Communications Service Provider Networks


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Communications Service Provider Networks

  2. 2. Agenda2  Introduction  Domestic Networks  Wire-line networks  Wireless networks  International networks  NGN  Transformation (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  4. 4. Why a network?4 CSP Network Subscriber/ services customer/ user Customers don’t buy networks (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  5. 5. The network lifecycle5 Strategy & Planning & Projects & Operations & Architecture Designing Implementation Maintenance (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  6. 6. Categorization Wired (optical fiber) APON BPON Core Wireless Wired (optical fiber) Aggregation TDM PON Wireless GPON PON Cable WDM PON EPON CSP networks Wired Optical Hybrid fiber PON 10GPON Access AON Narrow Band Copper ADSL/2/2+ 10GEPON Broadband VDSL/2 Media Wireless WLAN WPAN 2G WMAN Cellular 3G (c) Anuradha Udunuwara WWAN Satellite 64G
  7. 7. DOMESTIC NETWORKSWire-LineWireless
  9. 9. Original PSTN9 UTP UTP • Manual switching directly connected two local loops • Due to microphone technology, audio BW was 4 kHz • PSTN is the network (c) Anuradha Udunuwara • POTS is the service
  10. 10. Analog switched PSTN10 CO CO Local loop Telephone Local loop (analog) network (analog) (analog) • Invention of tube amplifier enabled long distance • Between central offices used FDM spaced at 4 kHz (each cable carrying 1 group = 12 channels) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  11. 11. PSTN Hierarchy11 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  12. 12. Data support via voice-grade modems12 • To send data, it is converted into 4 kHz audio (modem) • Data rate is determined by Shannons capacity theorem (there is a maximum data rate (bps) called the "capacity”, that can be reliably sent through the communications channel. The capacity depends on the BW and SNR) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  13. 13. 13 Source: (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  14. 14. Digital PSTN14 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  15. 15. Digital PSTN, Cont.,15 CO SWITCH “last mile” TDM PSTN digital “last mile” TDM Subscriber Line analog CO SWITCH LP filter to 4 kHz at input to CO switch (before A/D) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  16. 16. Digital PSTN, Cont.,16  Sample 4 kHz audio at 8 kHz (Nyquist)  Need 8 bits per sample = 64 kbps  Multiplexing 64 kbps channels leads to higher and higher rates  Only the subscriber line (local loop) remains analog (too expensive to replace) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  17. 17. Transmission and Switching 17 Switching TransmissionSource: (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  18. 18. Digital Local Loop Technologies18  ISDN  Voice and Data  Longer distance  DSL  Higher speed  Several variants  Different encoding technologies -> different data transmission rates (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  19. 19. xDSL flavors19 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  20. 20. Access Network20  Edge of the network  Enable delivery of services for specific markets  Enable the connection of telecommunication services with subscribers (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  21. 21. Typical Cu access network last (first) mile OSP DP CO (overhead) Edge CP Network MDF NodeRosette CAB Primary Ex:- C4/5 switch, Secondary Discharger AGW (Underground) (Underground)Network demarcationEx:- Telephone,DSU, modem, NTU (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 21
  22. 22. Core Network Evolution22  Connection oriented  X.25 (70s)  FR(80s)  ATM (90s)  MPLS  Connection-less  Ethernet  IP (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  23. 23. Speeds TDM  Ethernet PDH 0 ~ 100 Gbps  E1 / 2 Mbps   T1 / 1.5 Mbps  E3 / 34 Mbps  T3 / DS3 / 45 Mbps SDH  STM-1 /155 Mbps  STM-4 / 622 Mbps  STM-16 / 2.5 Gbps  STM-64 / 10 Gbps  STM-256 / 40 Gbps (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 23
  25. 25. Types of wireless networks25  Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)  Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)  Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN)  Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN)/ Cellular (mobile) network (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  26. 26. 26 Source: (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  27. 27. WPAN27  interconnect devices within a relatively small area, that is generally within a persons reach  Ex:- Bluetooth, IR, ZigBee, Wi-Fi, NFC (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  28. 28. WLAN28  links two or more devices over a short distance using a wireless  use of spread-spectrum or OFDM technologies may allow users to move around within a local coverage area, and still remain connected to the networks distribution method  Ex:-Wi-Fi (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  29. 29. WMAN29  connects several WLANs  Ex:-WiMAX (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  30. 30. WWAN/Cellular (mobile)30  radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station (BTS)  each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies from all their immediate neighboring cells to avoid any interference  When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via BTS, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission  originally intended for cell phones, today carry both data and voice  Ex:- GSM, GPRS, UMTS, Satellite (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  31. 31. 31 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  32. 32. 32 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  33. 33. 33 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  34. 34. 34 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  35. 35. Mobile Networks (Global System for (General Packet (Universal Mobile Mobile (Evolved Packet Radio Service) Telecommunications System) 35 Communications) System) (Evolved Packet Core) (BSC) (RNC)(GSM EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) (Evolved UTRAN) Radio Access Network) Source: (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  37. 37. Types of connectivity37  Satellite  Submarine cable  Coaxial  Fiber (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  38. 38. 38 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  39. 39. Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  40. 40. NGN
