CSP IP Networks

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Communications Service Provider IP networks. From history to today.

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CSP IP Networks

  1. 1. Service Provider IP Networks April 2014 Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  2. 2. Content NGN & transformation OSI model and protocols Wireline networks Ethernet MPLS LAN WAN technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  3. 3. Content NGN & transformation OSI model and protocols Wireline networks Ethernet MPLS LAN WAN technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  4. 4. Categorization CSP networks Core Wired (optical fiber) Wireless Aggregation Wired (optical fiber) Wireless Access Wired Copper Narrow Band Broadband ADSL/2/2+ VDSL/2 Optical fiber AON PON TDM PON APON BPON GPON EPON 10GPON 10GEPON WDM PON Hybrid PON Cable Wireless WPAN WLAN WMAN WWAN Cellular 2G 3G 4G Satellite Media Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  5. 5. Original PSTN UTP • Manual switching directly connected two local loops • Due to microphone technology, audio BW was 4 kHz (4000 oscillations per second) • PSTN is the network • POTS is the service UTP Diaphragm Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  6. 6. Analog switched PSTN • Invention of tube amplifier enabled long distance • Between central offices used FDM spaced at 4 kHz (each cable carrying 1 group = 12 channels) CO CO Local loop (analog) Local loop (analog) Telephone network (analog) Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  7. 7. Data support via voice-grade modems • To send data, it is converted into 4 kHz audio (modem) • Data rate is determined by Shannon's capacity theorem (there is a maximum data rate (bps) called the "capacity”, that can be reliably sent through the communications channel. The capacity depends on the BW and SNR) Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  8. 8. Digital PSTN Source : http://kingdominique.be/notepro/nyquist-theorem Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  9. 9. Digital PSTN, Cont., “last mile”CO SWITCH “last mile” Subscriber Line PSTN CO SWITCH TDM TDM digital analog LP filter to 4 kHz at input to CO switch (before A/D) • Sample 4 kHz audio at 8 kHz (Nyquist) • Need 8 bits per sample = 64 kbps • Multiplexing 64 kbps channels leads to higher and higher rates • Only the subscriber line (local loop) remains analog (too expensive to replace) Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  10. 10. Digital Local Loop Technologies • ISDN – Voice and Data – Longer distance • DSL – Higher speed – Several variants • Different encoding technologies -> different data transmission rates Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  11. 11. ISDN • set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the PSTN Source: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/dial/configuration/guide/dia_isdn_pri_slt_ps6350_TSD_Products_Configuration_Guide_Chapter.html Different access interfaces Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  12. 12. DSL technologies ADSL ANSI T1.413 Issue 2 ITU G.992.1 (G.DMT) ITU G.992.2 (G.Lite) ADSL2 ITU G.992.3 ITU G.992.4 ITU G.992.3 Annex J ITU G.992.3 Annex L ADSL2+ ITU G.992.5 ITU G.992.5 Annex M HDSL ITU G.991.1 HDSL2 IDSL MSDSL PDSL RADSL SDSL SHDSL ITU G.991.2 UDSL VDSL ITU G.993.1 VDSL2 ITU G.993.2 Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  13. 13. Typical Cu access network last (first) mile DP CAB Rosette Discharger Network demarcation MDF Edge Network Node Ex:- C4/5 switch, AGW Ex:- Telephone, DSU, modem, NTU PrimarySecondary (overhead) (Underground)(Underground) OSP CO CP Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  14. 14. Last (1st) mile connectivity media Electrical Signal (Current) Optical Signal (Light) Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  15. 15. xDSL flavors Source : http://wiki.ftthcouncil.eu/index.php?title=File:Dsl-distance-chart.png&filetimestamp=20100413150655 Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  16. 16. FTTx Technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  17. 17. CE/ME switch MSAN/ DSLAM PON OLT ADSL router CPE (router) ONU/ ONT Splitter ADSL PON Transmit Receive Transmit Receive Copper pair Fiber pair Single fiber 2 1 3 AONSingle fiber Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  18. 18. Content NGN & transformation OSI model and protocols Wireline networks Ethernet MPLS LAN WAN technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  19. 19. Network Network Network Vertical to Horizontal Service Service Service Network Network Converged Network Control and Signaling Network Service Service Service Legacy: Service Specific Networks Future: NGN architecture for services Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  20. 20. Session Control Layer Core Layer Aggregation Layer Access Layer xDSL WiMAX FTTH (PON) 3G Applications 4G (LTE) CDMA PSTN Transport Service Access Technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  21. 21. Segments of NGN Architecture FTTx xDSL CDMA Wimax Access Network Aggregation Network Core Network Control and Signaling Network Customer Equipment IMS Controllers Non-IMS Controllers Application VoIP Data Video IM User Equipments Access Network Aggregation Network Core Network Control and Signaling Network Application Network Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  22. 22. Transformation Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  23. 