FTTX with Passive Optical Networks


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FTTX with Passive Optical Networks

  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction/Preface • FTTH • PON • PON case study • Conclusion (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 2
  4. 4. Understanding the BIG picture (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 4 OPEX reduction and efficiency gain Infrastructure enabler Revenue generation
  5. 5. Understanding the BIG picture, contd.,  Why FTTx?  Fiber access to  Residential customers ? -> For what services (current/future)? -> What BWs are required?  Business customers ? -> For what services (current/future)? -> What BWs are required?  Both ?  What is the;  Strategy  Architecture  Design  Plan (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 5
  6. 6. CSP broadband equation (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 6 Urban Sub-urban Rural Wired Ex:- FTTH wired/wireless Wireless Ex:- LTE
  7. 7. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 7 CSP Network services Subscriber/ customer/ user Why a network? Customers don’t buy networks
  8. 8. The network lifecycle Strategy & Architecture Planning & Designing Projects & Implementation Operations & Maintenance (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 8
  9. 9. Categorization (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 9 CSP networks Core Wired (optical fiber) Wireless Aggregation Wired (optical fiber) Wireless Access Wired Copper Optical fiber AON Optical AMP ME PON TDM PON APON BPON GPON EPON 10GPON 10GEPON WDM PON Hybrid PON Hybrid Cable Wireless ! Physical network deployment. Once deployed, very difficult to change. FTTx architectures ! PON in access. Not necessarily
  10. 10. NG Access Options (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 10 TDM POTS V5.2 NGN ADSL/2/2+ VDSL NG Access FTTx, ETH, WiMAX, LTE, VDSL2
  11. 11. Fiber and copper in the last (1st) mile  Per Km cost ~ ?  Per Km labor cost ~?  Low skill requirement (joints)  O&M ?  Short reach  Per Km cost ~ ?  Per Km labor cost ~?  High skill requirement (splicing, testing, OTDRs, optical power meters, splicing machines)  O&M ?  Long reach 11 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Copper Fiber
  12. 12. Leap Frog Dial-up ISDN ADSL ADSL2/2+ VDSL/2 PON X.25 FR ATM MPLS Why not Leap frog? Core technology options? Access technology options? (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 12
  13. 13. FTTH Fiber To The Home
  14. 14. FTTx Technologies (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 14
  15. 15. What is FTTH? Copper Fiber 24 kbps - 1.5 MbpsOld networks, optimized for voice CO 19 Mbps - 1 Gbps +Optical networks, optimized for voice, video and data CO // CO // // Note: network may be aerial or underground (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source: www.ftthcouncil.org 15
  16. 16. What is FTTH? , cont.,  1st installed capacity of a FTTH network varies, the upgrade capacity of a FTTH network exceeds all other transmission media.  OLT: Optical Line Termination  OAN: Optical Access Network  ONT: Optical Network Terminal (single subscriber)  ONU: Optical Network Unit (multiple subscribers) CO // ONT/ONUOLT Source: www.ftthcouncil.org OAN/ODN (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 16
  17. 17. Confusions of terms -1  OLT: Optical Line Termination  ONT: Optical Network Terminal (single subscriber)  ONU: Optical Network Unit (multiple subscribers) 17 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara CO Customer ! Generic terms. Not only for PON.
  18. 18. What is FTTH? , cont., CO Optical fiber and lasers Architecture - PON? - AON? - Hybrid? Transport - ATM? - Ethernet? Philosophy - Retail - Wholesale Technical considerations // (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source: www.ftthcouncil.org 18
  19. 19. Architectures  PON  Shares fiber optic strands for a portion of the networks distribution  Uses optical splitters to separate and aggregate the signal  Power required only at the ends  Active Node  Subscribers have a dedicated fiber optic strand  Many use active (powered) nodes to manage signal distribution  Hybrid PON  Literal combination of an AON and a PON architecture (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source: www.ftthcouncil.org 19
  20. 20. PON Optical Physics
  21. 21. CSP related SDOs (Ex:-) Working inward from the edge Working outward from the core Making it work together (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 21
  22. 22. BroadbandSuite™ Releases to date  BroadbandSuite 1.0 provides the technical reports needed to deliver basic high speed internet access over ADSL  BroadbandSuite 2.0 increases the speed by including ADSL2/2plus specifications and addressing the remote management requirements of the networked home  BroadbandSuite 3.0 brings fiber and bonded options into the mix, and provides specifications that ensure quality IPTV deployment and management  BroadbandSuite 3.1 adds VDSL2 specifications  BroadbandSuite 3.2 specifies the next generation home networking and management platform  BroadbandSuite 4.0 provides IPv6 integration and migration solutions for network and device management  BroadbandSuite 4.1 offers tools and techniques for enhancing service delivery and support of the Connected Home  BroadbandSuite 5.0 provides the architecture, management and testing tools needed to ensure interoperability in PON deployments  BroadbandSuite 6.0 offers a package of 4G/LTE Ready Mobile Backhaul specifications and resources 22 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  23. 