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  1. 1. Ecosystems Section 15 and 16 <ul><li>Essential Questions </li></ul><ul><li>How is energy captured and used in ecosystems to counteract entropy? </li></ul><ul><li>How are organisms interdependent? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ecology <ul><li>The study organisms and their relationship to their environment </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem is made up of a community of organisms and their interactions with their environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Producers/Autotrophs <ul><li>The Sun is the ultimate, original source of energy for most all ecosystems on the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers use energy directly from the sun to produce sugars that organisms use for food. </li></ul><ul><li>Producer are autotrophs because they make their own food (photosynthesis) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chemosynthesis <ul><li>Some organisms live in the absence of light. </li></ul><ul><li>They build sugars by using the energy stored in chemical bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>This process is called chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Comsumers/Heterotrophs <ul><li>Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating producers or other consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>They are called heterotrophs because they must depend on other organisms for their food. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Consumers/Heterotrophs <ul><li>A cow eats grass. </li></ul><ul><li>The cow doesn’t make energy; it gets it from the grass. </li></ul><ul><li>The cow breaks down the simple sugars made by the producers into energy to live. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Consumers/Heterotrophs <ul><li>The consumer that eats the producer is called the primary consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary consumes are also known as herbivores. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consumers/Heterotrophs <ul><li>The consumer that eats OTHER consumers is called the secondary consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>The secondary consumers are also known as carnivores. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Decomposers and Detrivores <ul><li>Decomposers are also consumers and heterotrophs. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference is that they break down dead organisms into detritus. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Decomposers and Detrivores <ul><li>Detritus is eaten by detrivores which convert the organic material into inorganic material. </li></ul><ul><li>When a wolf dies, bacteria and fungi are decomposers that break down dead tissue. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Decomposers and Detrivores <ul><li>Detritivores (or detrivores) are usually small invertebrates like earthworms and nematodes (round worms) that recycle nutrients back into soil that are then taken in by plants – thus completing the cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the suns original energy is lost in the form of heat energy, the lowest type of energy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Decomposers and Detrivores <ul><li>Note that they do not recycle energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is a one-way pathway from the sun until it is used up. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is recycled; not energy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>A simple diagram to show the flow of energy from autotrophs to heterotrophs to decomposers is called a food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>When drawing a food chain, always start with your producer. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw your arrows in the DIRECTION of energy flow. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Create a food chain using at least 3 organisms found in Mississippi and place it in the box. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Food chains don’t always fully show the flow of energy in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationships between organisms are typically much more complex. </li></ul><ul><li>A food web shows overlapping food chains and reflect a more complex, more accurate view of an ecosystem. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Create a food web using at least 6 organisms found in Mississippi and place it in the box. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Trophic Levels and Energy Pryamids <ul><li>Every step in a food chain or web represents a trophic level (feeding level). </li></ul><ul><li>A tropic level indicates how many times energy has been transferred. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>The first trophic level is producers. </li></ul><ul><li>The second trophic level is primary consumers (herbivores). </li></ul><ul><li>The third trophic level is secondary consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth trophic level is tertiary (3 rd ) consumers. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Stored energy is transferred from one level to another when one organism eats another. </li></ul><ul><li>Some energy is used by the organism to grow, reproduce, and do all the life functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some energy is lost as heat energy and radiate out into the environment. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>These energy transfers are shown in Energy pyramids. </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 10% of the energy at each level is transferred to the next higher level. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the organism is on the energy pyramid, the less energy is available for that organism. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Producers get 100% of their energy from the sun, so they make up the base of the pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>10% of the energy stored in the plants are transferred to second level. </li></ul><ul><li>1% of the sun’s original energy, stored in the second level organisms are transferred to the third level. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>These energy transfers create the pyramid. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Complete page 238; 1-10 in the Green Book </li></ul><ul><li>If you have PAID for your book, you do NOT have to write the questions. If you have NOT PAID for your book, write all questions. </li></ul><ul><li>All Green Book Pages should have this heading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Section Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Page Number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>YOU WILL BE COUNTED OFF if you don’t have these on the top of the page. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Biomes <ul><li>The Biosphere includes all the life of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The biosphere is divided up into Biomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomes are characterized by their climate (abiotic factor), geography (abiotic factor), and the types of plants and animals found in the biome (biotic factors). </li></ul>
  25. 27. Biomes <ul><li>Abiotic – non-living things – Sunlight, amount of rainfall, rocks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic – Living things – Types of living things </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial biomes are land biomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic biomes are water biomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lets complete the chart together! </li></ul>
  26. 28. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Tundra (next to the poles – North Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – Cold winters, short cool summers. Ground is permanently frozen. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – Mosses, small grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – Small rodents, caribou, some birds – no reptiles. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Coniferous Forest (Northern US) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – Cold winters, mild summers. Lots of precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – Cone bearing plants </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – bears, deer, elk, bobcats. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Deciduous Forest (Mississippi!!!) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – Cool winters, warm summers. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – Deciduous plants (this means they lose their leaves in the fall) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – Animals you are familiar with in Mississippi – Deer, bears, skunk, turkeys, raccoons. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Grassland (The mid-west) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – Fertile soils, moderate precipitation, cold winders and hot summers. Fires are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – grasses, low rain prevents large trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – prairie dogs, buffalo, large herbivores. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Chaparral – (Pacific coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – hot, dry summers; mild, cool, rainy winters </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – woody shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – insects, lizards, snakes, chipmunks, mice, rabbits, fox, coyotes, mountain lion, owls, birds </li></ul>