23. Issues with Legacy Networks • Low bandwidth • No flexibility to scale • High cost of installation • Slow provisioning • Bandwidth growth inflexible/non-linear – Limited by multiplexing hierarchy • TDM-based access: inefficient for converged data Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  24. 24. Transformation/ Migration/ Evolution • Voice centric -> data centric • Wired -> wireless – Copper -> fiber • Legacy -> NGN – Verticals -> convergence – Circuit Switching -> Packet Switching • TDM -> IP Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  25. 25. Services /Application (wire-line) Voice – PSTN • Access : Copper • Transmission : PDH, SDH • Switching : Circuit Switching – NGN • Access : Copper, fiber • Aggregation : Carrier Ethernet • Core : IP/MPLS • Switching : Packet Switching Data – TDM • Services : Leased line • Access : Copper, fiber • Transmission : PDH, SDH – Narrowband • Services : Internet • Access : Dialup (PSTN) • Transmission : PDH, SDH – IP • Services : L3 VPN (IP/VPN), L2 VPN (VPLS) • Access : Copper, fiber • Transport : IP/MPLS – Broadband • Services : Internet, IPTV, VoBB • Access : Copper, fiber • Transport : IP/MPLS LegacyNGN Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  26. 26. Legacy NGN Multiple Control Layers Single Control Layer Multiple Transport Networks Single Transport Network Multiple Access Network Multiple Access Network Multiple Access Connection Single Access Connection Migration to an IP converged network Multiple Applications Multiple Applications Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  27. 27. Content NGN & transformation OSI model and protocols Wireline networks Ethernet MPLS LAN WAN technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  28. 28. King of England Scriber Translator Negotiator Manager Mail room Envelop Delivery King of France Scriber Translator Negotiator Manager Mail room Envelop Delivery Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  29. 29. Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away User A Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical User B Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Layer 7 Layer 1 Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  30. 30. TCP/IP vs. OSI Source: http://webpage.pace.edu/ms16182p/networking/protocols.html layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  31. 31. Source : http://ccna-cisco.webs.com/osilayer.htm Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  32. 32. Source : http://www.telecomhall.com/osi-7-layers-model.aspx Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  33. 33. Source: http://webpage.pace.edu/ms16182p/networking/protocols.html Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  34. 34. Source : http://www.markwilson.co.uk/blog/2006/03/osi-reference-model-and-how-it-relates.htm Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  35. 35. Core Network Evolution • Synchronous – Connection oriented – TDM » SDH » PDH • Asynchronous – Connection oriented • X.25 (1976) • FR(80s) • ATM (90s) • MPLS – Connection-less • Ethernet (1973~1976) • IP (DoD Standard IP, RFC 760, Jan 1980) Synchronous / Asynchronous synchronous synchronous Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  36. 36. Data Link Layer • provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer • Ex: - ATM, L2TP, IEEE 802.3, Frame Relay, PPP, X.25 Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  37. 37. X.25 • an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched WAN communication • X.25 WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the networking hardware, and leased lines, plain old telephone service connections or ISDN connections as physical links • replaced by less complex protocols, especially the IP Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  38. 38. X.25, cont., Source: http://sangoma.com/support/tutorials/x25.html Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  39. 39. Frame Relay (FR) • Standardized WAN technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology • Network providers commonly implement Frame Relay for voice (VoFR) and data as an encapsulation technique, used between LANs over a WAN • Each end-user gets a private line (or leased line) to a FR node • Reason for its popularity: – Less expensive than leased lines – Simplicity of configuring user equipment Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  40. 40. FR, cont., Source: http://feryjunaedi.wordpress.com/page/3/ Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  41. 41. ATM • Defined by ANSI and ITU standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals • Uses asynchronous TDM & encodes data into small, fixed- sized cells (Differs from approaches such as the IP or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames) • Provides data link layer services that run over a wide range of OSI physical Layer links • Has functional similarity with both circuit switched networking and small packet switched networking Source: http://support.novell.com/techcenter/articles/nc1997_02c.html Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  42. 42. ATM, cont., Source: http://jonapchan.blogspot.com/2012/02/asynchronous-transfer-mode-atm.html Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  43. 43. Network Layer • Responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers • Provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination host via one or more networks while maintaining the QoS functions • Since many networks are partitioned into subnetworks and connect to other networks for wide-area communications, networks use specialized hosts, called gateways or routers to forward packets between networks • Ex: -IPv4, IPv6, ARP, ICMP, IPSec, IGMP, IPX, AppleTalk Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  44. 