Carrier Ethernet


Published on

Published in: Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Carrier Ethernet

  1. 1. CARRIER ETHERNET FEBRUARY 2013 By Eng. Anuradha Udunuwara, BSc.Eng(Hons), CEng, MIE(SL), MEF-CECP, MBCS, ITILv3 Foundation, MIEEE, MIEEE-CS, MIEE, MIET, MCS(SL), MSLAAS
  2. 2. Agenda  What is Ethernet?  What is Carrier Ethernet?  Why Carrier Ethernet?  Standards  Technology neutral  Technology specific (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  4. 4. What Do We Mean By “Ethernet?”  Ethernet as an interface  Ethernet as a point-to-point link  IEEE 802.3 view  Ethernet as a Packet Switched Network (PSN) infrastructure (transport)  IEEE 802.1 (bridging) view  ITU-T SG15 / SG13 managed Ethernet network view  Ethernet as a protocol  Ethernet as a service  MEF view – user-to-user transfer of 802.3 frames over any transport layer  E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree, E-Access (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  5. 5. Legacy Ethernet (10-Mbps) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source: (RG-58) (RG-8) (Cat 3 and above) 500 m 185 m 100 m Max. Segment Length
  6. 6. 5-4-3 Rule 10-Mbps Ethernet could be used on no more than 5 network segments, 4 repeaters, and no more than 3 of the five network segments can be for end- users. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source:
  7. 7. History  1973.5.22 - 1st document  1975 -Xerox gets patent  1976 - deployed at Xerox  1980 - DIX (Digital/Intel/Xerox) standard published (The Ethernet, A Local Area Network. Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications_v1)  1982 - v2  1982 - IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard approved (Other options: Token Ring and Token Bus)  1983 – IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Draft Published  1985 – IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Standard published (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source:
  8. 8. History, Cont., (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source:
  9. 9. The inventors (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Charles P. Thacker Butler Lampson Source : Source: Bob Metcalf David Boggs
  10. 10. The Basic Ethernet Bus (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Thinet coaxial cable Disconnecting a single connection will bring the whole network down! Source :
  11. 11. Using a Hub (c) Anuradha Udunuwara • Bus - >Star • Collisions still possible • Centralized wiring • Can automatically bypass any ports that are disconnected or have a cabling fault • -> network much more fault tolerant than a coax based system Source :
  12. 12. Using a Switch (c) Anuradha Udunuwara • To overcome the problem of collisions and other effects on network speed • Machines can transmit simultaneously Source :
  13. 13. IEEE 802 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  14. 14. IEEE 802, Cont., Some examples 802.1 Bridging (networking) and Network Management 802.2 Logical link control (upper part of data link layer) 802.3 Ethernet (CSMA/CD) (defines the physical layer and data link layer's MAC of wired Ethernet) 802.17 Resilient packet ring 802.11 Wireless LAN & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) 802.15 Wireless PAN 802.15.1 Bluetooth certification 802.15.4 ZigBee certification 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (WiMAX certification) 802.16e (Mobile) Broadband Wireless Access 802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  15. 15. IEEE 802.3 802.3a 10BASE2 10 Mbit/s over thin Coax 802.3i 10BASE-T 10 Mbit/s over twisted pair 802.3j 10BASE-F 10 Mbit/s over Fiber-Optic 802.3u 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-T4, 100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbit/s w/auto-negotiation 802.3x Full Duplex and flow control 802.3y 100BASE-T2 100 Mbit/s over low quality twisted pair 802.3z 1000BASE-X 1 Gbit/s Ethernet over Fiber-Optic 802.3ab 1000BASE-T 1 Gbit/s Ethernet over twisted pair 802.3ac Max frame size extended to 1522 bytes (to allow "Q-tag") 802.3ad Link aggregation for parallel links 802.3ae 10 Gbit/s Ethernet over fiber; 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-LR, 10GBASE-ER, 10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW, 10GBASE-EW 802.3af Power over Ethernet (12.95 W) 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile 802.3an 10GBASE-T 10 Gbit/s Ethernet over UTP 802.3at Power over Ethernet enhancements (25.5 W) 802.3av 10 Gbit/s EPON (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  16. 16. IEEE 802.1 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 802.1w-2001 Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree (RSTP) 802.1D-2004 MAC Bridges (rollup of 802.1w) 802.1s-2002 Multiple Spanning Trees (MSTP) 802.1v-2001 VLAN Classification by Protocol and Port 802.1Q-2005 VLAN Bridges (Rollup of 802.1s and 802.1v) 802.1ad-2005 Provider Bridging (PB) 802.1ag-2007 Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) 802.1ah-2008 Provider Backbone Bridge (PBB) 802.1aq-2012 Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) 802.1Qay-2009 Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE) 802.1Q-2011 VLAN Bridges (Rollup of 802.1Q-2005+Cor-1 and 802.1ad/ag/ah/Qay) 802.1X-2010 Port Based Network Access Control
