PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Photosynthesis• An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO2)  requiring process that uses light energy  (photons) and wat...
Question:• Where does photosynthesis take place?
Plants • Autotrophs: self-producers. • Location:   1. Leaves      a. stoma      b. mesophyll cellsMesophyll       Chloropl...
Stomata (stoma)   • Pores in a plant’s cuticle through which water     and gases are exchanged between the plant     and t...
Mesophyll Cell                           Nucleus  Cell Wall                          ChloroplastCentral Vacuole
Chloroplast• Organelle where photosynthesis takes place.                        Stroma       Outer Membrane            Thy...
Thylakoid                     Thylakoid Membrane                        Thylakoid SpaceGranum
Question:• Why are plants green?
Chlorophyll Molecules• Located in the thylakoid membranes.                           membranes• Chlorophyll have Mg+ in th...
Wavelength of Light (nm) 400            500   600             700Short wave                  Long wave(more energy)       ...
Absorption of ChlorophyllAbsorption             violet   blue   green yellow   orange   red                             wa...
Question:• During the fall, what causes the leaves to  change colors?
Fall Colors• In addition to the chlorophyll pigments, there are  other pigments present.• During the fall, the green chlor...
Redox Reaction• The transfer of one or more electrons from  one reactant to another.                  another• Two types: ...
Oxidation Reaction• The loss of electrons from a substance.• Or the gain of oxygen.                 oxygen                ...
Reduction Reaction• The gain of electrons to a substance.• Or the loss of oxygen.                 oxygen          Reductio...
Breakdown of Photosynthesis• Two main parts (reactions).1. Light Reaction or   Light Dependent Reaction Produces energy fr...
Breakdown of Photosynthesis2.      Calvin Cycle or        Light Independent Reaction or        Carbon Fixation or        C...
1. Light Reaction (Electron Flow)• Occurs in the Thylakoid membranes• During the light reaction, there are two            ...
A. Cyclic Electron Flow•   Occurs in the thylakoid membrane.                            membrane•   Uses Photosystem I onl...
A. Cyclic Electron Flow                    Primary     e-SUN                 Electron                    Acceptor         ...
B. Noncyclic Electron Flow• Occurs in the thylakoid membrane• Uses PS II and PS I• P680 rxn center (PSII) - chlorophyll a•...
B. Noncyclic Electron Flow                                              Primary                                           ...
B. Noncyclic Electron Flow• ADP + P          →      ATP (Reduced)• NADP+ + H          →     NADPH (Reduced)• Oxygen comes ...
Chemiosmosis• Powers ATP synthesis.             synthesis• Located in the thylakoid membranes.                           m...
Chemiosmosis            SUN                          H+ H +   (Proton Pumping)Thylakoid                   E               ...
Calvin Cycle• Carbon Fixation (light independent rxn).• C3 plants (80% of plants on earth).• Occurs in the stroma.• Uses A...
Chloroplast                        Stroma       Outer Membrane            Thylakoid   GranumInner Membrane
Calvin Cycle (C3 fixation)                     (36C)(6C)             6C-C-C-C-C-C6CO2               (unstable)            ...
Calvin Cycle• Remember: C3 = Calvin Cycle             C3                  Glucose
Photorespiration• Occurs on hot, dry, bright days.                             days• Stomates close.• Fixation of O2 inste...
Photorespiration• Because of photorespiration: Plants have             photorespiration  special adaptations to limit the ...
C4 Plants• Hot, moist environments.             environments• 15% of plants (grasses, corn, sugarcane).• Divides photosynt...
C4 Plants         Malate            Malate        C-C-C-C            C-C-C-C                  Transported        CO2CO2   ...
CAM Plants• Hot, dry environments.           environments• 5% of plants (cactus and ice plants).• Stomates closed during d...
CAM Plants  Night (Stomates Open)    Day (Stomates Closed)                     Vacuole        C-C-C-C      C-C-C-C      C-...
Question:• Why would CAM plants close their  stomates during the day?
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Photo synthesis

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THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN DETAILS

