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mycorrhiza types, distribution and significance.

With reference to agriculture.

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mycorrhiza types, distribution and significance.

  2. 2. OVERVIEWOF MYCORRHIZA Mycorrhiza was first used by German researcher A.B. Frank in 1885. It’s greek word viz mycos- fungus and rhiza-root. Symbiotic mutualisticrelationshipwithbidirectional nutrient exchange. About 90%of all land plants are associated with it except Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae and Resedaceae.
  3. 3. THREE WAY INTERACTION. Mycorrhizal associationinvolves 3 way interactionbetween Host, Fungi and Soil. HOST PLANT FUNGI SOIL FACTORS
  4. 4. TYPES OF ASSOCIATION Mycorrhiza are commonly dividedinto endomycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza. These two type are differentiated by- Ectomycorrhiza do not penetrate individual cells withinthe root. Endomycorrhiza penetrate the cell wall and invaginate the cell membrane.
  5. 5. ENDOMYCORRHIZA Endomycorrhiza’sare variable belonging to basidiomycetesand associated with root development which have been furtherclassifiedas :- Vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM). Ericoid mycorrhizae. Arbutoid mycorrhizae. Monotropoid mycorrhizae. Orchid mycorrhizae.
  6. 6. VESICULAR ARBUSCULARMYCORRHIZA VAMare produced by aseptate mycelial fungi whichpenetrateroot forming vesicles and arbuscles. Vesicles are thin or thick walled structure which stores polyphosphateand other minerals. Arbuscles are dichotomously branched haustoria which lives for 4 days and then get lysed releasing storedfoodas oil droplets in the cortex.
  7. 7. ERICOIDMYCORRHIZA Slowgrowing, septate and mostly sterile . Rootlets are coveredby very loose, sparse, dark hyphae that penetrates the cortex forming intercellular coils. Thesecoils degenerate after 3-4 weeks likeVAM. They usually improve the uptake of P and N nutritionof plants.
  8. 8. MONOTROPOIDMYCORRHIZA Seen in Monotropaceae which are achlorophyllous. Uses their mycorrhizae not only to obtain minerals and nutrients, but also to tap the carbon supplies via the nearby plants or soil by breakdown of cellulose and lignin. Boletusa mycorrhizal fungus associatedwithroots of both pine and Monotropa. Fungal sheath present.
  9. 9. ORCHIDMYCORRHIZA All orchids are myco-heterotrophic at some stage and formorchid mycorrhizas with a range of basidiomycete fungi. Their hyphae penetrate into the root cells and formpelotons (coils) for nutrient exchange The fungus provides C-nutrition to the seeds.
  10. 10. ECTENDOMYCORRHIZA (ARBUTOID) They have mycorrhiza intermediate in formbetween ecto and endomycorrhiza types found in ericaceae. The root systemis differentiated in short and long roots. Short roots are swollen and covered by mantle. The formeractually penetrate the cortical cells and fill themwithcoils.
  11. 11. ECTOMYCORRHIZA Theseare association, where fungi forma mantlearound roots withno hyphal penetration in the cells. Fungal hypha is generally separate. Hartig’s net is present between the cells whichis 40µmthick. Most conspicuous and easily recognized.
  12. 12. DISTRIBUTIONOR OCCURRENCE OF ENDOMYCORRHIZA Ubiquitous in Artic, Temperateand Tropical regionsfound in almost all angiospermsincludinggymnosperms and liverworts. Distribution pattern weresurveyed in montane scrubgrassland, alpine steppe ad alpine meadow. Their altitudes are rangingfrom3500 to 5200mon Tibetan plateau. Their general occurrence is in Gramineae, Palmae, Rosaceae, Leguminosae and Papilionaceae. They are reported fromcarboniferousand Devonian periods.
  13. 13. DISTRIBUTION OR OCCURRENCE OF ECTOMYCORRHIZA Found in 3% of seeded plantsviz common in northern temperate forest especially in Fagaceae and Pinaceae where as in tropics Myrtacceae and Dipterocarpacae. Majoritycomes fromthe general Amanita, Boletus and Tricholoma.  Its distribution is limited to the arid areas of south-central Asia and the northern hilly margin of the Tibetan Plateau.
  14. 14. SIGNIFICANCE WITHREFERENCE TO AGRICULTURE Increases nutrient uptake of plant fromsoil. Increase diversity of plants. Produce uniformseedling. Significant role in nutrient recycling. More tolerant to adverse soil chemical constraints which limit crop production. Inoculation of VAM as biofertiliser provides a distinct possibility for the uptake of P in phosphorus-deficient soil.
  15. 15. Increases plant resistance to diseases and drought. Improve soil structure. Protection of plants during stress condition. Uptake of sulphur and inorganic salts fromsoil. Obligatory for the germination of orchidseeds.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION Mycorrhizal association is very essential for the plants because it has several benefits like absorption of nutrients, increase drought resistance, enhance plant efficiency in absorbing water and nutrients fromsoil. AM fungi useful in agriculture because it serves as biofertilizers as it helps in the absorption of phosphorus and other nutrient uptake.
  17. 17. REFERENCE Introduction to mycology by R.S Mehrotra and R.K Aneja. Principles of microbiology.