  17. 17. IP vs Ethernet  wrong questions to ask  Which is better – IP or Ethernet?  Which is cheaper?  Is Ethernet going to take over from IP?  Or will IP win out in the end? • Answers – Ethernet and IP will co-exist – Complimenting each other – Meeting different needs – Both occurring in hybrid networks – Delivered over a single, global platform – Sharing similar cost and service characteristics (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  18. 18. Why Ethernet ?  Most common Interface today  Cost effective  Supports very high Bandwidths (upto 100 Gbps)  Flexible upgrades within a wide range (ex: 1Mbps to 1Gbps)  Easy and simple to manage and maintain  Variable payload support (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  20. 20. Global Expansion from Metro to Carrier Ethernet  The Beginning: Metro Ethernet (ME)  MEF was formed in 2001 to develop ubiquitous business services for Enterprise users principally accessed over optical metropolitan networks to connect their Enterprise LANs  Expansion to CE  Success of ME Services caught the imagination of the world as the concept expanded to include  Worldwide services traversing national and global networks  Access networks to provide availability to a much wider class of user over fiber, copper, cable, PON, and wireless  Economy of scale from the resulting converged business, residential and wireless networks sharing the same infrastructure and services  Scalability & rapid deployment of business applications  Adoption of the certification program  While retaining the cost model and simplicity of Ethernet (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  21. 21. What is Carrier Ethernet (CE)?  Is it a service, a network, or a technology?  Answer for an end-user  It’s a Service defined by 5 attributes  Answer for a service provider  A set of certified network elements that connect to transport CE services for all users, locally & worldwide  It’s a platform for value added services  A standardized service for all users(c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  22. 22. MEF CE Definition A ubiquitous, standardized, carrier-class Service and Network defined by 5 attributes that distinguish it from familiar LAN based Ethernet
  23. 23. Why Ethernet in the Metro? 10/100 Base -T  Enables true extension of Enterprise LAN across multiple locations, as well as effectively providing other multipoint services  Utilize simplicity and ubiquity of Ethernet as a technology  Enables bandwidth efficiency in the network due to statistical multiplexing  Low price/bandwidth ratio makes Ethernet the technology of choice Ethernet Ethernet (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  24. 24. Attribute 1: Standardized Services CEEnterprise Ethernet  Provide service across multiple geographies and multiple networks  Provides service to multiple customers  Needs to provide converged transport with optimal use of present investment  Service provided over one network (Company LAN)  One customer – can customize network to requirements Network 1 Network 2 Network 3 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  25. 25. 1000 Nodes Attribute 2: Scalability  Need to scale to millions of nodes  Need to scale from few Mbps data rate to 10 Gbps and beyond  Network needs to support several services  Few hundreds or thousands of nodes  Need to scale from 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps  Limited number of services to be supported CEEnterprise Ethernet 100 Nodes 100 Mbps 1 Gbps 100 Nodes 100 Mbps 1000 Nodes 1 Gbps 10 Gbps 10K Nodes 100 Gbps 10M Nodes (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  26. 26. Attribute 3: Reliability  Need to provide protection in case of link failure in less than 50 ms  Need to provide five 9s reliability of equipment  Need to recover from faults as quickly as possible to provide uptime as specified in SLA  Equipment is all within a premise, more reliable with easy recovery  No strict time limits needed on link protection, no SLAs associated with network availability CEEnterprise Ethernet $$$$ $$ SLA losses 50ms protection (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  27. 