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Photo synthesis

  1. 1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  2. 2. Photosynthesis• An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO2) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H2O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose). SUN photons 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 glucose
  3. 3. Question:• Where does photosynthesis take place?
  4. 4. Plants • Autotrophs: self-producers. • Location: 1. Leaves a. stoma b. mesophyll cellsMesophyll ChloroplastCell Stoma
  5. 5. Stomata (stoma) • Pores in a plant’s cuticle through which water and gases are exchanged between the plant and the atmosphere. Oxygen (O2)Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Guard Guard Cell Cell
  6. 6. Mesophyll Cell Nucleus Cell Wall ChloroplastCentral Vacuole
  7. 7. Chloroplast• Organelle where photosynthesis takes place. Stroma Outer Membrane Thylakoid GranumInner Membrane
  8. 8. Thylakoid Thylakoid Membrane Thylakoid SpaceGranum
  9. 9. Question:• Why are plants green?
  10. 10. Chlorophyll Molecules• Located in the thylakoid membranes. membranes• Chlorophyll have Mg+ in the center.• Chlorophyll pigments harvest energy (photons) by absorbing certain wavelengths (blue-420 nm and red-660 nm are most important).• Plants are green because the green wavelength is reflected, not absorbed. reflected absorbed
  11. 11. Wavelength of Light (nm) 400 500 600 700Short wave Long wave(more energy) (less energy)
  12. 12. Absorption of ChlorophyllAbsorption violet blue green yellow orange red wavelength
  13. 13. Question:• During the fall, what causes the leaves to change colors?
  14. 14. Fall Colors• In addition to the chlorophyll pigments, there are other pigments present.• During the fall, the green chlorophyll pigments are greatly reduced revealing the other pigments. pigments• Carotenoids are pigments that are either red or yellow. yellow
  15. 15. Redox Reaction• The transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another. another• Two types: 1. Oxidation 2. Reduction
  16. 16. Oxidation Reaction• The loss of electrons from a substance.• Or the gain of oxygen. oxygen Oxidation6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 glucose
  17. 17. Reduction Reaction• The gain of electrons to a substance.• Or the loss of oxygen. oxygen Reduction6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 glucose
  18. 18. Breakdown of Photosynthesis• Two main parts (reactions).1. Light Reaction or Light Dependent Reaction Produces energy from solar power (photons) in the form of ATP and NADPH. NADPH
  19. 19. Breakdown of Photosynthesis2. Calvin Cycle or Light Independent Reaction or Carbon Fixation or C3 Fixation Uses energy (ATP and NADPH) from light rxn to make sugar (glucose).
  20. 20. 1. Light Reaction (Electron Flow)• Occurs in the Thylakoid membranes• During the light reaction, there are two reaction possible routes for electron flow. flow A. Cyclic Electron Flow B. Noncyclic Electron Flow
  21. 21. A. Cyclic Electron Flow• Occurs in the thylakoid membrane. membrane• Uses Photosystem I only• P700 reaction center- chlorophyll a• Uses Electron Transport Chain (ETC)• Generates ATP only ADP + P ATP
  22. 22. A. Cyclic Electron Flow Primary e-SUN Electron Acceptor e- e- ATP produced Photons by ETC P700 e- Accessory Pigments Photosystem I
  23. 23. B. Noncyclic Electron Flow• Occurs in the thylakoid membrane• Uses PS II and PS I• P680 rxn center (PSII) - chlorophyll a• P700 rxn center (PS I) - chlorophyll a• Uses Electron Transport Chain (ETC)• Generates O2, ATP and NADPH
  24. 24. B. Noncyclic Electron Flow Primary Electron Acceptor 2e- Enzyme Primary Reaction Electron 2e- Acceptor 2e- ETC SUN 2e- 2e- P700 NADPHPhoton ATP P680 PhotonH2O Photosystem I Photosystem II1/2O2 + 2H+
  25. 25. B. Noncyclic Electron Flow• ADP + P → ATP (Reduced)• NADP+ + H → NADPH (Reduced)• Oxygen comes from the splitting of H2O, not CO2 H 2O → (Oxidized) 1/2 O2 + 2H+
  26. 26. Chemiosmosis• Powers ATP synthesis. synthesis• Located in the thylakoid membranes. membranes• Uses ETC and ATP synthase (enzyme) to make ATP.• Photophosphorylation: addition of phosphate to ADP to make ATP. ATP
  27. 27. Chemiosmosis SUN H+ H + (Proton Pumping)Thylakoid E PS II T PS I C high H+ H H + + concentration H+ H + H+ H + Thylakoid H + ATP Synthase Space low H+ ADP + P H+ ATP concentration
  28. 28. Calvin Cycle• Carbon Fixation (light independent rxn).• C3 plants (80% of plants on earth).• Occurs in the stroma.• Uses ATP and NADPH from light rxn.• Uses CO2.• To produce glucose: it takes 6 turns and uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH.
  29. 29. Chloroplast Stroma Outer Membrane Thylakoid GranumInner Membrane
  30. 30. Calvin Cycle (C3 fixation) (36C)(6C) 6C-C-C-C-C-C6CO2 (unstable) 6C-C-C 6C-C-C 12PGA (36C) 6ATP 6ATP (30C) 6C-C-C-C-C 6NADPH 6NADPHRuBP (36C) 6ATP 6C-C-C 6C-C-C 12G3P C3 (30C) (6C) glucose C-C-C-C-C-C Glucose
  31. 31. Calvin Cycle• Remember: C3 = Calvin Cycle C3 Glucose
  32. 32. Photorespiration• Occurs on hot, dry, bright days. days• Stomates close.• Fixation of O2 instead of CO2.• Produces 2-C molecules instead of 3-C sugar molecules. molecules• Produces no sugar molecules or no ATP.
  33. 33. Photorespiration• Because of photorespiration: Plants have photorespiration special adaptations to limit the effect of photorespiration. photorespiration 1. C4 plants 2. CAM plants
  34. 34. C4 Plants• Hot, moist environments. environments• 15% of plants (grasses, corn, sugarcane).• Divides photosynthesis spatially.• Light rxn - mesophyll cells.• Calvin cycle - bundle sheath cells.
  35. 35. C4 Plants Malate Malate C-C-C-C C-C-C-C Transported CO2CO2 C3 Vascular Tissue glucoseC-C-CPEP ATP C-C-C Pyruvic AcidMesophyll Cell Bundle Sheath Cell
  36. 36. CAM Plants• Hot, dry environments. environments• 5% of plants (cactus and ice plants).• Stomates closed during day.• Stomates open during the night. night• Light rxn - occurs during the day.• Calvin Cycle - occurs when CO2 is present.
  37. 37. CAM Plants Night (Stomates Open) Day (Stomates Closed) Vacuole C-C-C-C C-C-C-C C-C-C-CCO2 Malate Malate Malate CO2 C3C-C-C PEP ATP C-C-C glucose Pyruvic acid
  38. 38. Question:• Why would CAM plants close their stomates during the day?
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