  41. 41. Vertical to Horizontal41 Legacy: Future: Service Specific Networks NGN architecture for services Service Service Service Service Service Service Control and Signaling Network rk Netwo rk Netwo Network Network Network Converged Network (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  42. 42. Why NGN?42 The NGN concept takes into consideration new realities in the telecommunication industry characterized by factors such as the need to converge and optimize the operating networks and the extraordinary expansion of digital traffic (i.e. increasing demand for new multimedia services, increasing demand for mobility, etc.) NGN also aims to tackle important concerns raised from the use of current IP-based services: (i.e. QoS and security) (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  43. 43. Definition43 NGN is a packet-based network able to provide Telecommunication Services to users and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent of the underlying transport-related technologies. It enables unfettered access for users to networks and to competing service providers and services of their choice. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users. [ITU-T Recommendation Y.2001 (12/2004) - General overview of NGN] (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  44. 44. Fundamental aspects44  Packet-based transfer  Separation of control functions among bearer capabilities, call/session, and application/service  Decoupling of service provision from transport, and provision of open interfaces  Support for a wide range of services, applications and mechanisms based on service building blocks (including real time/streaming/non-real time services and multi-media)  Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS and transparency  Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces  Generalised mobility  Unfettered access by users to different service providers  A variety of identification schemes which can be resolved to IP addresses for the purposes of routing in IP networks  Unified service characteristics for the same service as perceived by the user  Converged services between Fixed and Mobile networks  Independence of service-related functions from underlying transport technologies  Support of multiple last mile technologies  Compliant with all Regulatory requirements, for example concerning emergency communications and security/privacy, etc. (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  45. 45. Converged Network Model45 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  46. 46. 46 DSLAM (AGW) PON 3G MSAN (AGW) WiMAX (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  47. 47. NGN Reference Architecture, Cont.,47 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  48. 48. NGN Components48 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  49. 49. Segments of NGN Architecture49 VoIP IMS Controllers Control and Signaling Video CDMA Network Application Customer FTTx Core Non-IMS Controllers Equipment Access Network Data Network Aggregation xDSL Network IM Wimax User Access Aggregation Core Control and Application Equipments Network Network Network Signaling Network Network (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  50. 50. Next Generation Access Options50 Next TDM NGN Generation POTS ADSL V5.2 ADSL2+ Access FTTx, ETH VDSL WiMAX, LTE VDSL2 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  51. 51. FTTx Technologies51 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  52. 52. Services /Application (wire-line)  Voice  Data PSTN TDMLegacy    Services : Leased line  Access : Copper   Access : Copper, fiber Transmission : PDH, SDH  Transmission : PDH, SDH  Narrowband Services : Internet Switching : Circuit Switching    Access : Dialup (PSTN)  Transmission : PDH, SDH  NGN  IP  Services : L3 VPN (IP/VPN), L2 VPN (VPLS)NGN  Access : Copper, fiber  Access : Copper, fiber  Transport : IP/MPLS  Aggregation : Carrier Ethernet  Broadband  Core : IP/MPLS   Services : Internet, IPTV, VoBB Access : Copper, fiber  Switching : Packet Switching  Transport : IP/MPLS (c) Anuradha Udunuwara 52
  54. 54. 54 • Voice centric -> data centric • Wired -> wireless – Copper -> fiber • Legacy -> NGN – Verticals -> convergence – Circuit Switching -> Packet Switching • TDM -> IP (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  55. 55. 55 Source : (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  56. 56. Migration to an IP converged network Legacy NGN Multiple Applications Multiple Applications Multiple Control Layers Single Control Layer Multiple Transport Networks Single Transport Network Multiple Access Network Multiple Access Network Multiple Access Connection Single Access Connection56 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  57. 57. Access network migration (example) Current Short Term Long Term AGW, C5 switch AGW (Cu) FTTx Data Network AGW (Cu) Metro Ethernet Metro Ethernet Metro Ethernet CDMA CDMA 2G/3G/3.5G 2G/3G/3.5G LTE WiMAX WiMAX57 (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  58. 58. Issues with Legacy Networks58  Low bandwidth  No flexibility to scale  High cost of installation  Slow provisioning  Bandwidth growth inflexible/non-linear  Limited by multiplexing hierarchy  TDM-based access: inefficient for converged data (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  59. 59. Understanding the BIG picture59 Revenue generation Infrastructure enabler OPEX reduction and efficiency gain (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  60. 60. CSP broadband equation60 Urban Sub-urban Rural Wired Wireless wired/wireless Ex:- FTTH Ex:- LTE (c) Anuradha Udunuwara
  61. 61. About the Author61 Eng. Anuradha Udunuwara is a Chartered Engineer by profession based in Sri Lanka. He has nearly a decade industry experience in strategy, architecture, engineering, design, plan, implementation and maintenance of CSP Networks using both packet-switched (PS) and Circuit-Switched (CS) technologies, along with legacy to NGN migration. Eng. Anuradha is a well-known in the field of CSP industry, both locally and internationally. Graduated from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka in 2001 with an honors in Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Eng. Anuradha is a corporate member of the Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka, a professional member of British Computer Society, a member of Institution of Electrical & Electronic Engineers, a member of Institution of Engineering & Technology (formerly Institution of Electrical Engineers), a member of the Computer Society of Sri Lanka, a life member of Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, senior member of the Carrier Ethernet Forum, member of the Internet Society, member of the Internet Strategy Forum, member of the Internet Strategy Forum Network, member of the Ethernet Academy, member of the NGN/IMS forum and member of the Peradeniya Engineering Faculty Alumni Association. He is also an ITIL foundation certified and the only MEF-CECP in the country. In his spare time Anuradha enjoys spending time with his family, playing badminton, photography, reading and travelling. He can be reached at (c) Anuradha Udunuwara