27. Attribute 4: Service Management  Need to quickly monitor and diagnose faults across multiple vendor equipment  Ability to rapidly provision the bandwidth end-to-end  Fault isolation is easy since equipment is all within a premise  Bandwidth is more static in nature, no need for provisioning CE Enterprise Ethernet Service Down Vendor 1 Vendor 2 Vendor 3 Service Down (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  28. 28. Attribute 5: Quality of Service  Bandwidth is cheap, hence no contention in the network  No variety in traffic profiles, identical treatment is acceptable Enterprise Ethernet High-speed Mobile Internet Mobile Voice Enterprise Services Leakage of SLA-based traffic due to congestion Metro Network High-speed Mobile Internet Mobile Voice Enterprise Services Metro Network  QoS absolutely required to service variety of SLAs  Ability to treat customer traffic in agreement with the SLAs CE (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  29. 29. Equipment Transport Technologies Availability End Customer Geographic Reach In summary Ethernet in LAN CE Department heads Employee Some tolerance for disruption Cat5 Fiber Wireless Campus Building Wiring closet Metro National International Service-oriented Highly resilient Carrier environmental Fiber T1/E1, T3/E3 Cat5 SONET/SDH Cu Wireless No tolerance for disruption Driven by SLA Corporate IT Consumer (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  30. 30. Other CE Network (CEN) requirements  Availability  Stability  Performance  Multicast support  TDM support  Security (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  31. 31. Availability (Resilience) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Hardware Component of CE Node High Availability mechanism Route processor 1:1 Switching fabric 1:1 Power supply 1+1 Note Power feed 1+1 Note Cooling system 1+1 Note Any other control plane module 1:1 Any other switching plane component 1:1 Note : single component shall be able to take the full load of the CE node
  32. 32. Availability (Resilience), Cont.,  ITU-T G.8032 version 1 & 2 (ERPS)  Following software level high availability features shall be implemented;  NSR for  LDP  RSVP TE  BGP  OSPF  PIM-SM and PIM-SSM  ISSU  BFD requirement shall be analyzed for following in the future stage  LDP  RSVP  BGP  OSPF  PIM-SM and PIM-SSM  NSF requirement shall be analyzed in future stage (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  33. 33. Stability  Stability of the CEN and its NE are very important. This should ensure consistent performance of the NE  MTBF and MTTR values shall meet 99.999% node availability requirements (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  34. 34. Performance  Scalability of the CEN determine by providing sufficient bandwidth to be able to guarantee a committed level of performance for the full service portfolio of end users.  CEN shall be designed to achieve the certain QoS requirements/KPIs defined with the set of services/products.  CEN must be able to handle unpredictable surges in traffic, and appropriate load (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  35. 35. Multicasting  To support IPTV and other multicast applications, the CEN shall support IP multicast protocols  Layer 3 based (PIM) multicast technology is preferred over Layer 2 technology for scalability and flexibility reasons  Layer 2 multicasting features shall be available for customer multicasting services (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  36. 36. TDM Circuits (e.g. T1/E1 Lines) Supporting TDM services  Enables TDM Services to be transported across Carrier Ethernet network, re-creating the TDM circuit at the far end (Circuit Emulation Services (CES) over CE)  Runs on a standard Ethernet Line Service (E-Line)  Use Synchronous Ethernet or IEEE 1588v2 for frequency and time of day synchronization Carrier Ethernet Network TDM Circuits (e.g. T1/E1 Lines) Circuit Emulated TDM Traffic (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  37. 37. Security  The CEN addresses the security which provides confidentiality, integrity and availability of specific services. The following areas are identified and shall be equipped with necessary security mechanisms,  Node security  Access security  Interconnection security – UNI and I-NNI  Protocol security – UNI and I-NNI (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  38. 38. CE 2.0
