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DWDM & Packet Optical Fundamentals by Dion Leung [APRICOT 2015]

A presentation given at APRICOT 2015 on Thursday, 5th March 2015.

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DWDM & Packet Optical Fundamentals by Dion Leung [APRICOT 2015]

  1. 1. DWDM & Optical Fundamentals Practical Recommendations for Optical Deployment March 5, 2015 Dion Leung | Director, Solution and Sales Engineering (APAC) dleung@btisystems.com
  2. 2. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.2 About BTI Company Confidential. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.2 BTI delivers software-defined networking infrastructure solutions, enabling global service & content providers to scale their networks & their businesses Investors Bain Capital Ventures, BDC, Covington, GrowthWorks, Fujitsu and others Customers 380+ worldwide in 40 countries, including major carriers and content providers Portfolio Networking infrastructure systems & software Offices Ottawa, Boston and with presence in Asia and Europe
  3. 3. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.3  How many of you have designed or engineered an optical transmission link (e.g. SDH/WDM)? Or a multiple-node optical transport network?  How many of you are considering to lease a wavelength or multiple wavelengths in the next 6-12 months?  How many of you are considering to lease a dark fiber or wavelength services in upcoming months? A Quick Show of Hands
  4. 4. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.4  Logical connectivity is presented between the routers/switches  The underlying “physical” network is an abstract layer  One often requires to know if the routers have 10G, 40G, 100G interfaces and how many of these interfaces are available In Data/Packet Networking World… P P PE PE CE CE
  5. 5. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.5  In optical transmission layer, one needs to know EXACTLY the underlying fiber topology, the fiber details and characteristics, so that the optical layer and equipment can be dimensioned accordingly. In Optical Transport Networking World… DWDM 40km DWDM 30km CE DWDM DWDM DWDM CE 14km 35km 10km 15km 35km
  6. 6. From http://www.200churches.com/blog/category/network
  7. 7. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.7 1. Length of the String? – Rack_A to Rack_B (e.g. several meters) – Data Center_A to Data Center_B (e.g. tens of km) – City_A to City_B (e.g. hundred of km) 2. Number of the String? – A pair of fiber strands? – Multiple pairs? – A single (fiber) strand? 3. Type of the String? – Single mode fiber vs. multi-mode fiber? – Common SMF fiber types: G.652 (SMF-28), G.653 (DSF), G.655 (NZDSF) – e.g. Corning’s SMF-28 is commonly used in today’s networks Common Questions for Any Optical Link / Network Planning
  8. 8. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.8 4. Condition of the String? – Age of the fiber? Underground? Ariel? – Number of splices or connections on the fiber? – Amplifiers might be required if the fiber loss is too high 5. The End-of-Life (EOL) Transmission Capacity? – How big should “the pipe” be? – How many wavelength(s) or “highway lanes” do you need? – Do you require 10Gb/s? 40Gb/s? Or 100Gb/s per wavelength? – Today, terabit link capacity is not uncommon to connect data centers in metro network, e.g. in Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong, etc.. Common Questions for Any Optical Link / Network Planning
  9. 9. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.9  Optical light transmitted through fiber will lose power  Attenuation caused by Scattering, Absorption and Stress  Other related parameter: fiber length, fiber type, transmission bands, and external loss components such as connectors & splices  Typical fiber loss: 0.20 dB/km – 0.35 dB/km, although in some regions fiber loss can be as high as ~0.5 dB/km  Basic Link Budget Engineering: – Fiber loss + spice loss + connector loss + safety margin ≤ Power Budget (i.e. Transmitted – Received Power) Fiber Attenuation or Loss (measured in dB or dB/km)
  10. 10. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.10 Transmission Windows: Attenuation in Optical Fiber (measured in dB or dB/km) 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Wavelength in nanometers (nm) 0.2 dB/km 0.5 dB/km 2.0 dB/km C-band(1530–1565nm) L-band(1565–1625nm) Note: Frequency = 3 x 108 / wavelength 850nmRange 1310nmRange Also known as the three “Transmission” Windows
  11. 11. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.11 Lego Blocks of a Simple Point to Point DWDM System Transponder Muxponder Transceiver Mux Demux
  12. 12. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.12 Transponder and Muxponders: Converting “Grey” to “Color” Transponder Muxponder Client Signal (Grey optics) (e.g. from a switch, router) Line Signal (Color optics) (to DWDM mux / outside plant) 10GE LAN PHY (STM64, 10G FC) a 10G Wavelength (e.g. Channel 3) a 10G Wavelength (e.g. Channel 4) GbE STM16 2G FC STM4 GbE 1 in – 1 out Many in – 1 out
