The Five-Kingdom System
An Overview
How many organisms are
there in the world?
1.5 million known species
on earth
– 250,000 plants
– 750,000 insects
– 43,000 vertebrates
4200 mammals
9000 birds
6300 re...
Classification System
Why classify organisms?
– Method of organizing creatures into
some meaningful pattern

Current metho...
What do these
animals have in
common?
Why classify bats and
hummingbirds
together but not
include dragonflies?
Kingdoms
Shared characteristics among
Kingdoms
–All are made up of cells
–All have DNA with the same
genetic code
KPCOFGS
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
What are species?
What are genera?
What are kingdoms?
What are Species?
Interbreeding
organisms that do
not ordinarily breed
with members of
other groups
Pinyon mouse,
Peromysc...
What are Genera?
An inclusive group of similar
species, usually with anatomical
similarities

Pinyon mouse,
Peromyscus tru...
What are Kingdoms?
Major unit of biological classification
KPCOFGS
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
KPCOFGS
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Corvidae
Genus: Corvus
Species: brachy...
American crow
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata (with backbones)
Class: Aves (birds)
Order: Passeriformes (songbirds)
Fam...
Corvus brachyrhynchus
Why Latin?
“Dead” language – no changes being
made; it is not in use today
Common names are often sh...
Lasionycteris noctivagans
Nocti = nocturnal
Vagans = wanderer
Nyct = night, nocturnal
Lasio = shaggy

Silver-haired bat

“...
Classification System
5 Kingdom System
– Monera
– Protista
– Fungi
– Plantae
– Animalia
Differences among Kingdoms
1. Monera: Prokaryotic cell structure
2. Protista: Eukaryotic cells, unicellular
3. Fungi: Euka...
Classification System
5 Kingdoms
Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

6 Kingdoms
Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Protista
Fun...
Prokaryotes
Domain Archaea
Domain Eubacteria
Bacteria
Among the first forms of life over 3.5
billion years ago
Cyanobacteria contributed to formation of
our oxygen atm...
Prokaryota
Include eubacteria and archaebacteria
Most abundant/diverse
Prokaryotic organisms
Lacks an organized nucleus or...
1. Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic Cells

This characteristic separates
which kingdoms?
Eubacteria
Eubacteria (“True bacteria”) have 3 methods
of energy acquisition
– Chemosynthetic bacteria: autotrophic, obtai...
Archaebacteria
– Oldest and most primitive organisms known
– Life’s extremists, occupying environments that
“normal” organ...
Roles in Ecosystem
Can cause disease
– Lyme disease, strep throat, syphilis

Photosynthesis and oxygen production
Food sou...
Kingdom Protista
Protista
Protozoans and
mostly unicellular
algae
Heterotrophic and
autotrophic
Occur in freshwater,
saltwater, soil
Becaus...
Protista
Protozoa
– Single-celled, motile, heterotrophic
– Digest food by engulfing, breaking down, and
absorbing it

Alga...
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_3.html
http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/para-lab3/vivax_game...
Protista – Roles in Ecosystem
Photosynthesis and oxygen
production
Food source (brown, red, green
algae)
– Animal feed, fe...
Protista and Red Tides
Population
explosion of
dinoflagellates
Neurotoxin
released
Shellfish
concentrate toxin
Humans can ...
Kingdom Fungi
Fungi
Mushrooms, blights, rusts, molds
>60,000 species
Heterotrophic
Chitinous cell wall
Symbiotic
– 2 or more organisms
l...
Fungi
Hyphae = filaments make up the body of
a fungus
Collectively, hyphae are
called mycelium
Can produce sporocarps
Abso...
Fungi
~6 taxonomic divisions:
Zygomycota – bread molds
Glomeromycota – arbuscular mycorrihizal
fungi
Ascomycota – yeasts, ...
Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem
Food source
– Mushrooms, truffles,
morels
– Mycorrhizae
– Fungal colonies in
cheeses give
them ...
Benefit wildlife
– Food, nest sites, hiding cover

Caribou feeding on
lichens
Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem
American chestnut, late 1800s

Crop parasites cause loss of food
plants, spoilage,
infectious d...
Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem
Symbiosis - mutualism
– Lichens (fungus+alga)
– Mycorrhizae

