Food and energy in the environment


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Food and energy in the environment

  1. 1. Food and Energy inthe Environment
  2. 2. Energy Roles Organisms may be producers,consumers, or decomposers These terms indicate how an organismobtains energy and how it interactswith the other living things in itscommunity.
  3. 3. Producers Means that they make theirown food Able to use a source ofenergy (sunlight) to turnsimple raw materials (such aswater and carbon dioxide)into food (like the sugarglucose). Producers are the source ofall the food in an ecosystem
  4. 4. Consumers Organisms that cannotmake their own fooddepend on producers forfood and energy. An organism that feedsdirectly or indirectly onproducers is called aconsumer.
  5. 5.  Herbivores: eat onlyplants, such as rabbits Carnivores: eat only meat,such as wolves Omnivores: eat both plantsand animals, such as humans Scavengers: an animal thatfeeds on the bodies of deadanimals, such as jackals,hyenas, and vultures
  6. 6. Decomposers After living things die,organisms called decomposersuse the dead matter as food. Decomposers break down deadorganisms into simplersubstances. Molds, mushrooms, and manykinds of bacteria are examplesof decomposers
  7. 7.  Essential to the ecosystem because they ridthe environment of the bodies of deadplants and animals They also return nutrients (compoundscontaining chemicals such as nitrogen,carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and magnesium)to the environment, which are used by plantsto make food
  8. 8. Food Chains & Food Webs In general, food and energy in anecosystem flow from the producers to theconsumers in an ecosystem arerepresented by food chains and food webs. Food chains represent a series of events inwhich food and energy are transferredfrom one organism in an ecosystem toanother
  9. 9.  Example: diatoms  krill  squid penguin  killer whale A food chain gives you a glimpse of thefood and energy relationships in anecosystem, but it does not give you thewhole picture
  10. 10. – There are many organismsin an ecosystem and fewof them eat only one kindof food– There must be more thanone food chain in anecosystem A food web consists of manyoverlapping food chains
  11. 11. Feeding LevelsA feeding level is the location of anorganism along a food chainProducers form the first feeding levelHerbivores form the second feedinglevelCarnivores form the third feeding level
  12. 12.  At each feeding level, organisms use theenergy they obtain to digest their food,reproduce, move, grow, and carry outother life activities This means there is less energy availableto each level as you progress up thefeeding levels These levels form an energy pyramid