditions using
root culture
Challenges of inoculum production

Conventional process                  In vitro process
•   Number of propagules per uni...
Need to master more than just
                    inoculum production




Production                                      ...
BENEFITS ON PLANTS
TURF
RESULT: Establishment

  Average Bentgrass Coverage - Laval University

Mycorrhizal inoculation accelerated
coverage by 4-...
APPLICATIONS: Sod production
Sod producer Lower St-Laurence Canada
Seeded with powder on seed in fall 2008. Harvest Sept 1...
APPLICATIONS: Sod Turf




 Without Mycorrhizae
 With Mycorrhizae
Downsview Park, Ontario Canada
Use of granular applied mycorrhizae at sod installation




             WITHOUT           ...
By R. KOSKE1, J.N.GEMMA2 and N.JACKSON2
                                                Department of Botany1 and Departme...
RESULT: Disease resistance
Spread of Dollar spot - Laval University

Mycorrhizal turf had 35% less disease invasion

     ...
BENEFITS ON PLANTS
TREES & SHRUBS
Growth increase
      Ash trial (Université Laval, Québec)
      Height increase of 79% with Mycorrhizae
City Tree

      Tree survival in City conditions
10


8
                           1998

6                          1999
...
Plantations in Mexico
Pinus michoacana
  With Mycorrhizae   Without Mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizae in Citrus nursery production
Willits & Newcomb Inc, Arvin, California.
Orange production, 150 cc.

           ...
Mycorrhizal inoculant use in
nurseries
BENEFITS ON PLANTS
ANNUALS & PERENNIALS
Annuals and perennials
BENEFITS ON PLANTS
FIELD CROPS
Lentil trial yields
LOCATIONS: Canada (MB), USA (ND,WI, NE, IA, MN)
Fertilizer: 100-180 lb N
BENEFITS FOR
SOIL
Mycorrhizal effects on soil structure
• Soil structure refers to pore spaces as well as aggregates, and
  the number and d...
SOIL STRUCTURE AGGREGATION
Plays a major role in soil aggregation through hyphae
networking and glomalin (biological glue)...
Conclusions:




                             MYCORRHIZAE




• Absorption of P & other minerals         • Better H2O use
...
Thanks
Why add a commercial inoculum to
your operations?


• Apply the correct, certified viable amount
  of a performant species...
Single AMF species vs Several AMF species


 • The effect of AMF mixtures on plant growth and P uptake were
   mostly with...
Premier Tech and Mycorrhizal
Technology
CAN Registration requirements:
The statement must identify the agronomic          ...
Non-mycorrhizal plants:

 Crassulaceae (Sedum)
 Chenopodiaceae (Kochia)
 Caryophyllaceae (Gypsophila, Dianthus, Cerastium)...
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Mycorrhizae Benefits Atul Nayar Mon Jan 25 At 2

