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09 protista


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09 protista

  1. 1. 1) The Prokaryotes: Eubacteria and Archaea 2) Protista 3) Fungi 4) Plants 5) Animals 6) ??? The Kingdoms of Life: A 6-part Series
  2. 2. Recall: Eukaryotes are cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Which of the following is a eukaryote? Prokaryote Everything just floats around in the cytoplasm Eukaryote Most things are wrapped- up in membranes
  3. 3. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes There are more differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes than just membranes: Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaea Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Ani malia Size Small (1-100 m) Larger (100-1000 m) DNA Free-floating nucleoid In nucleus Genome One circular chromosome More than one chromosome Reproduction Mostly asexual Mostly sexual Cell division Binary fission Mitosis or meiosis Structure Mostly unicellular Mostly multicellular Organelles Absent Present Metabolism Many are anaerobic Most are aerobic
  4. 4. Origin of Modern Eukaryotes Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA, which is different from the DNA that a eukaryotic cell holds in its nucleus. Mitochondria and chloroplasts also perform binary fission and have inner membranes very similar to prokaryotes. Mitochondrion Chloroplast
  5. 5. Origin of Modern Eukaryotes Based on this information, scientists believe that mitochondria and chloroplasts used to be prokaryotes. Early anaerobic eukaryotes engulfed them and they now live in endosymbiosis. mitochondrion or chloroplast early eukaryote
  6. 6. Origin of Modern Eukaryotes Endosymbiosis: a mutual relationship where one organism lives inside another. Here, the prokaryote provides energy and the eukaryote provides protection and nutrients. cells cell cells cells cell
  7. 7. Protista Protists are important to humans in natural ecosystems. They... - are often in the first trophic level (producers). - account for more than 50% of the world's oxygen production. - can form mutual symbiotic relationships with other organisms. Fresh Water Food Web Protists!
  8. 8. Protista Protista is sometimes known at the "other" kingdom. The only traits that all organisms in Kingdom Protista share is that they: Protista is the most diverse of the 6 kingdoms. i) are eukaryotic ii) are not plants, animals, or fungi
  9. 9. Protista There are species of protists that are very similar to each of the other Eukarya Kingdoms. There are animal-like protists There are plant-like protists There are fungus-like protists And there are combinations of the above.
  10. 10. Representative Protists - Slime Moulds Slime moulds (phylum Mycetozoa) are heterotrophic. When growing conditions are favourable, they are unicellular, but if growing conditions worsen, the mould converges to become multicellular. Fuligo septica (dog-vomit slime mould) at different stages of growth. (Fungus-like)
  11. 11. Representative Protists - Slime Moulds Slime moulds use spores to reproduce. (Fungus-like) Enteridium Lycoperdon Hemitrichia Serpia (pretzel slime mould) Some multicellular slime moulds are able to creep to more nutrient-rich locations.
  12. 12. Representative Protists - Slime Moulds (Fungus-like) These protists absorb nutrients from organic sources and reproduce using spores just like fungi. However, their basic cell structure is extremely different from fungi (ex. their cell walls do not contain chitin).
  13. 13. Representative Protists – Red Algae (Plant-like) Red algae (Rhodophyta) is often red in colour. Many of them are seaweeds. Nori (edible seaweed) is the red algae Prophyra Algae are usually multicellular, aquatic, photosynthetic protists.
  14. 14. Representative Protists – Red Algae (Plant-like)
  15. 15. Representative Protists – Red Algae (Plant-like) Red algae rely on water currents to transport its spores for reproduction. Nori (edible seaweed) is the red alga Prophyra Carrageenan, a common thickening agent in foods, jellies, and toothpaste comes from red algae.
  16. 16. Representative Protists – Brown Algae (Plant-like) Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are mostly seaweeds and kelps. Brown algae is able to differentiate and have specialized cells and structures. Kelps
  17. 17. Representative Protists – Brown Algae (Plant-like) Brown algae alternates diploid and haploid stages of life. Their reproductive spores have flagella and are motile. Diploid (2n): Has 2 sets of chromosomes (like a typical human body cell) Haploid (n): Has 1 set of chromosomes (like a typical human sex cell) Ex. For an organism with 2 different chromosomes diploid would be: Ex. For an organism with 2 different chromosomes haploid would be:
  18. 18. Representative Protists – Brown Algae (Plant-like) (haploid) (diploid) (haploid) (cell division) produced Binary fission Male and Female Life Cycle of Typical Brown Algae Many of these are made, both male and female algae algae
  19. 19. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) Protozoans are heterotrophic motile unicellular organisms. The Amoeba (phylum Cercozoa or phylum Amoebozoa) is an aquatic organism that is able to extend its cytoplasm into pseudopodia to either move or eat (endocytosis). Pseudopod Amoeba Food Endocytosis: the action of engulfing by a cell.
  20. 20. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) The Paramecium is a ciliate (phylum Ciliophora). It is covered in thousands of hair-like fibres called cilia, allowing it to swim in its aquatic environment and sweep food into its oral groove. CiliaOral Groove Gullet Food Vacuole From the oral groove, the food passes the gullet into the food vacuole to be stored until it is needed.
  21. 21. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) ciliaoral groove gullet food vacuole micronucleus contractile vacuole (empty)nucleus The contractile vacuole pumps any excess water out of the cell. Paramecium
  22. 22. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa) is the parasite that causes malaria in humans. It is spread by mosquitoes. The protists reproduce inside of, then kill red blood cells. Malaria can cause fever, comas, and death. red blood cells Plasmodium
  23. 23. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) Liver
  24. 24. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 1 – The mosquito bites a human and introduces Plasmodium sporozoites (n) into the bloodstream. Liver
  25. 25. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 2 – Sporozoites perform binary fission in the liver, producing many merozoites (n). Liver
  26. 26. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 3 – Merozoites enter the bloodstream and invade red blood cells, again performing binary fission. Liver
  27. 27. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 4 – The red blood cell bursts open, releasing many more merozoites. Liver
  28. 28. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 5 – Some merozoites are male gametes, and some are female gametes. The mosquito gets both in the blood when it bites. Liver
  29. 29. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 6 – The merozoite (n) gametes fuse to form zygotes (2n) inside the mosquito. Liver
  30. 30. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 7 – The merozoite (n) gametes fuse to form zygotes (2n) inside the mosquito. Liver
  31. 31. Representative Protists – Protozoa (Animal-like) 8 – The zygotes perform meiosis to produce sporozoites. Liver
  32. 32. Representative Protists – Euglenoids (Plant-like and Animal-like) Euglena (phylum Euglenozia) is an aquatic genus with a flagellum for motility. It is both autotrophic (with chloroplasts) and heterotrophic.
  33. 33. Representative Protists – Euglenoids (Plant-like and Animal-like) Eyespot Flagellum ChloroplastMitochondrion contractile vacuole (full) Pellicle The pellicle is a thin elastic layer that helps the cell keep its shape and remain hydrodynamic. Nucleus Euglena