Lichen

Mycorrhizal fungi
Mycorrhizal fungi
benefit plants
Kingdom Plantae
Plants
>300,000 known species
Multicellular phototrophs
Cell wall with cellulose
2 groups
– Nonvascular (liverworts, hornw...
Plants
Nonvascular plants
– Small (lack of conducting cells
keeps them <5” high)
– First evolved approximately
500 million...
Plants – Roles in Ecosystem
List 3 functional roles that
plants play in your life.

my.opera.com/Mathilda/albums/show.dml?...
Kingdom Animalia
Animals
Big-brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

Multicellular heterotrophs
No cell wall
External or internal
skeletons for suppor...
Animals - Feeding Strategies
Heterotrophs
– Herbivores – eat plants
– Granivores – eat seeds
– Frugivores – eat fruits
– F...
Animals - 2 main groups
Invertebrate Phyla
– Porifera
– Platyhelminthes
– Annelida
– Arthropoda

– Cnidaria
– Nematoda
– M...
Animals - Invertebrates
Phylum Porifera

– Sponges, primitive filter feeders

Phylum Cnidaria

– Jellyfish, corals, sea an...
Animals - Vertebrates
Phylum Chordata: 50,000
vertebrates
2 groups
– Jawless forms (Class Agnatha)
hagfish, lamprey
– Jawe...
Animals – Vertebrate Classes
Condrichthyes

www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Education/bioprofile.htm
Animals – Vertebrate Classes
Osteichthyes

www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Education/bioprofile.htm
Animals – Vertebrate Classes
Amphibia

www.natureserve.org
Animals – Vertebrate Classes
Reptilia

www.natureserve.org
Animals – Vertebrate Classes
Aves

www.natureserve.org
Animals – Vertebrate Classes
Mammalia

www.natureserve.org
A Short Review
1. Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic Cells

This characteristic separates
which kingdoms?
2. Chloroplasts

This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
3. Cell Wall

This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
4. Chitin v. Cellulose
chitin

Inflexible,
tough,
insoluble in
water

cellulose
5. Heterotropic v Autotrophic
Autotrophic = “self-feeding”
– Create food through photosynthesis

Heterotrophic = “other fe...
6. Unicellular v Multicellular

unicellular bacteria cell

multicellular animal cell

This characteristic separates which ...
Differences among Kingdoms
Archaeabacteria: Prokaryotic cell structure
Eubacteria: Prokaryotic cell structure
Protista: Eu...
Life diversity
Life diversity
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  • Morphologically similar
  • What differences/similarities do you see in the morphology of these 2 species?
  • Monera from all other kingdoms
  • Lyme disease – carried by mammals and birds, transmitted by ticks to humans
    Many heterotrophic bacteria also cause diseases such as strep throat, rheumatic fever, cholera, gonorrhea, syphilis, and toxic shock syndrome. Bacteria can cause disease by destroying cells, releasing toxins, contaminating food, or by the reaction of the body to the infecting bacteria. Bacterial infections can be controlled by vaccinations and antibiotic treatments. Antibiotics interfere with some aspect of the replication of bacteria, and are produced by microorganisms such as fungi, that compete with bacteria for resources. Penicillin, the first antibiotic discovered, inhibits the synthesis of new cell walls in certain types of bacteria. However, the overuse of antibiotics during the past fifty years has led to natural selection favoring antibiotic resistance. There are reportedly more than 50 strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria, necessitating the development of new antibiotics and the frequent change of antibiotics in treatment.
  • Euglena, diatoms, paramecium
  • Euglena, diatoms, paramecium
  • Protista: Tremendous diversity – unicellular and multicellular, heterotrophic and autotrophic, variety of photosynthetic pigments
  • Fungi, lichens
  • Fungi, lichens
  • Fungi, lichens
  • Lichen pictured is a favorite of caribou.
    Lacewing using lichen to camoflage (http://www.lichen.com/animals.html)
  • Symbiosis – 2 or more species live together in close association
    Mutualism = both benefit
    Lichen = algae + fungi
    Mycorrhizae – fungus + plant, fungus helps with water absorption, ion transfer; tree supplies fungus with food (carbohydrates)
    Lichens are a symbiosis between a photosynthetic organism (alga or cyanobacterium) and a fungus (sac or club). Mycorrhizae are fungi (usually a zygomycete or basidiomycete) symbiotic with the roots of plants. Both relationships are mutualistic: both parties benefit. Fungi provide nutrients from the substrate, the phototroph provides food. Plants with mycorrhizae grow better: the plant gets nutrients from the fungus in exchange for carbohydrates.
    The word &quot;mycorrhizae&quot; literally means &quot;fungus-roots&quot; and defines the close mutually beneficial relationship between specialized soil fungi (mycorrhizal fungi) and plant roots.About 95% of the world’s land plants form the mycorrhizal relationship in their native habitats. It is estimated that mycorrhizal fungal filaments explore hundreds to thousands more soil volume compared to roots alone.Benefits include:
    Improved nutrient and water uptake
    Improved root growth
    Improved plant growth and yield
    Improved disease resistance
    Reduced transplant shock
    Reduced drought stress
    http://www.mycorrhizae.com/WhatAreMyco.php
  • See picture of mycorrhizal pine seedlings growing in a glass box. Miles of white fungal filaments radiate from the root system of these little trees
  • Fungi, lichens
  • Fungi, lichens
  • Fungi, lichens
  • Gray triggerfish
    Oscar
    Yellowfin tuna
    Swordfish
    Great barracuda
  • Arizona Treefrog
    Northern Leopard Frog
    Arizona Tiger Salamander
    Arizona Toad
  • Western fence lizard
    Short horned lizard
    Gila monster
    Arizona coral snake
    Desert box turtle
  • Monera from all other kingdoms
  • Presence of chloroplasts separates Plantae from Fungi (fungi are white)
  • Animalia from Plantae and Fungi
  • Cell wall in plants is cellulose-based, in fungi it is chitin-based. Both substances are inflexible, tough, and insoluble in water.
    Cellulose = polymer of D-glucose.
    Cellulose and chitin are very similar, differing only in chitin having a nitrogen-containing group in place of cellulose’s hydroxyl group (OH).
    Also forms part of the hard outer covering of insects
  • Autotrophic = Plantae
    Heterotrophic = Fungi, Animalia
    Heterotrophic and Autotrophic = Monera, Protista
  • Monera and Protista from Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
  • Life diversity

