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  1. 1. Cells: Prokaryote vsEukaryote
  2. 2. Cells have evolved twodifferent architectures:Prokaryote “style”Eukaryote “style”
  3. 3. Prokaryote cells aresmaller and simplerCommonly known as bacteria10-100 microns in sizeSingle-celled(unicellular) orFilamentous (strings of single cells)
  4. 4. These areprokaryoteE. coli bacteriaon the head of asteel pin.
  5. 5. Prokaryote cells are simply built(example: E. coli)capsule: slimy outercoatingcell wall: tougher middlelayercell membrane: delicateinner skin
  6. 6. cytoplasm: inner liquid fillingDNA in one big looppilli: for sticking to thingsflagella: for swimmingribosomes: for buildingproteinsProkaryote cells are simply built(example: E. coli)
  7. 7. Prokaryote lifestyleunicellular: allalonecolony: forms afilmfilamentous:forms a chain ofcells
  8. 8. Prokaryote FeedingPhotosynthetic: energy from sunlightDisease-causing: feed on living thingsDecomposers: feed on dead things
  9. 9. Eukaryotes are bigger and morecomplicatedHave organellesHave chromosomescan be multicellularinclude animal and plant cells
  10. 10. Organelles aremembrane-bound cellpartsMini “organs” that haveunique structures andfunctionsLocated in cytoplasm
  11. 11. Cell membranedelicate lipidand proteinskin aroundcytoplasmfound in allcellsCell Structures
  12. 12. Nucleusa membrane-boundsac evolved to storethe cell’schromosomes(DNA)has pores: holes
  13. 13. Nucleolusinside nucleuslocation ofribosomefactorymade orRNA
  14. 14. mitochondrionmakes thecell’s energythe moreenergy the cellneeds, themoremitochondriait has
  15. 15. Ribosomesbuild proteinsfrom amino acidsin cytoplasmmay be free-floating, ormay be attachedto ERmade of RNA
  16. 16. Endoplasmicreticulummay be smooth:builds lipids andcarbohydratesmay be rough:stores proteinsmade byattachedribosomes
  17. 17. Golgi Complextakes in sacsof rawmaterial fromERsends out sacscontainingfinished cellproducts
  18. 18. Lysosomessacs filled withdigestive enzymesdigest worn outcell partsdigest foodabsorbed by cell
  19. 19. Centriolespair of bundledtubesorganize celldivision
  20. 20. Cytoskeletonmade ofmicrotubulesfound throughoutcytoplasmgives shape to cell& moves organellesaround inside.
  21. 21. Structures found in plant cellsCell wallvery strongmade ofcelluloseprotects cellfrom rupturingglued to othercells next door
  22. 22. Vacuolehuge water-filled sackeeps cellpressurizedstores starch
  23. 23. Chloroplastsfilled withchlorophyllturn solarenergy intofood energy
  24. 24. How are plant and animal cells different?
  25. 25. Structure Animal cells Plant cellscell membrane Yes yesnucleus Yes yesnucleolus yes yesribosomes yes yesER yes yesGolgi yes yescentrioles yes nocell wall no yesmitochondria yes yescholorplasts no yesOne big vacuole no yescytoskeleton yes Yes
  26. 26. Eukaryote cells can bemulticellularThe whole cell can be specialized for onejobcells can work together as tissuesTissues can work together as organs
  27. 27. Advantages of each kind ofcell architectureProkaryotes Eukaryotessimple and easy to grow can specializefast reproduction multicellularityall the same can build large bodies
  28. 28. Examples of specializedeuk. cellsliver cell:specialized todetoxify bloodand storeglucose asglycogen.
  29. 29. sperm cell:specialized todeliver DNAto egg cell
  30. 30. Mesophyll cellspecializedto captureas muchlight aspossibleinside aleaf
  31. 31. How do animal cellsmove?Some can crawl with pseudopodsSome can swim with a flagellumSome can swim very fast with cilia
  32. 32. Pseudopodsmeans “fake feet”extensions of cellmembraneexample: ameoba
  33. 33. Flagellum/flagellalarge whiplike tailpushes or pulls cellthrough watercan be single, or apair
  34. 34. Ciliafine, hairlikeextensionsattached to cellmembranebeat in unison
  35. 35. How did organelles evolve?many scientists theorize thateukaryotes evolved fromprokaryote 1981, Lynn Margulispopularized the“endosymbiont theory.”
  36. 36. Endosymbiont theory:a prokaryote ancestor“eats” a smallerprokaryotethe smaller prokaryoteevolves a way to avoidbeing digested, and livesinside its new “host” cellkind of like a pet.
  37. 37. Endo = insideSymbiont = friend
  38. 38. the small prokaryotes that can dophotosynthesis evolve into chloroplasts,and “pay” their host with glucose.The smaller prokaryotes that can doaerobic respiration evolve intomitochondria, and convert the glucose intoenergy the cell can use.Both the host and the symbiont benefitfrom the relationship
  39. 39. Chlorella aretiny green cellsthat live insidesome amoeba...endosymbiosismay still beevolving today!