23. Options (note: the slide I little old) 23 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara TDM PON WDM PON Hybrid TDM / WDM PON ATM PON (APON) -> Broadband PON(BPON) -> A/B PON Ethernet PON (EPON) -> Gigabit Ethernet PON (GEPON ) Gigabit PON (GPON) ITU-T G.983 standard IEEE 802.3ah standard ITU-T G.984 standard Research stage Developed from Telco side Developed from Internet side Evolved from A/B PON Evolution from TDM PON Layer 2 encapsulations are Ethernet and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Layer 2 encapsulation is Ethernet L2 encapsulations are GEM(GPON Encapsulation Method) for Ethernet and ATM Maximum up stream is 155Mbps, Maximum downstream is 622Mbps Maximum up stream and downstream is 1.25Gbps Maximum up stream and downstream is 2.5Gbps Maximum up stream and downstream is 10 Gbps Deployments: US (ex: Verizon FiOS) Deployments: Japan (ex: NTT, KDDI), Korea (ex: KT), China, India) Deployments: US (ex: AT&T), Europe Deployments: Korea (ex: KT), China
  24. 24. Confusions of terms -2  GPON  10GPON  NG-GPON  EPON  GEPON  10GEPON  NG-GEPON 24 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara G (Gigabit Ethernet) E (Ethernet)
  25. 25. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara25 GPON vs. EPON Source: http://www.fiberstore.com/All-about-Passive-Opitcal-Networking-%28GPON,-EPON-and-WDM-PON%29-aid-202.html
  26. 26. PON link budget => distance  Connector loss (~0.3 dB)  Fiber loss (~0.4 dB/km)  Depends on type of fiber and wavelength  Splice loss (0.3 dB)  Splitter loss 26 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Split ratio Max. Loss (dB) Typical Loss (dB) 1:2 3.8 3.1 1:4 7.2 6.6 1:8 10.3 9.7 1:16 13.5 12.8 1:32 16.7 16 1:64 20.4 19.7 ! Stay within 28 dB (25 dB (28-10%) to be in the safe side). Closer to ONT/ONU Closer to OLT
  27. 27. Splitter loss // // Every time the signal is split two ways, half the power goes one way and half goes the other. So each direction gets half the power, or the signal is reduced by 10log(0.5) = 3 dB Practical loss is 3.5 dB nominal, so every two-way split costs about 10 km distance @ 1310 nm (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 27 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org ! Carefully plan the splitter locations and the split ratio
  28. 28. ONT/ONU power (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 28 Source: http://www.ad-net.com.tw/index.php?id=876
  29. 29. PON BW expand options (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 29  Change PON card (1G -> 10G)  Ex:-10 x initial BW to user  Split the splitter  Ex:- 1:4 splitter -> 2 x (1:2) splitters ->2 x initial BW to user This also gives a distance advantage
  30. 30. Architectures – PON // // // // // // // // ONU OLT Optical splitter 1x16 (1x2, 1x8) 1x32 (1x4, 1x8) Usually 10-20 km (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source: www.ftthcouncil.org 30
  31. 31. Architectures – PON, cont., // // // // // // // // 1550 nm broadcast (if used) 1490* nm data 1310 nm data * Data may be transmitted at 1550 nm if not used for video ONU OLT (c) Anuradha Udunuwara Source: www.ftthcouncil.org 31 Single fiber
  32. 32. Architectures – Active Node // // // // // // // ONU Processing (powered) (optical amp) Up to 70 km Up to 10 km OLT (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 32 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org
  33. 33. Architectures – Active Node, cont., // // // // // // // 1550 nm broadcast (if used) Data, 1310 or 1550 nm (depending on distance) on separate fibers (1:1 split) OLT ONU (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 33 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org
  34. 34. Architectures – Hybrid PON // // // // // // // ONU OLT Processing (powered) Up to 70 km // // Up to 10 km Optical splitter Optical splitter (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 34 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org
  35. 35. Architectures – Hybrid PON, cont., // // // // // // // // // 1550 nm broadcast Data, 1310 or 1550 nm (depending on distance) on separate fibers Single fiber, 1550 broadcast, 1310 bidirectional data OLT ONU (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 35 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org
  36. 36. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 36 Source: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PON_vs_AON.png Ex:- Metro Ethernet
  37. 37. • Security – Data is shared in the downstream direction in most systems – Your Gateway filters out all packets not intended for you – But there is fear that someone will snoop on your data – 802.3ah has formed a committee to study security – Manufacturers have taken their own tracks on security, from none to robust PON Technical considerations (c) Anuradha Udunuwara37 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org Depends on whom you provide the service to
  38. 38. Data Flow and Security - Downstream // // // // // // // Tom Dick Harry T D H T D H Box on side of home separates out only the data bound for that subscriber. But the fear is that someone will fool his box into giving data intended for another subscriber. Solution: encrypt the data ($$) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara38 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org T D H T D H