    1. 1. The Five-Kingdom System An Overview
    2. 2. How many organisms are there in the world?
    3. 3. 1.5 million known species on earth – 250,000 plants – 750,000 insects – 43,000 vertebrates 4200 mammals 9000 birds 6300 reptiles 4200 amphibians 18,000 bony fishes 900 cartilaginous fishes and jawless fishes
    4. 4. Classification System Why classify organisms? – Method of organizing creatures into some meaningful pattern Current method uses similar shared observable characteristics that are unique to that group of organisms (phenetic scheme)
    5. 5. What do these animals have in common? Why classify bats and hummingbirds together but not include dragonflies?
    6. 6. Kingdoms Shared characteristics among Kingdoms –All are made up of cells –All have DNA with the same genetic code
    7. 7. KPCOFGS Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
    8. 8. What are species? What are genera? What are kingdoms?
    9. 9. What are Species? Interbreeding organisms that do not ordinarily breed with members of other groups Pinyon mouse, Peromyscus truei
    10. 10. What are Genera? An inclusive group of similar species, usually with anatomical similarities Pinyon mouse, Peromyscus truei Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus Genus = Peromyscus
    11. 11. What are Kingdoms? Major unit of biological classification
    12. 12. KPCOFGS Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
    13. 13. KPCOFGS Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Passeriformes Family: Corvidae Genus: Corvus Species: brachyrhynchos
    14. 14. American crow Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata (with backbones) Class: Aves (birds) Order: Passeriformes (songbirds) Family: Corvidae (crows, jays) Genus: Corvus Species: brachyrhynchos
    15. 15. Corvus brachyrhynchus Why Latin? “Dead” language – no changes being made; it is not in use today Common names are often shared among several species; may differ from region to region; may not be understood in different cultures Assures a unique name for each species
    16. 16. Lasionycteris noctivagans Nocti = nocturnal Vagans = wanderer Nyct = night, nocturnal Lasio = shaggy Silver-haired bat “night wandering shaggy bat”
    17. 17. Classification System 5 Kingdom System – Monera – Protista – Fungi – Plantae – Animalia
    18. 18. Differences among Kingdoms 1. Monera: Prokaryotic cell structure 2. Protista: Eukaryotic cells, unicellular 3. Fungi: Eukaryotic cells, chitinous cell wall, no chloroplasts, multicellular, heterotrophic 4. Plantae: Eukaryotic cells, cell wall, cellulose, chloroplasts, multicellular, autotrophic 5. Animalia: Eukaryotic cells, no cell wall, multicellular
    19. 19. Classification System 5 Kingdoms Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia 6 Kingdoms Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
    20. 20. Prokaryotes Domain Archaea Domain Eubacteria
    21. 21. Bacteria Among the first forms of life over 3.5 billion years ago Cyanobacteria contributed to formation of our oxygen atmosphere by photosynthesis. fossil cyanobacteria http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanofr.html
    22. 22. Prokaryota Include eubacteria and archaebacteria Most abundant/diverse Prokaryotic organisms Lacks an organized nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Nostoc (cyanobacterium)
    23. 23. 1. Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic Cells This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
    24. 24. Eubacteria Eubacteria (“True bacteria”) have 3 methods of energy acquisition – Chemosynthetic bacteria: autotrophic, obtain energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds (ammonia, sulfur) – Photosynthetic bacteria: autotrophic, obtain energy from sunlight and convert to carbohydrate energy – Heterotrophic bacteria: saprophytes and symbionts