  39. 39. Why CE Generations?  Clearly communicate the Carrier Ethernet evolution and the value it brings to the market  Maximizes investment made by the industry  Provides a directional roadmap for the industry (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  40. 40. CE Generations Framework (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  41. 41. Service Characteristics over 8 Services (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  42. 42. CE Service Types (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  43. 43. CE Service Matrix (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source:
  45. 45. Today’s world demands  Any application, any connectivity, on any device  Information, voice, video or data  Entertainment – video voice, data any source  At home, in the office, on the go, seamlessly and always connected  Any time, 24/7/365, on demand  All delivered on one ubiquitous high performance, global service. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  46. 46. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Issues with Legacy Networks  Low bandwidth  No flexibility to scale  High cost of installation  Slow provisioning  Bandwidth growth inflexible/non-linear  Limited by multiplexing hierarchy  TDM-based access: inefficient for converged data
  47. 47. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara CE Value Propositions  Lower per-user provisioning costs  Technically simple relative to TDM ckts.  Due to large installed base  Efficient and flexible transport  Wide range of speeds: 1 Mbps--10 Gbps  QoS capabilities  Ease of inter-working  Plug-and-play feature  Ubiquitous adoption  The technology of choice in enterprise networks
  48. 48. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Ethernet Business Drivers  Business connectivity  Storage networks  Data centers  Video conferencing  Residential services  Triple-play services (IPTV)  On-line gaming  High-speed Internet access  Wireless backhaul  Reduced cost, complexity for mobile operators
  49. 49. CE Market  Services Revenue : $5B (2012) to over $11B (2017) [Insight Research]  Equipment Revenue: $31.7B (2011) to $42B (2016) [Infonetics]  CE Equipment spend: $186 billion over next 5 years! (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  51. 51. According to all wireless operators, delivering the bandwidth required in the 4G-LTE wireless backhaul is “the single biggest challenge and operating cost in the industry.” (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  52. 52. Mobile Backhaul Migration (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source :
  53. 53. Multiple Generations of Mobile Backhaul 2G 3G 4G Gateway RNC BSCAccess Device User to Network Interface (UNI) MBH Generic Interworking Function (GIWF) – Ex: MEF 3/8 BTS NodeB eNodeB (LTE) BS (WiMAX) Eth Carrier Ethernet (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  54. 54. STANDARDS
  55. 55. MEF
  56. 56. Part of International Standards Community Working inward from the edge Working outward from the core Making it work together MEF’s role is largely additive to these organizations, developing necessary additional specifications that are required to enable CE. MEF also provides inputs in support of CE to these bodies via its participating members and liaisons. It is not within the scope of the MEF to endorse or otherwise the work of other standards bodies and associations (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  57. 57. EducationStandards Compliance Accelerating the Global Adoption of CE Networks and Services MEF: Defining Body of CE • 186 Member Companies • 92 Service Providers • Global Representation (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  58. 58. CE: Scope of MEF Work SoHo & Residential Triple-PlaySmall/Medium BusinessEnterprise Clients Mobile data/video HD TV, TVoD, VoD, Content Providers Video Source Gaming, DR, ERP Voice/Video Telephony Internet information & Software apps Host applications, Consolidated Servers Carrier Ethernet CE wire-line and mobile backhaul with copper, fiber , cable, wireless access network delivery (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  59. 59. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara CE Architectural Components End User Customer Network CEN Customer Network End User UNI Reference Point UNI Reference Point Ethernet Virtual Connection End-to-End Ethernet Flow (unidirectional) End user Interface End user Interface
  60. 60. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Application Service Layer Ethernet Service Layer Transport Service Layer (ex:- 802.1, SONET/SDH, MPLS) CEN Layer Model