44. IP • IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the addresses. • For this purpose, IP defines datagram structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered • also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram source and destination • connectionless • The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the internet • successor is Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), which is increasing in use. Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  45. 45. IP Address Source : http://images.books24x7.com/bookimages/id_35312/de550114_thm.jpg Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  46. 46. IP Address Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  47. 47. IP address classes Source: http://www.hill2dot0.com/wiki/index.php?title=IP_address Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  48. 48. Private IPs Source : http://icomputerdenver.com/static-ip-and-domain-name-lion-server/ Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU 247.135.16.199 247.135.16.199 247.135.16.199
  49. 49. Transport Layer • provides E2E communication services for applications within a layered architecture of network components and protocols • provides convenient services such as connection-oriented data stream support, reliability, flow control, and multiplexing • Ex:-TCP UDP Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  50. 50. TCP • one of the two original components of the suite, complementing the IP, and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP • provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of octets from a program on one computer to another program on another computer • used by major Internet applications such as the WWW, email, remote administration and file transfer • applications, which do not require reliable data stream service, may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which provides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  51. 51. Application Layer • abstraction layer reserved for communications protocols and methods designed for process-to-process communications across a IP computer network • application layer protocols use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to- host connections. • Ex:- DHCP, DHCPv6, DNS, FTP, HTTP, IRC, MGCP, BGP ,NTP ,POP, RTP, RTSP, RIP, SIP, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, Telnet, SSL Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  52. 52. Content NGN & transformation OSI model and protocols Wireline networks Ethernet MPLS LAN WAN technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  53. 53. 1.Local Area Network (LAN) 2.Wide Area Network (WAN) 3.Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Types of Networks Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  54. 54. • Group of computers and network communication devices interconnected within a geographically limited area, such as a building • Characterized by, • Transfer data at high speeds • Exist in a limited geographical area • Resources are managed by the company running the LAN LAN Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  55. 55. Source : http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t%3Drouter&i%3D50637,00.asp Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  56. 56. • Interconnects LANs • Characterized by, • Transfer data at low speeds • Exist in an unlimited geographical area • Interconnects multiple LANs • Connectivity and Resources are managed by a Telephone Company WAN Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  57. 57. Source : https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/thread/35420 Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  58. 58. WAN IP Routing Source : http://images.yourdictionary.com/routing-protocol Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  59. 59. Routing Cont., Source : http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19082-01/819-3000/gcxjj/index.html Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  60. 60. Source: http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t%3Drouter&i%3D50637,00.asp Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  61. 61. L2 switching vs. L3 routing • Until the destination is found the network is flooded • VLAN reduces unnecessary flooding • Does not flood the network Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  62. 62. • MAC learning table (forwarding table) – MAC/VLAN <-> port • VLAN table identification/ separation (used for tagging/un tagging) – VLAN <-> port – VLAN is assigned to a port by the switch. This is not dynamic. Need to provision. L2 switch Source : http://www.networkmagazineindia.com/200205/primer.shtml Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  63. 63. Functions of a L2 Switch • MAC learning (populating the MAC/VLAN table) • Forwarding (uses MAC/VALN table) • If a computer does not send traffic (silent), then all the traffic coming to that computer come as flooding (the switch learns the computers MAC by the source MAC) Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  64. 64. Broadcasting • Ex:- server advertises its presence to the clients L2 Switch (flood) Server (broadcast) ClientClient Single broadcast domain Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  65. 65. intranets • A computer network that uses IP technology to share information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization • Sometimes, refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure • May be composed of multiple LANs Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  66. 