Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Going global Roots
UK population (1) <ul><ul><li>The UK population has reached an important stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant age...
UK population (2) UK age–sex population pyramid, 2001
UK population change (1) Population statistic  Trend Fertility rate: 1.84 per 1,000 Rates fell sharply in the 1960s, but h...
UK population change (2) Population statistic  Trend Life expectancy: 81 years  Has risen steadily, from 47 in 1900; women...
UK population change (3) <ul><ul><li>Many of these changes are related to the social and economic transformations of the t...
Changing regional patterns (1) <ul><ul><li>The distribution of the UK’s population has changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Changing regional patterns (2) Population change, 1991–2006
Your roots <ul><li>It is useful to research your own roots. Consider questions such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How has fami...
The grey challenge (1) <ul><ul><li>A major issue facing the UK and many other developed countries is the challenge of a ‘g...
The grey challenge (2) The changing dependent population of the UK, 1971–2021
The grey challenge (3) Challenges Opportunities <ul><li>Helping the 65+ group to keep working to maximise tax revenue  </l...
The grey challenge (4) <ul><ul><li>raising the retirement age and using the tax system to encourage private pension provis...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Roots

1,133

Published on

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,133
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Roots"

  1. 1. Going global Roots
  2. 2. UK population (1) <ul><ul><li>The UK population has reached an important stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant ageing , or ‘ greying’ , of the population is occurring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proportion of the population aged over 60 is expected to rise to 26% by 2020 and 38% by 2050. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration rates are also strong and the influx of young people tends to counteract the ageing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether immigration and the more youthful, fertile population it brings continues or not will have a major influence on the future shape of the UK’s age-sex pyramid. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. UK population (2) UK age–sex population pyramid, 2001
  4. 4. UK population change (1) Population statistic Trend Fertility rate: 1.84 per 1,000 Rates fell sharply in the 1960s, but have risen slightly in the last decade Birth rate: 10.7 per 1,000 Rates have stabilised having declined for decades; birth rates were high during the ‘baby boom’ after the Second World War Death rate: 10.1 per 1,000 Death rates are low, and stable; they fell throughout the twentieth century Infant mortality: 5 per 1,000 Very low; it was 140 per 1,000 in 1900
  5. 5. UK population change (2) Population statistic Trend Life expectancy: 81 years Has risen steadily, from 47 in 1900; women live 4–5 years longer than men Average age: 39 years Has risen recently as the population ages, but current immigration may change this Family size: 2.4 persons Has fallen sharply from 6 in 1900 Ethnicity: 8% Has risen steadily since 1945; the next census (2011) may show 9–10% Total population: 60.5 million Growing slowly, having stagnated and almost tipped into decline in the 1970s and 1980s
  6. 6. UK population change (3) <ul><ul><li>Many of these changes are related to the social and economic transformations of the twentieth century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased employment in the expanding service sector has helped to raise personal wealth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This increased affluence has led to social changes in terms of family size, health etc. </li></ul></ul>The UK’s changing work structure
  7. 7. Changing regional patterns (1) <ul><ul><li>The distribution of the UK’s population has changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major urban areas, especially inner cities, have been centres of immigration since 1945. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger workers have drifted towards the south and east, especially as a reaction to deindustrialisation in northern towns and cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older people have retired to the coast, especially in the south and southwest, and to accessible rural areas inland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter-urbanisation has resulted in population growth being focused on successful towns and cities in the south and on more accessible rural areas. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Changing regional patterns (2) Population change, 1991–2006
  9. 9. Your roots <ul><li>It is useful to research your own roots. Consider questions such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How has family size and fertility changed over the last three or four generations of your family? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did your family originally come from? Have they always lived in the present location? If not, then why did they move? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any history of immigration in your family? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has your family moved up the socio-economic ladder in recent generations? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The grey challenge (1) <ul><ul><li>A major issue facing the UK and many other developed countries is the challenge of a ‘greying population’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the next few decades, the dependency ratio (the ratio of over 65s and under 16s to the working age population) in the UK will gradually rise (see next slide). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ‘baby boom’ generation born between 1945 and 1965 will virtually all be retired by 2030. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The much smaller ‘generation x’ population born after 1965 will be economically active, and will have to support the elderly. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The grey challenge (2) The changing dependent population of the UK, 1971–2021
  12. 12. The grey challenge (3) Challenges Opportunities <ul><li>Helping the 65+ group to keep working to maximise tax revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to raise the state pension retirement age </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of providing long-term care </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing NHS costs </li></ul><ul><li>General taxation may need to rise </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled labour shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Housing shortages as the elderly live at home longer </li></ul><ul><li>New sites for care homes and retirement homes needed </li></ul><ul><li>Depopulation and dereliction in some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Many older people do not want to retire at 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Older people have valuable experience </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘grey pound’ may become a significant source of economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>An older society may be a more law abiding one </li></ul><ul><li>A desire to ‘do good’ and ‘stay active’ may lead to a rise in voluntary work by older people </li></ul><ul><li>Greying voters may become a powerful political force </li></ul>
  13. 13. The grey challenge (4) <ul><ul><li>raising the retirement age and using the tax system to encourage private pension provision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using immigration, selectively, to help raise fertility and avoid severe population decline and skills shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promoting change in attitudes so that older people are seen as assets rather than costs </li></ul></ul>The key to the ‘grey’ future is planning now to meet the future challenges. This might involve:
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×