  13. 13. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.13 Transceivers  Typical Line Rates – 2.5G – 10G – 100G  Transceivers – SFP – XFP/SFP+ – QSFP+ – CFP  Selection of which type mainly depends on Speed, Reach – 850nm, 1310nm, 1550nm, CWDM, DWDM Fixed Channel, DWDM Tunable  Each type of transceiver’s has its transmit power and receive power sensitivity (e.g. TX = [-3,1] dBm, RX = [-25, -5] dBm)  Max Budget = 1-(-25) = 26dB Optical Transceivers – The Pluggable Optics
  14. 14. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.14  Technology Enabler: Wavelength Division Multiplexing – A transmission technology that multiplexes multiple optical carrier signals on a single fiber by using different wavelengths (colors) of laser light to carry different signals of frequencies. – Frequency (in THz) and wavelength (in nm) are often used to label a wavelength and the frequency of a signal is inversely proportional to wavelength. e.g. 193 x 1012 THz or 1551.9 nm Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) – Similar to Sharing Spectrum over Air, Except Medium here is Fiber M U X Individually Colored Wavelengths D E M U X Single Transmission Fiber Individually Colored Wavelengths Equally spaced channels
  15. 15. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.15  Multiplex / Demultiplexer (aka. Mux/Demux) Comes with Various Sizes… – Use light’s reflection and refraction properties to separate and combine wavelengths from a fiber strand (e.g. logically think of a prism) – Common technologies: thin film filters, fiber bragg gratings and arrayed waveguides (AWG) – Passive device which requires no power (next generation colorless M/D will be active) – Higher channel M/D generally imply higher insertion loss Additional Lego Blocks Common Mux/Demux Selections from Optical Vendors… DWDM Mux-Demux (8 Add-Drop) CWDM Mux-Demux (4 Add-Drop) OADMs (1,2, and 4 Add-Drop) DWDM Mux-Demux (40 Add-Drop) DWDM Mux-Demux (96 Add-Drop)
  16. 16. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.16 Designing a Metro Optical Link (80km or less) over a Pair of Dark Fiber is Pretty Straightforward… From www.datacentermap.com
  17. 17. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.17 Example: A typical link of 40km between 2 data centers (e.g. 200G) A Sample Configuration (in 5 RU): Transponder with Pluggable Transceivers Bandwidth Requirement: 20 x 10 GbE or 2 x 100GbE DC 1 DC 2 40km 10dB Mux/Demux A P R I C O T Assume: 0.25dB/km 3 dB safety margin
  18. 18. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.18 Simple Estimate on Power Budget – Quick Validation Power Budget Calculation of a Given Transceiver Received Power ≤ Transmitted Power – Total Loss ?? Received Power ≤ Transmitted Power – Mux Loss – Fiber Loss – Demux Loss – Safety Margin -26dBm ≤ 0dBm – 5dB – 10dB – 5dB – 3dB -26dBm ≤ 0dBm – 23dB -26dBm ≤ -23dBm (OK! PASSED) Optical Signal Flow From Transceiver DC1 To Transceiver at DC2 DC 1 DC 2 40km 10dB Assume: 0.25dB/km 3 dB safety margin 10dB
  19. 19. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.19 Designing a Longer-Distance, Multi-Node, DWDM Network From www.datacentermap.com
  20. 20. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.20 OA OA OAOA 10G 10G 10G 10G Common Approach for Building a Linear Network 100G 100G 100G 100G Repeater / Regenerator Based Approach Network Economic Depends on the Number of Wavelengths Required and Traffic Add/Drop Requirements at Each Location TERM 60km 60km 60km 60km 60km RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR TERM Amplifier Based Approach (Preferred) TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR TERM
  21. 21. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.21 Additional Lego Blocks of a Multi-node Linear Network Optical Amplifier Dispersion Compensation
  22. 22. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.22 Optical Amplifiers (EDFA and Raman) Optical Amplifiers are Needed in Order to be Sure Optical Signals Can Be Accurately Detected by Receivers Two Common Types of Optical Amplifiers Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier RAMAN Amplifier Most common used and simple to deploy Fixed gain or Variable gain For high span loss and long distance transmission Used in Conjunction With EDFAs
  23. 23. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.23  EDFA is the most widely used amplifiers to compensate for losses  Usually works in the C-band (L-band is also commercially available)  Fixed gain amplifier and variable gain amplifier are available  Up to 35 dB of gain can be supported (via 2-stage of amplification) You Need This When Fiber Loss is High (e.g. > 20dB) Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) An EDFAs have four main components: mechanical assembly Coupler IN OUT Isolator Pump LaserPump lasers usually work at a  of 980 nm or 1480 nm. Erbium Doped Fiber A piece of fiber doped with Erbium ions