  1. 1. Mycorrhizae Benefits Utah Green Industriy Conference Monday 25, 2010 Atul Nayyar, Ph. D., Biol.
  2. 2. Agenda • Brief intro to our company: Premier Tech • Mycorrhizal fungi, what they are and what they do! • Soil nutrient characteristics • Production technology to viable products • Mycorrhizal effects on plant growth • Conclusions
  3. 3. Seven business units gathered in three groups One mission To become technological and commercial leaders in the respective fields of expertise of its three groups
  4. 4. Premier Tech Biotechnologies has acquired over the years a unique expertise in industrial scale production of top quality mycorrhizal inoculants for the horticulture and agriculture market. 60 team members more than 20 dedicated to R&D adding up to more than 150 years of expertise in mycorrhizae.
  5. 5. Mycorrhizal fungi • Mycorrhizal fungi colonize the plant’s root system and develop a symbiotic association called a “mycorrhiza” • Form a network of filaments that associate with plant roots and draw nutrients and water from the soil that the root system would not be able to access otherwise. • Mycorrhizae are developped on more than 90% of plant species • Mycorrhizae are present naturally in almost all ecosystems
  6. 6. Types of mycorrhizae All arbutus and Arbutoid, Orchid orchid plants Not obligate fungi Orchids rely on Visible them All Ericaceous plants (Blueberry, Azalea, Ericoid Rhodos) Not obligate fungi
  7. 7. Types of mycorrhizae 15% of plants Ectomycorrhizae Most conifers, deciduous exceptions Visible 80% of plants Most deciduous and Endomycorrhizae herbaceous, cedars
  8. 8. Ectomycorrhizae 15% of plants Ectomycorrhizae (Pine, Spruce, Fir, Oak, Birch, Hazelnut) Fungi are not obligate, can live as saprophytes on organic matter. Show some host specificity Visible Do produce visible sporocarps above ground Outside Mantle cells
  9. 9. Endomycorrhizae (Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) • Arbuscules: transfer organs of the mycorrhizae. • Hyphae: connect root to soil. Act as pipeline. • Spores: resting, lipid filled structures. Is the seed of the fungus world. • Identification is based on these.
  10. 10. How to identify species • Spore morphology • DNA fingerprint Results: • Multiple nuclei per spores (thousands) • Each nucleus has a different genetic code • Very adaptable and versatile • Number of species (200) limited vs plants (250K)
  11. 11. Mycorrhizal Research A 1995 detailed analysis of databases of mycorrhizal research containing almost 12,000 references (Klironomos et al, 1995). During the last four decades, the average number of papers published per year were 84, 110, 214 and 488, respectively. The rate of publication in 1995 was about 700 papers per year, and well over 1000 now. Much research has focused on nutrient dynamics, inoculum production, mycorrhiza formation, and morphology and physiology of both arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). Research is conducted on all continents.
  12. 12. Mechanism of symbiosis Spore germination (signal)
  13. 13. Mechanism of symbiosis External Spore exploration production
  14. 14. Network Spore Root Hypha, pipeline
  15. 15. Endomycorrhizae at work LIVE!
  16. 16. Mycorrhizae advantages • Allow plants to draw more nutrients and water from the soil, including phosphorus • Result in vigorous and healthy plants • Accelerate rooting • Increase plant survival • Increase drought tolerance and others stresses • Enhance flowering and fruiting Root with mycorrhizae • Reduce transplant shock • Better yields • Reduce erosion Root without mycorrhizae
  17. 17. Some basic soil physico-chemico properties
  18. 18. Nutrient availability and micro-organisms activities vs pH
  19. 19. Nutrient uptake mecanisms Mass flow: water movement into the soil toward the roots Radical interception: Interception of solution ions during root growth Diffusion: Transfer of ions from higher to lower concentration
  20. 20. Facts 1. Plants absorb P from solution in proportion to the concentration of phosphate ions in the solution (solubilisation). 2. P is mainly absorbed by diffusion because it’s a non mobile ions in the soil solution. 3. If no other factors are limiting, growth will be proportional to the amount of P absorbed by plants. 4. The actively absorbing surface of plant roots is near the root tips. 5. Mycorrhizae may supply up to 80%* of the plant P. • Organic matter hydrolysis • Phosphatase activity (direct or indirect) • Increase of bacterial activity (symbiosis between soil bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi) *Bolan, N.S. 1991. A critical review on the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of phosphorus by plants. Plant and Soil 134 : 189-207.
  21. 21. Challenges of inoculum production  Mass production of viable inoculum has been a challenge for large-scale application of mycorrhizal inoculants • Cannot be grown in the absence of a plant host • Their physiology and their genetic structure are very complex • Production cycle over 3 – 5 months
  22. 22. Challenges of inoculum production Conventional process Production of host-plant in greenhouses
  23. 23. Challenges of inoculum production In vitro process Production under controlled environmental conditions using root culture