  61. 61. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Service Attributes  Physical Interface  Medium, speed, mode, MAC layer  Traffic Parameters  CIR, CBS, PIR, MBS  QoS Parameters  Availability, delay, IFDV, loss  Service Multiplexing  Multiple instances of EVCs on a given physical I/F  Bundling  Multiple VLAN IDs (VID) mapped to single EVC at UNI
  62. 62. Services Using E-Line Service Type Ethernet Private Line (EPL)  Replaces a TDM Private line  Port-based service with single service (EVC) across dedicated UNIs providing site-to- site connectivity  Typically delivered over SDH (Ethernet over SDH)  Most popular Ethernet service due to its simplicity Point-to-Point EVCs Carrier Ethernet NetworkCE UNI CE UNI CE UNI ISP POP UNI Storage Service Provider Internet (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  63. 63. Services Using E-Line Service Type Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL)  Replaces Frame Relay or ATM L2 VPN services  To deliver higher bandwidth, end-to-end services  Enables multiple services (EVCs) to be delivered over single physical connection (UNI) to customer premises  Supports “hub & spoke” connectivity via Service Multiplexed UNI at hub site  Similar to Frame Relay or Private Line hub and spoke deployments Service Multiplexed Ethernet UNI Point-to-Point EVCs Carrier Ethernet Network CE UNI CE UNI CE UNI (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  64. 64. Services Using E-LAN Service Type  EP-LAN: Each UNI dedicated to the EP-LAN service. Example use is Transparent LAN  EVP-LAN: Service Multiplexing allowed at each UNI. Example use is Internet access and corporate VPN via one UNI Ethernet Private LAN example Multipoint-to-Multipoint EVC Carrier Ethernet NetworkCE UNI CE CE UNI UNI Ethernet Virtual Private LAN example Multipoint-to-Multipoint EVC Carrier Ethernet Network CE UNI CE CE UNI UNI Point-to-Point EVC (EVPL) UNI CE ISP POP Internet (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  65. 65. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Services Using E-Tree Service Type Carrier Ethernet Network CE UNI UNI CE CE Leaf Leaf UNI CE Leaf Rooted-Multipoint EVC Ethernet Private Tree example UNI Root EP-Tree and EVP-Tree: Both allow root - root and root - leaf communication but not leaf - leaf communication. • EP-Tree requires dedication of the UNIs to the single EP-Tree service • EVP-Tree allows each UNI to be support multiple simultaneous services at the cost of more complex configuration that EP-Tree Root Ethernet Virtual Private Tree example CE CE CE UNI UNI UNI Rooted-Multipoint EVC Multipoint to Multipoint EVC
  67. 67. Interconnecting autonomous, Carrier Ethernet networks, locally, regionally, nationally, globally Enabling… – Standardized, streamlined delivery of MEF-certified Carrier Ethernet services over multiple, connected, Carrier Ethernet networks – End-to-end Class of Service, Management and Protection – Ubiquitous service delivery MEF Global Interconnect
  68. 68. Interconnect Technical Components Interconnect elements required to enable globally connected Carrier Ethernet services The MEF Global Interconnect specifications ensures support for all Carrier Ethernet attributes between service providers ENNIUNI UNI Service Provider Service ProviderEnd User End User (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  70. 70. 4 Technical Areas MEN A MEN B Services (Subscriber) User Network Interface (UNI) Architecture Management (Fault and Performance) Test (Abstract Tests for Certification) Services (Operator) External Network Network Interface (ENNI) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  72. 72. MEF Services Certification Program (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  73. 73. 57 MEF Certified Providers Worldwide Adoption of Service Certification MERICA (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  74. 74. MEF Certifications for Services Program certifies three most widely deployed Carrier Ethernet services: • EPL dedicated service that interconnects two sites • EVPL multiplexed service that interconnects a hub to multiple remote sites • E-LAN meshed service that interconnects multiple sites Two major certifications validate service compliance and performance: • MEF 9 validates end-to-end service delivery and functionality • MEF 14 validates service performance and traffic management EPL Service Ethernet Private Line EVPL Service Ethernet Virtual Private Line ELAN Service Ethernet LAN MEF 9 MEF 14 Certifications (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  75. 