Energy flow


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Energy flow

  1. 1. J. Quigley 2012
  2. 2.  Everything that organisms do require energy. Running, breathing, and even sleeping! Every species must somehow get food for energy. Grass grows by making energy from the sun, a zebra eats grass in the savanna, a lion eats the zebra and the lion eventually dies and is eaten by scavengers. The rest of the lions carcass is decomposed by bacteria and fungus. At each step in this process, energy flows through the ecosystem
  3. 3.  An organism eating another organism is the most obvious interaction in a community. This interaction transfers energy through an ecosystem. Each level of energy transfer is a trophic level
  4. 4.  The primary source of energy in an ecosystem is the sun. Photosynthetic organisms make their energy from the sun and are called producers  Plants,trees, grasses, herbs, fruits, vegetables, nuts, berries…
  5. 5.  Are organisms that eat producers. They are called herbivores “Herb” means plant and “vore” means eating  Cow, horse, rhinoceros, zebra, rabbit, squirrel…
  6. 6.  A secondary consumer eats primary consumers They are called carnivores “Carni” means meat and “vore” means eating  Wolf,lion, shark, owl, cats…
  7. 7.  These organisms eat dead things.  Scavengerseat the meat off of a dead carcass  Vultures, small carnivores like coyotes, hyenas…  Decomposers recycle or break down the remains of a dead organism  Bacteria and fungus
  8. 8.  In an ecosystem the energy flows from the sun to the primary consumers to the secondary consumers to the scavengers and decomposers.
  9. 9.  The energy flow through organisms in an ecosystem Example:  Nuts give energy to a squirrel who gives energy to a fox, when the fox dies it gives energy to a vulture and bacteria.
  10. 10.  In most ecosystems energy does not follow a simple food chain. Energy flow is much more complicated. Most organisms eat more than one kind of food… A food web is many food chains put together
  11. 11.  Energy is stored at each link in a food web. But some energy that is used is lost as heat into the environment and is not recycled. 10% rule… When a zebra eats 20 pounds of grass 18 pounds are used for the zebra to run, mate, play, find more food, walk, sleep, make babies…only 2 pounds stay with the zebra and are available to the next trophic level
  12. 12.  If a human eats a large fish in the 3rd trophic level it takes 1000kg of producers to make a 1gk human If a human eats a cow in the 2nd trophic level, it takes 100kg of producers to make a 1kg human If a human eats producers, it only takes 10kg of producers to make a 1kg human… Hmmm… maybe we should all eat more producers and it will help fight starvation all over the world and protect the environment!!!
  13. 13.  A triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy, which results as energy passes through the ecosystems food chain
  14. 14.  The bottom is the lowest trophic level, has the most energy and is made from producers The middle layer is made of herbivores (primary consumers) and has less energy than the bottom The top layer is made of carnivores (secondary consumers) and contains the least amount of energy