  24. 24. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.24 Simplified Explanation on Raman Amplification: Based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect, the weak light signal gets amplified while passing through a Raman gain medium (the fiber) in presence of a strong pump laser. It’s the power transfer from lower to higher wavelengths. EDFA vs. Raman Amplifier: A Raman optical amplifier is not an amplifier “in a module”; instead, the optical amplification relies on the transmission “fiber” itself. In other words, whoever is deploying a Raman amplifier means he/she is building the amplifier on-site basically with a high-power laser pump + existing fiber (any type of fiber)! The Raman vs EDFA Amplifier
  25. 25. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.25  Different wavelengths travel at different speeds through a given fiber causing optical pulses to broaden or to “spread” – e.g. Wavelength Channel #1 travels faster than Channels #2, #3, etc..  Excessive spread can cause pulses to overlap, and therefore receivers would have a hard time to distinguish overlapped pulses  The longer the distance (or the higher the bitrate) is, the worst the spread would be. Chromatic Dispersion (measured in ps / km-nm)
  26. 26. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.26  A normal fiber with positive-slope dispersion makes different wavelengths travel at different speeds from point A to Z  By passing the wavelengths through a “negative-sloped” dispersion fiber reverses the effects of dispersion or the spread  Side Effect: DCF adds extra losses and latency to the transmission You Need This When Fiber Distance is Long (e.g. > 80km) Dispersion Compensating Fiber (DCF) Normal Fiber (e.g. SMF-28) Positive Dispersion Dispersion Compensation Fiber Negative Dispersion
  27. 27. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.27 End End 0 Max Min Receiver Tolerance CD Dispersion Compensation Over Multi-span Route (Note: for 100G coherent transmission, CD is less of an issue…) DCM DCM DCM Span-by-Span CD Compensation for 10G/40G transmission Simply match fiber distance to DCM type (e.g. Use 60km DCM for ~60km link)
  28. 28. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.28 Optical Layer Lego Block Uses & Benefits Additional Design Notes Fiber Pair For DWDM transmission • G.652 / SMF is preferred Mux / Demux (M/D) For dividing fiber into virtual highway lanes or wavelength channels • Passive element (no power required) • Various M/D have different insertion loss Dispersion Compensation Fiber or Module (DCF/DCM) For compensation CD for 80km or longer span or multi- span network • DCF is usually classified by distance • DCF has insertion loss and add latency Amplifier For overcoming fiber span loss and minimizing regeneration cost for multi- span network • Choice of EDFA (commonly used metro) and Raman (for regional/long-haul) • Amplifier has various gain levels, noise figure Quick Summary of Essential Lego Blocks for Building Metro / Regional Optical Networks
  29. 29. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.29 Service Layer Lego Block Uses & Benefits Additional Design Notes Transponder / Muxponder Convert grey to color DWDM wavelength for transmission • 1-to-1 mapping transponder • Many-to-1 muxponder Transceiver Pluggable optics of various sizes and reach (SFP, XFP, SFP+, QSFP+, CFP, etc.) • Each transceiver has a power budget, i.e. the allowed transmit and receive power level • Transceiver also has tolerances on dispersions (CD/PMD) and Optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) - topics that are not covered fully in this presentation Quick Summary of Essential Lego Blocks for Building Metro / Regional Optical Networks
  30. 30. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.30 For More Complex Fiber Topology… Linear, Ring, Mesh Additional optical layer building block to make design & operation simpler… From www.datacentermap.com
  31. 31. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.31  For initial Point-to-Point network, Fixed OADM (FOADM) network architecture worked fine.  A challenge arises when some locations requiring some add/drop of traffic  manual patch work is needed With Point to Point Fixed Mux/Demux Architecture… Wavelengths passing through some intermediate sites is always tricky to engineer A C 40km 10dB B 20km 5dB  10 x 10GbE circuits are now between Site A and Site B  10 x 10GbE circuits are now between Site A and Site C (via Site B) 10 x 10GbE 10 x 10GbE
  32. 32. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.32  Since not all wavelengths need to be dropped, manual padding, patching works are required to connect wavelength across intermediate site(s)  Patching through makes sense for small  counts, but with 40/96 DWDM channels, this can be prone to human errors and difficult to manage – a better solution is warranted. A Closer Look: Channel Patching Work is Required Intermediate Site (at Site B) DEMUX MUX           1. The insertion loss affects the overall link budget 2. Each wavelength added needs to be re-balanced  3. Regeneration is often needed due to deficit power budget From Site A At Site B To Site C