  31. 33. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Desert (Mexico, North Africa, SW US) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – Hot days and cold nights </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – cacti and succulents </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – bobcats, mountain lions, owls, hawks, antelopes, sheep, rats, lizards, rattlesnakes </li></ul>
  32. 34. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Savanna (Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – Warm with seasonal rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – grasses, small clusters of trees and shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – elephants, rhinos, antelope, zebra, giraffe, insects, ostrich, eagles, lions, leopards. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Tropical Rainforest (Near equator, South America) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate – year-around high temperatures; high rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Plants – broad leaf evergreen trees, ferns, large variety. LOTS of diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Animals – all types of animals in a large variety; most biodiversity. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Aquatic Biomes are usually determined by the depth and temperature of the water as well as chemicals that are dissolved in the water (salt and oxygen). </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main groups freshwater (less than 1% salt) and saltwater (marine)(about 3% salt). </li></ul>
  35. 37. Freshwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Flowing Water biomes include rivers and streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers and streams differ by SIZE. </li></ul><ul><li>In general the faster the water, the cooler, clearer the water is. </li></ul><ul><li>There are fewer plants. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Freshwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Many animals and plants have adaptations that help anchor them in place or streamlined bodies. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Freshwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Standing water biomes include lakes and ponds. </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes and ponds differ by SIZE. </li></ul><ul><li>In general standing water is warmer and more turbid (dirtier). </li></ul><ul><li>Standing water harbors many unsafe microorganisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton are the producers of many aquatic food chains. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary consumers are often zooplankton. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Saltwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>The saltwater biomes includes areas called the aphotic zone, the coastal ocean, the intertidal zone, coral reefs, and estuaries. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Saltwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Aphotic zone </li></ul><ul><li>Deep in the water where it is dark and no sunlight reaches. </li></ul><ul><li>All producers in the aphotic zone are chemosynthetic autotrophs that do not need light. </li></ul>
  40. 42. Saltwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Photic zone </li></ul><ul><li>Area of water where light does penetrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of photosynthetic organism live here which attract other animals to this area. </li></ul><ul><li>Between the photic zone and aphotic zone is the “twilight” zone. </li></ul>
  41. 43. Saltwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Costal ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Saltwater; area from the outer continental shelf to the low-tide mark </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight usually penetrates to the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Kelp grows in certain areas </li></ul><ul><li>Includes lots of fishes, snails, seals, sea urchins, and whales. </li></ul>
  42. 44. Saltwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Intertidal zone </li></ul><ul><li>Area between low tide and high tide; subject to tidal changes </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms live here that can stand to be out of the water. </li></ul><ul><li>They spend some time in sunlight and sometimes exposed to air and temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of currents, organisms are usually attached to the bottom or have ways to hold on. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Saltwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Coral Reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Made of calcium carbonate formed by corals; warm saltwater; usually no deeper than 40 meters. </li></ul><ul><li>Home to colorful fishes, sea anemones, starfish, and the coral. </li></ul><ul><li>Most diverse aquatic biome. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Saltwater Aquatic Biomes <ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul><ul><li>Where freshwater rivers and streams merge with the oceans; varying salt concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Brackish water </li></ul><ul><li>Animals and plants must be adapted to the varying salt concentrations. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Since plant fibers are harder to digest than animal, herbivores have evolved special adaptations to chew and digest their food. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, flat molar teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chew the cud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special bacteria in the stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach chambers. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Predator-Prey </li></ul><ul><li>A predator hunts, kills, and eats prey. </li></ul><ul><li>Prey is what the predator eats. </li></ul><ul><li>A hawk consuming a rabbit for example. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Predators have evolved physical and behavioral adaptations that help them catch their prey. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keen eyesight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp claws or teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur coloration </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Prey have adaptations to keep them from being eaten. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poison frogs have bright, green color to warn predators of the danger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mimicry refers to a harmless organism mimicking the poisonous one so that predators will leave them alone. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Anytime organisms try to use the same resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light, food water, space, mates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms will either adapt or die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction is often the very end of natural selection. They are out competed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If extinction happens because they were wiped out competely, it is known as competitive exclusion. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>A relationship between organisms living together closely is called symbiosis. </li></ul><ul><li>The three types of symbiosis common in biology is mutalism, commensalism, and parasitism. </li></ul>
  51. 53. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>Both species benefit in the relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers produce nectar to attract the bees; the bees pollinate the flowers. </li></ul>
  52. 54. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>One species gets the benefit of living together, but another species isn’t benefited or harmed. </li></ul><ul><li>Barnacles are attached to whales. The barnacles get a place to live and the whales get no benefit. </li></ul>
  53. 55. Ecological Relationships <ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>One organism gets all the benefit and the other organism is harmed. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite infects the “host.” </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites usually don’t kill the host, then only weeken the host. </li></ul><ul><li>Heartworms, some nematodes like tapeworms, some fungi and bacteria. </li></ul>