  24. 24. Challenges of inoculum production Conventional process In vitro process • Number of propagules per unit • Number of propagules per is variable unit is constant • Quantification is difficult and • Quantification is more inaccurate simple and accurate • Risk of plant pathogens • Plant pathogen-free • Restrictions in formulation and • Flexibility in formulation and application application • Limited production capacity • Higher production capacity • Quality of products is variable • Quality of products is constant
  25. 25. Need to master more than just inoculum production Production Formulations of the active tailor made to meet ingredient client requests Technical support in the Application of concentrated formulations
  26. 26. BENEFITS ON PLANTS TURF
  27. 27. RESULT: Establishment Average Bentgrass Coverage - Laval University Mycorrhizal inoculation accelerated coverage by 4-5 weeks 100 90 80 % coverage 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Number of weeks With Mycorrhizae Without Mycorrhizae
  28. 28. APPLICATIONS: Sod production Sod producer Lower St-Laurence Canada Seeded with powder on seed in fall 2008. Harvest Sept 12 2009. 33% less fertilizer applied (saved 300 lbs/ac N-P-K) WITHOUT WITH MYCORRHIZAE MYCORRHIZAE
  29. 29. APPLICATIONS: Sod Turf Without Mycorrhizae With Mycorrhizae
  30. 30. Downsview Park, Ontario Canada Use of granular applied mycorrhizae at sod installation WITHOUT WITH MYCORRHIZAE MYCORRHIZAE
  31. 31. By R. KOSKE1, J.N.GEMMA2 and N.JACKSON2 Department of Botany1 and Department of Plant Sciences2, University of Rhode Island, RESULT: Water use Kingston, Rhode Island Model tested: Penncross without with water water WITH WITHOUT without water MYCORRHIZAE MYCORRHIZAE Turf without mycorrhizae began Mycorrhizal turf showed 39% wilting after 3 days less water stress than without Mycorrhizal turf wilted after 5 days After eight days, the difference was 60%
  32. 32. RESULT: Disease resistance Spread of Dollar spot - Laval University Mycorrhizal turf had 35% less disease invasion 80 70 60 50 % coverage 40 30 20 10 0 2 3 Weeks after disease introduction Without Mycorrhizae With Mycorrhizae
  33. 33. BENEFITS ON PLANTS TREES & SHRUBS
  34. 34. Growth increase Ash trial (Université Laval, Québec) Height increase of 79% with Mycorrhizae
  35. 35. City Tree Tree survival in City conditions 10 8 1998 6 1999 2000 2001 4 2 0 With Without Mycorrhizae Black maple Guelph University 2001 Mycorrhizae
  36. 36. Plantations in Mexico Pinus michoacana With Mycorrhizae Without Mycorrhizae
  37. 37. Mycorrhizae in Citrus nursery production Willits & Newcomb Inc, Arvin, California. Orange production, 150 cc. Without mycorrhizae With mycorrhizae
  38. 38. Mycorrhizal inoculant use in nurseries
  39. 39. BENEFITS ON PLANTS ANNUALS & PERENNIALS
  40. 40. Annuals and perennials
  41. 41. BENEFITS ON PLANTS FIELD CROPS
  42. 42. Lentil trial yields
  43. 43. LOCATIONS: Canada (MB), USA (ND,WI, NE, IA, MN) Fertilizer: 100-180 lb N
  44. 44. BENEFITS FOR SOIL
  45. 45. Mycorrhizal effects on soil structure • Soil structure refers to pore spaces as well as aggregates, and the number and dimension of pore spaces between particles are important in functional considerations. • The effects of soil structure are of critical importance to the maintenance of soil function. • Better soil structure gives:  Greater water infiltration and water holding capacity.  More permeability to air.  Better root development.  Higher microbial activity and nutrient cycling.  Better resistance to surface sealing (crusts).  Better resistance to erosion (water/wind)  Better resistance to compaction
  46. 46. SOIL STRUCTURE AGGREGATION Plays a major role in soil aggregation through hyphae networking and glomalin (biological glue) production Improvement of soil structure • Stimulation of beneficial microbial activity Water infiltration improvement • Reduction of erosion and nutrient leaching 7
  47. 47. Conclusions: MYCORRHIZAE • Absorption of P & other minerals • Better H2O use • Plant establishment & survival • Erosion control
  48. 48. Thanks
  49. 49. Why add a commercial inoculum to your operations? • Apply the correct, certified viable amount of a performant species • Apply it at the right time (at planting) • Apply it at the right place (in planting hole) • Increase the value of your work (growth benefits)
  50. 50. Single AMF species vs Several AMF species • The effect of AMF mixtures on plant growth and P uptake were mostly within the range of the effects exerted by the respective single AMF species (Jansa, Smith and Smith, 2007). • In the main, there was little evidence for increased P uptake and/or growth of plants colonized by several AMF species compared with a single species (Jansa, Smith and Smith, 2007). • In the case of several species cocktail, we have to consider :  Antagonism between AMF species  Compatibility with bacteria  Specific functions of each AMF
  51. 51. Premier Tech and Mycorrhizal Technology CAN Registration requirements: The statement must identify the agronomic benefit(s) that will be derived from the use of the product. Conducted with a minimum of 2 independent researchers Conducted for a minimum of 2 growing seasons Conducted in East and West Canada with 4 sites per region 4 replications of randomized tests per site Each year, at least 60% of trials show significant positive response Total number of trials 32 experimental set-ups, at least 20 showed positive results. Presently 22 products registered (CFIA) Presently registered in 30 States
  52. 52. Non-mycorrhizal plants: Crassulaceae (Sedum) Chenopodiaceae (Kochia) Caryophyllaceae (Gypsophila, Dianthus, Cerastium) Brasicaceae (Alyssum, Brassica, Arabis, Rockcress) Fabaceae (lupins)
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