  33. 33. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.33 ROADM is used to provide: flexible wavelengths add/drop/pass-through capabilities  Key Functional Block: Wavelength Selective Switch (WSS) • The ability to switch any input wavelength to any of its output ports • The ability to adjust & attenuate power of input and output ports  The ability to allow adding/dropping of any individual s  In some implementations, additional variable gain amplifier and optical monitoring functions are added into a single mechanical package: • Include EDFAs to compensate for any variable span loss • Per-channel power equalization and power monitoring R O
  34. 34. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.34 ROADM Nodes Connecting Over a Single Span Typical ROADM Implementation Per-Channel Power Controlled Auto Span Loss WSS WSS DCMmux/demux ROADM Module 1510nm OSC 1510nm OSC DWDM channels amp ampamp amp ROADM Module DCM
  35. 35. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.35 Within a Single ROADM Node View: How a 4-Degree ROADM Node Works… A/D Ex2 Ex4 Ex3 R O A D M Fiber Line A/D Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 R O A D M Fiber Line A/D Ex2 Ex4 Ex3 R O A D M Fiber Line  Mux / Demux   A/D R O A D M Fiber Line Ex2 Ex3 Ex4 Mux / Demux  A Single Express Cable Automatic Power Equalized Wavelengths In-Service Expansion is Possible by Adding New ROADM modules
  36. 36. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.36 Network-wide Benefit of ROADM: Reconfigurability, Flexibility and Ease of Expansion Individual wavelengths can be (1) added/dropped/terminated or (2) passed-through at ROADM-enable node O O O OO O
  37. 37. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.37 Optical Layer Lego Block Uses & Benefits Additional Design Notes Fiber Pair For DWDM transmission • G.652 / SMF is preferred Mux / Demux (M/D) For dividing fiber into virtual highway lanes or wavelength channels • Passive element (no power required) • Various M/D have different insertion loss Dispersion Compensation Fiber or Module (DCF/DCM) For compensation CD for 80km or longer span or multi- span network • DCF is usually classified by distance • DCF has insertion loss and add latency Amplifier For overcoming fiber span loss and minimizing regeneration cost for multi- span network • Choice of EDFA (commonly used metro) and Raman (for regional/long-haul) • Amplifier has various gain levels, noise figure Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) For flexible wavelength add/drop/bypass and simpler operation • Single module combines amplifier and WSS • Per-channel auto power balancing Quick Summary of Essential Lego Blocks for Building Metro / Regional Optical Networks
  38. 38. Recommendations for Optical Network Deployment
  39. 39. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.39  Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)  Optical Back Reflection (OBR) Practical Aspects for DWDM / Optical Deployment
  40. 40. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.40  Quality of Fiber for Building an Optical Network == Quality of Soil for Building a Skyscraper  OTDR show fiber cable’s essential info including length, the locations of connections and splices (also referred as “events”) along the fiber, and an estimated fiber loss (dB/km). Getting an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) Reading is Always Recommended Loss (dB) Distance(m)
  41. 41. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.41 Recommended Easy-to-Read Reference: www.thefoa.org
  42. 42. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.42 OTDR Trace Interpretations Corning’s Whitepaper: Explanation of Reflection Features in Optical Fiber as Sometimes Observed in OTDR Measurement Traces
  43. 43. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.43 #1 Problem in Optical Deployment: Dirty Connection Fiber Contamination and Its Effect on Signal Performance CLEAN CONNECTION Back Reflection = -67.5 dB Total Loss = 0.250 dB 1 DIRTY CONNECTION Back Reflection = -32.5 dB Total Loss = 4.87 dB 3 Clean Connection vs. Dirty Connection This OTDR trace illustrates a significant decrease in signal performance when dirty connectors are mated. Access to all cross-connects recommended
  44. 44. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.44  A single particle mated into the core of a fiber can cause significant back reflection and insertion loss What Makes a Bad Fiber Connection? Today’s connector design has eliminated most of the challenges to achieving core alignment and physical contact. What remains challenging is maintaining a PRISTINE END FACE. As a result, CONTAMINATION is the #1 source of troubleshooting in optical networks. DIRT Core Cladding Back Reflection Insertion LossLight