66. internet • A network between organizations • Internet vs. internet Source: herweightlossdiary.blogspot.com Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  67. 67. extranet • A computer network that allows controlled access from the outside, for specific business or educational purposes • In a business-to-business context, an extranet can be viewed as an extension of an organization's intranet that is extended to users outside the organization, usually partners, vendors, and suppliers, in isolation from all other Internet users • An extranet is similar to a DMZ in that it provides access to needed services for channel partners, without granting access to an organization's entire network Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  68. 68. Source: http://www.brighthub.com/computing/enterprise-security/articles/63387.aspx Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  69. 69. Content NGN & transformation OSI model and protocols Wireline networks Ethernet MPLS LAN WAN technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  70. 70. What Do We Mean By “Ethernet?” • Ethernet as an interface • Ethernet as a point-to-point link  IEEE 802.3 view • Ethernet as a Packet Switched Network (PSN) infrastructure (transport)  IEEE 802.1 (bridging) view  ITU-T SG15 / SG13 managed Ethernet network view • Ethernet as a protocol • Ethernet as a service  MEF view – user-to-user transfer of 802.3 frames over any transport layer  E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree, E-Access Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  71. 71. The Basic Ethernet Bus Thinet coaxial cable Disconnecting a single connection will bring the whole network down! Source : http://www.datacottage.com/nch/eoperation.htm Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  72. 72. Using a Hub • Bus - >Star • Collisions still possible • Centralized wiring • Can automatically bypass any ports that are disconnected or have a cabling fault • -> network much more fault tolerant than a coax based system Source : http://www.datacottage.com/nch/eoperation.htm Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  73. 73. Using a Switch • To overcome the problem of collisions and other effects on network speed • Machines can transmit simultaneously Source : http://www.datacottage.com/nch/eoperation.htm Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  74. 74. Source : http://www.technology-training.co.uk/carrierethernetandproviderbackbonebridging_33.php Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  75. 75. Content NGN & transformation OSI model and protocols Wireline networks Ethernet MPLS LAN WAN technologies Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  76. 76. MPLS • Traffic is switched • Control signal is routed (IP/MPLS) • Mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table • Labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints (LSP) • Can encapsulate packets of various network protocols • Supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay & DSL Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  77. 77. Outer label 1 Ethernet Inner label Ethernet Inner label Outer label 2 Ethernet Inner label Outer label 3 Ethernet Inner label Outer label 4 EthernetEthernet A E D C B Ethernet Ethernet MPLS LDP signaling session (TCP port 646) RSVP-TE signaling MPLS operation (carrier Ethernet) Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  78. 78. Traffic Service Ethernet Service Switch Physical Network Ethernet over MPLS over Ethernet MPLS Ethernet Physical IP Ethernet MPLS or GRE .1q GE,10GE etc. Outer label Service label=VC label=inner label Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  79. 79. Source: http://blog.ipexpert.com/2012/06/06/introduction-to-mpls/ Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  80. 80. Relation between pseudowire, tunnel and LSP Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  81. 81. The world of headers 1 Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  82. 82. Usage of IP in SP networks (ex:-) • Networks – IP/Ethernet • L3 (IP) – Core (Private IP + routing + MPLS) – Edge (Private IP + routing + MPLS) – Aggregation (Private IP + routing + MPLS) • L2 (Ethernet) – Access (Private IP (only for management )) – TDM • No IP – Management (Private IP) • Core • Edge • Aggregation • Access • Services – IP based • Private IP (VPN, IPTV, NGN voice) • Public IP (Internet) – Ethernet based • E-LINE, E-LAN (customer may use private IPs) – TDM based • PP, IPLC (customer may use private IPs) Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  83. 83. Service flow scenarios IP network TDM Network IP network TDM Network IP Service IP Service TDM Service TDM Service • Service is routed/switched • Service end points have IP addresses • Service is tunneled • Service end points do NOT have IP addresses • Service takes a dedicated circuit path • Service end points have IP addresses • Service takes a dedicated circuit path • Service end points do NOT have IP addresses Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU
  84. 84. Aggregation of IP traffic over a packet-optical infrastructure Aggregation network can be made less complex and given better performance if the IP functionality is restricted to the end nodes, i.e. the access nodes and the routers of the core network. Source: Transmode Anuradha Udunuwara | udunuwara@ieee.org | www.linkedin.com/in/anuradhau | @AnuradhU

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