  39. 39. Data Flow and Security - Upstream // // // // // // // Tom Dick Harry T D H H Due to the physics of the network, Harry’s data flows upstream but does not come to Tom’s box, so Tom cannot see Harry’s data Time division multiple access (TDMA) – similar to downstream, with gap for laser start/stop (c) Anuradha Udunuwara39 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org
  40. 40. Data Flow and CoS // // // // // // // Tom Dick Harry T D H T D H If Dick has paid for more bandwidth, he gets more If Tom’s packets need higher priority (e.g., telephone), they go first (c) Anuradha Udunuwara40 Source: www.ftthcouncil.org ! Max Dick can get is the after split BW on fiber
  41. 41. AON future (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 41 Source: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2010/03/the-internet-of-tomorrow-100gbps-to-your-house-by-2030/ ! 2013
  42. 42. PON future (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 42 Source: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2010/03/the-internet-of-tomorrow-100gbps-to-your-house-by-2030/ ! 2013
  43. 43. Identifying PON market segments (ex:-) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 43 Attribute Urban Sub-Urban Rural Home Office Home Office Home Office Required Services Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Internet Internet/Data Internet Internet/Data Internet Internet/Data IPTV IPTV IPTV FaxoIP FaxoIP VoD FaxoIP VoD Bandwidth requirement High* High Medium Medium Low Medium Affordability High High Medium High Low High Resiliency requirements (availability) Medium High** Medium High** Low Medium Scattering Low Low Medium Medium High High no. of customers Medium High High medium Low Low Required splitting ratio Medium high high Medium Low Low distance between OLT and ONU/ONT Medium Low Low Medium High High Cost recovery High High Medium Medium Low Low Notes: 1. * Assuming HDTV 2. ** Because of the passive nature resiliency is not possible. Maybe possible with multiple splitters. But, then the network becomes complex
  44. 44. PON market segments (ex:-)-summary  FTTH  using PON  For urban  FTTB  using AON  For any area  Why not PON?  Availability/Protection  Scalability  Maybe start with PON, then to AON 44 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  45. 45. FTTH/P/B  AON  More fiber  Flexible  Suitable for business  AON to PON possible  PON  Less fiber  Rigid  Suitable for residential  PON to AON difficult 45 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  46. 46. PON CASE STUDY How India is using PON in NBN
  47. 47. National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN) in India  Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL) mandated to create the NOFN.  A total of ~2,50,000 Gram Panchayats spread over 6,600 Blocks and 641 Districts are to be covered by laying incremental fiber.  Platinum member - FTTH Council APAC (August 2013)  GPON (G-984 and TEC (Telecommunication Engineering Center-India) spec GR no.PON-01/02 Apr 2008) Sources: 1. http://www.bbnl.nic.in/content/page/about-bbnl.php 2. http://www.ftthcouncilap.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=41&Itemid=29 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  48. 48. NOFN Concept Diagram (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 48 Source: http://www.bbnl.nic.in/content/page/nofn-concept-diagram.php
  49. 49. 49 | Presentation Title | Month 2008 Source: http://www.bbnl.nic.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Haryana_Rewari_BAWAL.pdf Small splits-> longer distance
  50. 50. Conclusion 1. Know what you are doing 2. Don’t rush the architecture, plan, design and product selection (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  51. 51. About the Author Eng. Anuradha Udunuwara is a Chartered Engineer by profession based in Sri Lanka. He has over a decade industry experience in strategy, architecture, engineering, design, plan, implementation and maintenance of Communications Service Provider (CSP) Networks using both packet-switched (PS) and Circuit-Switched (CS) technologies, along with legacy to Next Generation Network (NGN) migration. Anuradha is a well-known in the field of CSP industry, both locally and internationally as a visionary, advisor, consultant, writer/author and a speaker. Graduated from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka in 2001 with an honors in Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Eng. Anuradha is a corporate member of the Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka (MIESL), a professional member of British Computer Society (MBCS), a member of Institution of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (MIEEE), a member of Institution of Engineering & Technology (MIET), a member of the Computer Society of Sri Lanka (MCSSL), a life member of Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science (MSLAAS), a senior member of the Carrier Ethernet Forum, a member of the Internet Society, a member of the Internet Strategy Forum, a member of the Internet Strategy Forum Network, a member, senior contributor and writer of the Ethernet Academy, a member of the NGN/IMS forum and a member of the Peradeniya Engineering Faculty Alumni Association. He is also an ITIL foundation certified and Metro Ethernet Forum-Carrier Ethernet Certified Professional (MEF-CECP). In his spare time Anuradha enjoys spending time with his family, playing badminton, photography, reading and travelling. He can be reached at udunuwara [AT] ieee [DOT] org (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 51