75. Frequently Asked Questions Does my company need to be a MEF member prior to certification? • MEF membership is a pre-requisite to certification • Not renewing MEF membership does not invalidate certification For how long are certifications valid? • Certifications have unlimited validity in time for services delivered across the same type of UNI equipment deployed at the time of testing • Certifications of new services or services delivered across UNIs or MENs deploying new equipment, software releases or transport technologies are at will Who should I contact to find out more? • Iometrix is the MEF authorized certification lab since 2005 • Contact or visit (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  76. 76. MEF Equipment Certification Program (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  77. 77. 83 Certified Equipment Vendors MEF Certification Lab July 2011 800+ products certified worldwide (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  78. 78. Benefits of Certifying Equipment • Sales Benefits • Requirement in growing number of service provider RFPs • Provides competitive advantage over non-certified equipment • Builds buyer confidence and speeds up sales process • Marketing Benefits • Widely recognized by service provider and enterprise customers • Aligns product portfolio with CE industry standards • Ensures high level of consistency in products & services • Technical Benefits • Single testing process saves time / costs on conformance testing • Facilitates multi-vendor deployments • Supports service provider services certification (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  79. 79. MEF Certifications for Equipment Program certifies wide range of products supporting CE services: • Focus on key CE capabilities deployed by service providers: − CE service delivery and performance at the UNI − TDM services delivered over Ethernet for mobile backhaul MEF 9 Certification 244 Test Cases Ethernet Service at the UNI MEF 14 Certification 170 Test Cases Traffic Management at the UNI MEF 18 Certification 334 Test Cases CES over Ethernet (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  80. 80. MEF Professional Certification Program (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  81. 81. Benefits CE Organizations • Principle organizations • Service providers • Equipment vendors • Benefits • Demonstrates to customers and partners an employer’s commitment to quality and knowledge of Carrier Ethernet knowledge, skills and capabilities • Enhances employer training requirements • Improves employer candidate assessment process • Valuable complement to MEF services and equipment certification achieved by the organization (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  82. 82. Benefits CE Industry • Availability of more recognized CE professionals accelerates • Transition from costly legacy to cost effective CE infrastructure • Demand from knowledgeable enterprises • Faster rollout and increased availability of high value CE business, access and mobile backhaul services • Increased interconnection of CE operators to extend coverage of CE services (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  84. 84. CE Transport Options IEEE-based Transport • Bridged networks (IEEE 802.1Q) • PB Networks (IEEE 802.1ad) • PBB networks (IEEE 802.1ah) • PBB-TE networks (IEEE 802.1Qay) MPLS-based Transport • MPLS VPWS • MPLS VPLS • MPLS-TP Transparent Transport • SONET/SDH • OTN • xWDM (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  86. 86. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Native Ethernet in Metro Access  How does one create the notion of a virtual circuit?  VLAN tagging with point-to-point VLAN  VLAN stacking  Outer tag  service instance; Inner tag  individual customer  802.1Q in 802.1Q (Q-in-Q) - IEEE 802.1ad C-DA: Customer Destination MAC C-SA: Customer Source MAC S-TAG: IEEE 802.1ad S-VLAN Tag C-TAG: IEEE 802.1q VLAN Tag FCS: Customer Frame Check Sequence C-DA C-TAGC-SA Client data FCSS-TAG 6bytes 6bytes 4bytes 4bytes 4bytes T y p e 2bytes
  87. 87. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Customer Network Customer Network Customer Network 87 Provider Bridge (PB) Architecture CE: Customer Equipment UNI: User-to-Network Interface CES: Core Ethernet Switch/Bridge UNI-B CES CES CE-A UNI-A UNI-C CE-C Spanning tree CE-B CES
  88. 88. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Limitations of PB Scalability  Limited to 4096 (2 ^12) service instances  Core switches must learn all MAC addresses  Broadcast storms ensue due to learning  MAC address tables explode!