    25. 25. Archaebacteria – Oldest and most primitive organisms known – Life’s extremists, occupying environments that “normal” organisms find too harsh – 3 types methanogens, halophiles, thermacidophiles – thermacidophile example: lives in heated acid springs, mud pots, soil and can take temps of 60 to 95 C and pH of 1 to 5.
    26. 26. Roles in Ecosystem Can cause disease – Lyme disease, strep throat, syphilis Photosynthesis and oxygen production Food source Nutrient transfer – (convert inert N to organic forms useable by plants) Spirulina Decomposition – Saprophytic (decompose dead tissue) – Symbiotic (live within a host multicellular organism) Some oil deposits attributed to cyanobacteria
    27. 27. Kingdom Protista
    28. 28. Protista Protozoans and mostly unicellular algae Heterotrophic and autotrophic Occur in freshwater, saltwater, soil Because of tremendous diversity, classification of the Protista is difficult. paramecium
    29. 29. Protista Protozoa – Single-celled, motile, heterotrophic – Digest food by engulfing, breaking down, and absorbing it Algae – Single-celled to colonial – Diatoms, golden brown algae, dinoflagellates, red algae, brown algae, green algae – Subdivided by type of photosynthetic pigment Slime molds Eukaryotes that are NOT fungi, animals, or plants!
    30. 30. http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_3.html http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/para-lab3/vivax_gameto100x.jpg
    31. 31. Protista – Roles in Ecosystem Photosynthesis and oxygen production Food source (brown, red, green algae) – Animal feed, fertilizers – Algae sheets used in some Japanese dishes – Additive to puddings, ice cream, salad dressing, candy (carrageenan and alginate) Can cause disease – Avian malaria, human malaria, amoebic dysentery
    32. 32. Protista and Red Tides Population explosion of dinoflagellates Neurotoxin released Shellfish concentrate toxin Humans can be killed by eating shellfish contaminated by toxin http://www.redtide.whoi.edu/hab/rtphotos/noctiluca.jpg
    33. 33. Kingdom Fungi
    34. 34. Fungi Mushrooms, blights, rusts, molds >60,000 species Heterotrophic Chitinous cell wall Symbiotic – 2 or more organisms live together in close association Mostly multicellular – Yeasts are unicellular
    35. 35. Fungi Hyphae = filaments make up the body of a fungus Collectively, hyphae are called mycelium Can produce sporocarps Absorptive heterotrophs en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus – Hyphae have small volume, large surface area so enhance absorptive capacity – Break down food by secreting digestive enzymes onto substrate then absorbing food molecules
    36. 36. Fungi ~6 taxonomic divisions: Zygomycota – bread molds Glomeromycota – arbuscular mycorrihizal fungi Ascomycota – yeasts, sac fungi, Penicillium Basidiomycota – mushrooms, toadstools, rusts Lichens – fungus-algae relationship Deuteromycota – everything else www.tolweb.org/Fungi
    37. 37. Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem Food source – Mushrooms, truffles, morels – Mycorrhizae – Fungal colonies in cheeses give them their flavor – Beer and wine produced with yeasts www.genomenewsnetwork.org/a rticles/12_03/yeast_screen.shtml Antibiotics – Penicillin helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/microbes/p enicill.htm www.treepics.co.uk/education/animals/index.ph p?n=squirrel
    38. 38. Benefit wildlife – Food, nest sites, hiding cover Caribou feeding on lichens
    39. 39. Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem American chestnut, late 1800s Crop parasites cause loss of food plants, spoilage, infectious disease Claviceps purpurea causes a crop disease called wild ergot Dutch elm disease and Chestnut blight Claviceps purpurea
    40. 40. Fungi – Roles in Ecosystem Symbiosis - mutualism – Lichens (fungus+alga) – Mycorrhizae Lichen Mycorrhizal fungi
    41. 41. Mycorrhizal fungi benefit plants
    42. 42. Kingdom Plantae
    43. 43. Plants >300,000 known species Multicellular phototrophs Cell wall with cellulose 2 groups – Nonvascular (liverworts, hornworts, and mosses) – Vascular (common plants like pines, ferns, corn, and oaks)
