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Hannah Love
12/01/2011
p. 654
   Animals are heterotrophs
     Heterotrophs: relies on other organisms for food
     (as opposed to autotrophs)
   Eukaryotes: Organisms that carry genetic
    material (DNA) in the form of chromosomes
    within a distinct nucleus

   Multicellular: Made of multiple cells

   Animal cells have no cell walls
     Held together by structural proteins (like collagen)

   Muscle and nerve cells are unique to animals
   Cleavage: a succession of mitotic cell divisions
   Most animals reproduce sexually

   Some animals develop directly into adults
    through transient stages of maturation
     Like humans

   Metamorphosis: Developmental transition
    that turns the animal into a juvenile
     Juvenile: resembles an adult, but not entirely
     sexually mature
   Neoproterozoic Era
     1 Billion – 542 Million Years Ago
     Ediacaran biota: Early eukaryotic bacteria


   Paleozoic era
     542-251 Million Years Ago
     Cambrian Explosion: dramatic explosion in the
     growth of animal diversity (535-525 million years
     ago)
   Mesozoic era
     251-65.5 Million Years Ago
     Animals began to spread into new habitats
     First dinosaurs and mammals

   Cenozoic era
     65.5 Million Years Ago – Present
     Began with mass extinctions
     Mammals rise
   Radial Symmetry: has
    no left and right side,
    any “imaginary slice”
    creates mirror images

   Bilateral Symmetry:
    only one “imaginary
    slice” can divide this
    into two mirror image
    sides – right and left
   Tissues: integrated
    group of cells with a
    common function
     Maintain organization
     within the animal’s
     body
   Body cavity: fluid- or air-filled space
   Phylogeny: history
    of organism lineages
    as they change
    through time

   New views of animal
    phylogeny are
    emerging from
    molecular data

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Chapter 32 animal diversity[1]

  • 2. Animals are heterotrophs  Heterotrophs: relies on other organisms for food (as opposed to autotrophs)
  • 3. Eukaryotes: Organisms that carry genetic material (DNA) in the form of chromosomes within a distinct nucleus  Multicellular: Made of multiple cells  Animal cells have no cell walls  Held together by structural proteins (like collagen)  Muscle and nerve cells are unique to animals
  • 4. Cleavage: a succession of mitotic cell divisions
  • 5. Most animals reproduce sexually  Some animals develop directly into adults through transient stages of maturation  Like humans  Metamorphosis: Developmental transition that turns the animal into a juvenile  Juvenile: resembles an adult, but not entirely sexually mature
  • 6. Neoproterozoic Era  1 Billion – 542 Million Years Ago  Ediacaran biota: Early eukaryotic bacteria  Paleozoic era  542-251 Million Years Ago  Cambrian Explosion: dramatic explosion in the growth of animal diversity (535-525 million years ago)
  • 7. Mesozoic era  251-65.5 Million Years Ago  Animals began to spread into new habitats  First dinosaurs and mammals  Cenozoic era  65.5 Million Years Ago – Present  Began with mass extinctions  Mammals rise
  • 8. Radial Symmetry: has no left and right side, any “imaginary slice” creates mirror images  Bilateral Symmetry: only one “imaginary slice” can divide this into two mirror image sides – right and left
  • 9. Tissues: integrated group of cells with a common function  Maintain organization within the animal’s body
  • 10. Body cavity: fluid- or air-filled space
  • 11.
  • 12. Phylogeny: history of organism lineages as they change through time  New views of animal phylogeny are emerging from molecular data