  89. 89. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB)  Encapsulate customer MAC with provider MAC at edge  Edge switch adds 24-bit service tag (I-SID), not VLAN tag  Core switches need only learn edge switch MAC adds. B-DA: IEEE 802.1ah Backbone Destination MAC B-SA: IEEE 802.1ah Backbone Source MAC B-TAG: IEEE 802.1ad B-VLAN Tag I-TAG: IEEE 802.1ah Service Tag B-DA B-TAGB-SA I-TAG C-DA C-TAGC-SA Client data B-FCS 6bytes 6bytes 6bytes6bytes4bytes 5bytes 4bytes 4bytes T y p e 2bytes
  90. 90. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara PBB Architecture CPE BCPE A CPE C Provider backbone bridge network (802.1ah) CPE BCPE A 802.1ad CPE B CPE B 802.1q CPE C Provider bridge network (802.1ad) CPE D CPE DCPE A Provider bridge network (802.1ad) Provider bridge network (802.1ad) Provider bridge network (802.1ad)
  91. 91. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Benefits of PBB  Scalability  Addresses limitations of 4096 service instances  Robustness  Isolates provider network from broadcast storms  Security  Provider need switch frames only on provider addresses  Simplicity  Provider & customers can plan networks independently
  92. 92. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Traffic Engineering in PBB  Via Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)  Maps a VLAN to ST or multiple VLANs to ST  Enables use of links that would otherwise be idle in ST  Eliminates wasted bandwidth … but …  Too slow for protection switching  Not suitable for complex mesh topologies  Difficult to predict QoS
  93. 93. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source :
  94. 94. Ethernet Frame formats (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source: 22 bytes 18 + 4 = 22 bytes 22 + 4 = 26 bytes 26 + 22 = 48 bytes 18 bytes
  95. 95. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Challenges with an All-Ethernet Metro Service  Restriction on # of customers – 4096 VLANs!  Service monitoring  Scaling of Layer 2 backbone  Service provisioning  Carrying a VLAN is not a simple task!  Inter-working with legacy deployments  Need hybrid architectures … Multiple L2 domains connected via IP/MPLS backbone
  97. 97. MPLS  IP/MPLS is one of the ways to path engineer an Ethernet frame MPLS Service Transport (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  98. 98. L2 & L3  Traffic is switched  Control signal is routed Ex:-IP/MPLS  Ethernet does not have a label. Therefore, we have to create labels. One way is using MPLS. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  99. 99. Why MPLS for Ethernet Services (EoMPLS)?  More Scalable (Free label Space)=>2^20  Sub 50msec resiliency (MPLS Fast Reroute (FRR))  Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE)  Hierarchical QoS (HQoS)  Easy and simple to operate and maintain (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  100. 100. Traffic Service Ethernet Service Switch Physical Network Ethernet over MPLS over Ethernet MPLS Ethernet Physical IP Ethernet MPLS or GRE .1q GE,10GE etc. Outer label Service label=VC label=inner label (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  101. 101. Outer label 1 Ethernet Inner label Ethernet Inner label Outer label 2 Ethernet Inner label Outer label 3 Ethernet Inner label Outer label 4 EthernetEthernet A E D C B Ethernet Ethernet MPLS LDP signaling session (TCP port 646) RSVP-TE signaling Ethernet frame: Get me to the other side (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  102. 102. MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP)  Started as T-MPLS (Transport MPLS)  MPLS-TP = IP/MPLS – IP (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  103. 103. Why MPLS-TP?  Similar “look and feel” to established SDH/SONET networks; transport-like OAM  Easier adoption by traditional transport network personnel  Absence of control plane (less complexity)  Simple provisioning of resilience (1:1, 1+1, and so on)  Flexible: usable in both rings & limited connectivity environments (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  105. 