    44. 44. Plants Nonvascular plants – Small (lack of conducting cells keeps them <5” high) – First evolved approximately 500 million years ago, likely were the earliest land plants http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bryoph1.htm Vascular plants – Have specialized transporting cells Xylem (for transporting water and mineral nutrients) Phloem (for transporting sugars from leaves to the rest of the plant) www.ventephoto.com/image10.htm
    45. 45. Plants – Roles in Ecosystem List 3 functional roles that plants play in your life. my.opera.com/Mathilda/albums/show.dml?id=45047 Food source Generate oxygen Provide habitat
    46. 46. Kingdom Animalia
    47. 47. Animals Big-brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus Multicellular heterotrophs No cell wall External or internal skeletons for support Skin to reduce water loss Muscles for moving to find food Brains, nervous system for integration of signals Internal digestive systems
    48. 48. Animals - Feeding Strategies Heterotrophs – Herbivores – eat plants – Granivores – eat seeds – Frugivores – eat fruits – Foliovores – eat leaves – Carnivores – eat other animals – Piscivores – eat fish
    49. 49. Animals - 2 main groups Invertebrate Phyla – Porifera – Platyhelminthes – Annelida – Arthropoda – Cnidaria – Nematoda – Mollusca – Echinodermata Vertebrate Phylum – Phylum Chordata – Subphylum Vertebrata
    50. 50. Animals - Invertebrates Phylum Porifera – Sponges, primitive filter feeders Phylum Cnidaria – Jellyfish, corals, sea anemones Phylum Mollusca – Bivalves - scallops, oysters, mussels, clams – Gastropods – snails, slugs – Cephalopods – squids, octopi Phylum Echinodermata – Sea urchins and sea stars Phylum Arthropoda http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7004909622962894202&q=shar – Spiders, scorpions, crabs, shrimp, insects, millipedes, and more
    51. 51. Animals - Vertebrates Phylum Chordata: 50,000 vertebrates 2 groups – Jawless forms (Class Agnatha) hagfish, lamprey – Jawed forms – most of the animals we know
    52. 52. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Condrichthyes www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Education/bioprofile.htm
    53. 53. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Osteichthyes www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Education/bioprofile.htm
    54. 54. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Amphibia www.natureserve.org
    55. 55. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Reptilia www.natureserve.org
    56. 56. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Aves www.natureserve.org
    57. 57. Animals – Vertebrate Classes Mammalia www.natureserve.org
    58. 58. A Short Review
    59. 59. 1. Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic Cells This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
    60. 60. 2. Chloroplasts This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
    61. 61. 3. Cell Wall This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
    62. 62. 4. Chitin v. Cellulose chitin Inflexible, tough, insoluble in water cellulose
    63. 63. 5. Heterotropic v Autotrophic Autotrophic = “self-feeding” – Create food through photosynthesis Heterotrophic = “other feeding” – Must absorb food – Can grow through or on a substrate, break down the substrate, absorb nutrients This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
    64. 64. 6. Unicellular v Multicellular unicellular bacteria cell multicellular animal cell This characteristic separates which kingdoms?
    65. 65. Differences among Kingdoms Archaeabacteria: Prokaryotic cell structure Eubacteria: Prokaryotic cell structure Protista: Eukaryotic cells, unicellular Fungi: Eukaryotic cells, chitinous cell wall, no chloroplasts, multicellular, heterotrophic 5. Plantae: Eukaryotic cells, cell wall, cellulose, chloroplasts, multicellular, autotrophic 6. Animalia: Eukaryotic cells, no cell wall, multicellular 1. 2. 3. 4.

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