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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 8 - DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM PART 4

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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 8 - DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM PART 4

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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 8 - DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM PART 4

  1. 1. Diversity of Organisms and Classification DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM PART 4
  2. 2. Classification of Organisms Kingdom Phylum / Division Class Order Family Genus Species
  3. 3. Species The smallest group of organisms classified which can interbreed with each other to produce fertile offspring Scientific name : unique to all the people e.g. scientific name of human : Homo sapien or Homo sapien (Latin- first name genus, 2nd species)
  4. 4. Common name Scientific name Paddy Oryza sativa Durian Durio zibethinus Oil palm Elaeis guineensis Rambutan Nephelium lappacium Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum Chicken Gallus domesticus Toad Bufo melanosticus Frog Rana erythraeu Scientific names of some local organisms
  5. 5. Five Kingdom System (Prokaryotae/ Monera) Protista Fungi Animalia Plantae
  6. 6. Prokaryotae/Monera eg.Bacteria Unicellular, microscopic No nucleus – Prokaryotic Some have no chlorophyll – Saprophytic or parasitic – Saprophytic: feed on dead substances – Parasitic: obtain nutrients from living organisms
  7. 7. Protista Unicellular; microscopic Nucleus present – Eukaryotic Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  8. 8. Fungi Eukaryotic Made up of hyphae – Mycelium : a mass of hyphae No root, stem and leaf No chlorophyll – Saprophytic or parasitic Reproduce by forming spores
  9. 9. Animalia Eukaryotic Divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of backbone: – Invertebrates : without backbone – Vertebrates : with backbone
  10. 10. Invertebrates
  11. 11. Invertebrates
  12. 12. Invertebrates
  13. 13. Vertebrates Divided into 5 groups: – Fish – Amphibians – Reptiles – Birds – Mammals
  14. 14. Fish Aquatic Cold-blooded Body covered with wet and slimy scales Streamline body for easy movement through water Fins for balance and to control movement Gills for breathing External fertilization
  15. 15. Amphibians Cold-blooded Moist, scaleless skin Limbs present – tetrapods Larvae (tadpoles) use gills for breathing; adults use lungs External fertilization
  16. 16. Reptiles Cold-blooded Body covered with dry, hard scales Live on land Breathe with lungs Internal fertilization; lay shelled eggs
  17. 17. Birds Warm-blooded With feathers With wings Beak for feeding Lungs for breathing Internal fertilization; lay shelled eggs
  18. 18. Warm-blooded Hairs on skin Females have mammary glands for producing milk Lungs for breathing Diaphragm present Internal fertilization; embryos develop inside mothers’ bodies Mammals
  19. 19. Plantae Eukaryotic Most plants contains photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis – Autotrophic Can be divided into two groups: – Non-flowering plants – Flowering plants
  20. 20. Non-flowering plants 4 groups: – Algae – Mosses – Ferns – Gymnosperms
  21. 21. Algae Aquatic Simple multicellular plants No root, stem or leaf Contain photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis
  22. 22. Mosses With simple leaves and stems No root – with rhizoids for anchorage and absorption of water No vascular tissues Reproduce by spores Found in damp area
  23. 23. Ferns With true roots, stems, leaves and vascular tissues Reproduce by spores Live in damp places
  24. 24. Gymnosperms Reproduction by producing seeds – Seeds develop in cones, not enclosed by fruits ⇒ naked seeds Needle-shaped leaves to reduce water loss
  25. 25. Angiosperms (Flowering plants) With flowers for reproduction Seeds are produced inside the fruit (matured ovary)
  26. 26. Two groups of flowering plants MonocotyledonsDicotyledons Cotyledons Two One Leaf venation Netted Parallel Root system Tap root system Fibrous root system
  27. 27. ENDANGERED SPECIES

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