105. Ethernet Over WDM Fiber Future Proof - Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) enables multiple data streams (wavelengths) per fiber link - Add/Drop multiplexers provide new access points by splicing into the WDM fiber link Cost Effective - Increase fiber access capacity and minimize installation of new fiber links - Small form pluggable transceivers, multiplexers and media converters enable WDM wavelengths with existing infrastructure equipment Scalability - Quickly implement new fiber access with off-the-shelf hardware - Wavelengths can deliver different network protocols to mix Ethernet and TDM services over one fiber link Central Office Direct Fiber Add/Drop Multiplexer Multiplexer P2P WDM Fiber Access WDM Ring Add/Drop Multiplexer Direct Fiber NID (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  106. 106. Ethernet Over SONET/SDHRapid service turn-up  Leverages existing equipment and fiber plant  Ubiquitous availability world wide  Well understood provisioning and billing for off-net applications  Ethernet enable on-net buildings Highly resilient and secure service  Sub-50ms resiliency  Secure multi-tenant services  Legacy TDM circuits supported natively Flexible bandwidth options  OC-3/STM1 up to OC-192/STM64 physical  Sub-rate and Nx OC/STM are available with VCAT bonding  Each channel carries one or more EVCs Carrier Ethernet Network Available Service Bandwidth Standard Encapsulation Technologies Standard Circuit Bonding Technologies Ethernet over SONET/SDH 155 Mbps up to 1 Gbps) X.86, GFP VCAT, LAG OC/STM OC/STM Add/Drop Multiplexer Add/Drop Multiplexer EoS Box Multi-tenant EoS Box (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  107. 107. Factors Affecting CE Technology Selection  Nature of operator’s business -- scope, size, customer base  Business models -- pricing of services and VAS components  Internal processes -- software, systems for a given technology  Technical expertise available within the organization  Legacy infrastructure of operator  Geography, local conditions, technologies …  Vendor support for given technology and equipment (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  109. 109. Extending Carrier Ethernet into the First Mile Ubiquity requires multiple access technology solutions from the End-User Subscriber to the CE Network (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  110. 110. Bonded T1/E1 Ethernet Ethernet Access for a Multi-Site Enterprise MSO/ Cable Ethernet User to Network Interface (UNI) Ethernet Network Network Interface (NNI) COAX Direct Fiber WDM Fiber Service Provider 2 TDM Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Direct Fiber 100Mbps/1Gbps/10 Gbps SONET/ SDH PON Fiber Ethernet Service Provider 1 Ethernet Ethernet WiMax Ethernet Packet Wireless DS3/E3 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  111. 111. Reference [1] MEF ( ) [2] Ethernet Academy ( ) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  112. 112. About the Author Eng. Anuradha Udunuwara is a Chartered Engineer by profession based in Sri Lanka. He has nearly a decade industry experience in strategy, architecture, engineering, design, plan, implementation and maintenance of CSP Networks using both packet-switched (PS) and Circuit-Switched (CS) technologies, along with legacy to NGN migration. Eng. Anuradha is a well-known in the field of CSP industry, both locally and internationally. Graduated from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka in 2001 with an honors in Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Eng. Anuradha is a corporate member of the Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka, a professional member of British Computer Society, a member of Institution of Electrical & Electronic Engineers, a member of Institution of Engineering & Technology (formerly Institution of Electrical Engineers), a member of the Computer Society of Sri Lanka, a life member of Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, a senior member of the Carrier Ethernet Forum, a member of the Internet Society, a member of the Internet Strategy Forum, a member of the Internet Strategy Forum Network, a member & a senior contributor of the Ethernet Academy, a member of the NGN/IMS forum and a member of the Peradeniya Engineering Faculty Alumni Association. He is also an ITIL foundation certified and the only MEF-CECP in the country. In his spare time Anuradha enjoys spending time with his family, playing badminton, photography, reading and travelling. He can be reached at (c) Anuradha Udunuwara