  45. 45. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.45 Recommendation: Inspect & Clean Connectors During OTDR Testing Inspecting BOTH sides of the connection is the ONLY WAY to ensure that it will be free of contamination and defects. Patch cords are easy to access compared to the fiber inside the bulkhead, which is often overlooked. The bulkhead side is far more likely to be dirty and problematic. OTDR testing always results in fiber cleaning. Bulkhead (“Female”) InspectionPatch Cord (“Male”) Inspection
  46. 46. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.46  The OBR of the system is determined by comparing the difference between the launched channel power (usually by an OSC channel) at the output of an amplifier module or ROADM module, and the reflected power that comes back into the output port of the module.  OBR (dB) = POSC_Refl (dBm) - POSC_Out (dBm)  GOOD connection should result in a high negative number (OBR), e.g. - 30dB. That means, very little signal (1/10000) is reflected back to the power source. The more negative number, the better.  BAD connection or poor OBR, e.g. -10dB, should prevent system from turning up. This ensures the system does not operate into an open (disconnected) connectors which might damage the amplifier or ROADM module itself and degree the transmission performance. Optical Back Reflection (OBR) POSC_Refl POSC_Out Amplifier or ROADM Module
  47. 47. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.47  Back reflections can be caused by any optical connection in the transmission path: – Patch panel connections – Connection at the card to patch cord – Splices  The dominant root cause of back reflections in optical systems is dirty optical connectors. A careful and proper cleaning should resolve this class of problems.  Back reflections can also be caused by optical connectors that are out of specification for end facet geometry. Each vendor usually has recommendation of the type of patch cords to be used and geometrically compliant connectors. How to Correct Back Reflections? Again… Proper Cleaning.
  48. 48. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.48  One of the most effective ways to monitor for network degradation is via pre-FEC BER threshold monitoring.  What is BER? – Bit Error Ratio – Number of errored bits received / Total Number of bits received – Example: BER of 3.00E-05 is equal to 3 bits in error out of 100,000 bits transmitted. Trouble shoot before customer impact: Pre-FEC BER monitoring FE C Framing Uncorrecte d Data Corrected Data
  49. 49. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.49  In the case of intermittent errors, FEC corrected bits can provide a pre-FEC BER indication  One question that always gets asked: how long does it take to measure BER? Rule of thumb: for a 99% confidence in a BER, count 4.6 times the reciprocal of the BER. – Eg.. For a BER of 10-12, you would monitor 4.6 x 1012 bits. – At 10Gbps, the time it takes would be 4.6 x 1012 bits / 10 x 109 bps = 460 sec or approx. 8 mins. Trouble shoot before customer impact: Pre-FEC BER monitoring FE C Framing Uncorrecte d Data Corrected Data
  50. 50. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.50 Beyond OTDR and Power Measurements: BERT and RFC2544 Performance Testing • Layer 1 : Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) • Layer 1-3: RFC 2544 • Frame throughput, loss, delay, and variation • Performed at all frame sizes • Layer 1-3 Multi-stream: ITU-T Y.1564 • Latest Standard to validate the typical SLA of Carrier Ethernet-based services • Provides for Multi-Stream test with pass/fail results • Service Configuration Test • Each stream/service is validated individually • Results compared to • Bandwidth Parameters (CIR and EIR) • Service Performance Test • All services tested concurrently at CIR • Results compared to SLAs • Frame Delay (Latency) • Frame Delay Variation (Packet Jitter) • Frame Loss rate • Customized Failover Testing • Cable plant, power, chassis, card , optic,
  51. 51. Company Confidential BTI Systems. Distribution of this document is not permitted without written authorization.51  Key Takeaway: Designing an optical network can be easy – Fiber distance, loss, types, bandwidth requirement are important elements for any optical network design – Amplifier, dispersion compensation fibers, mux/demux are key lego blocks – ROADM technology adds flexibility and reconfigurability to the optical planning and operations  Additional BTI’s seminar sessions are available upon request:  “Designing ultra-low latency transmission network for HFT”  “100G optical transmission technologies and designs”  “Data center interconnection – Terabit and beyond”  “Service-assured metro Ethernet networking”  Feedback, comments are welcome: dleung@btisystem.com Thank You and Please Drop by the BTI Booth….
  52. 52. btisystems.com

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