Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis

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  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
  • The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
  • The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
  • The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
  • The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
  • The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
  • The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
  • The process of photosynthesis includes the light-dependent reactions as well as the Calvin cycle.
  • Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis

    1. 1. The Light Reactions• Almost all of the energy in living systems comes from the sun.• Sunlight energy enters living systems when plants and some other organisms absorb light in the process of photosynthesis.
    2. 2. The Light Reactions• During photosynthesis, light energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy in the form of molecules such as ATP and glucose.
    3. 3. Obtaining Energy• Organisms can be classified according to how they get energy.• Those that obtain their energy from the sun are called autotrophs. – Some examples include plants, algae, and some bacteria.• Organisms that obtain their energy from the foods they consume are called heterotrophs. – Some examples include animals, fungi, and some bacteria.
    4. 4. Obtaining Energy
    5. 5. Overview of Photosynthesis• Photosynthesis involves the use of light energy to convert water (H20) and carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen (O2) and high energy sugars (e.g. Glucose).
    6. 6. Overview of Photosynthesis• Photosynthesis can be divided into 2 stages: – Light Reactions – Light energy is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and NADPH. – Calvin Cycle – Sugars are formed using CO2 and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH.
    7. 7. Overview ofPhotosynthesis
    8. 8. Capturing Light Energy• In addition to water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, photosynthesis requires pigments.• Chlorophyll is the primary light-absorbing pigment in autotrophs.• Chlorophyll is found inside chloroplasts.
    9. 9. Parts of the Chloroplast • Chloroplasts – organelles found in the cells of plants and algae • Thylakoids – membranes arranged as flattened sacs • Grana – stacks of thylakoids • Stroma – solution surrounding the grana
    10. 10. Parts of the Chloroplast StromaGranum Thylakoid
    11. 11. Light and Pigments• Light from the sun appears white, but it is made of a variety of colors called the visible light spectrum.
    12. 12. Light and Pigments• Pigments are compounds that absorb light.• Many objects contain pigments that absorb some colors of light and reflect others.• The colors that are reflected are the ones you see.
    13. 13. Chloroplast Pigments• There are several pigments in the thylakoid membranes. – Most important are chlorophylls. • Chlorophyll a absorbs mostly red and violet light and reflects mostly green light. – Accessory pigments • Chlorophyll b assists chlorophyll a in capturing light energy. It absorbs mostly blue light, as well as, some violet and orange light and reflects mostly green and yellow light. • Carotenoids absorb blue and green light and reflect yellow, orange, and red light.
    14. 14. Chloroplast Pigments•Spectrum of Light and Plant Pigments
    15. 15. Chloroplast Pigments• In plant leaves, chlorophylls are the most abundant pigments and therefore mask the colors of the other pigments.• During the fall, many plants lose their chlorophylls, and their leaves become the color of the carotenoids.
    16. 16. Light Reactions• The first stage of photosynthesis.• Take place within the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.• Require light energy to happen and are also referred to as the light-dependent reactions.
    17. 17. Light Reactions
    18. 18. Light Reactions
    19. 19. Light Reactions • Photosynthesis begins when chlorophyll pigments absorb light and pass it on to electrons. Inner Thylakoid Space (or Lumen) Chlorophyll StromaThylakoid Membrane
    20. 20. Light Reactions • These high-energy electrons are passed on to the electron transport chain (ETC).Chlorophyll Electron High-energy Transport Chain (ETC) electron
    21. 21. Light Reactions • Enzymes in the thylakoid membrane break water molecules into:Chlorophyll 2H2O Electron High-energy Transport Chain (ETC) electron
    22. 22. Light Reactions – hydrogen ions – oxygen atoms – electronsPhotosystem II + O2 2H2O Electron High-energy carriers electron
    23. 23. Light Reactions • The hydrogen ions are released into the inner thylakoid space (or lumen).Chlorophyll + O2 2H2O High-energy electron
    24. 24. Light Reactions • Oxygen is left behind and is released into the air.Chlorophyll + O2 2H2O High-energy electron
    25. 25. Light Reactions • The electrons from water replace the electrons that were already energized by chlorophyll.Chlorophyll + O2 2H2O High-energy electron
    26. 26. Light Reactions • Energy from the electrons is used to transport H+ ions from the stroma into the inner thylakoid space (or lumen).Chlorophyll + O2 2H2O
    27. 27. Light Reactions • High-energy electrons move through the electron transport to a second group of chlorophyll pigments.Chlorophyll + O2 2H2O Chlorophyll
    28. 28. Light Reactions• Light strikes this second group of chlorophyllpigments to re-energize the electrons. + O2 2H2O Chlorophyll
    29. 29. Light Reactions• NADP+ then picks up these high-energy electrons andbecomes NADPH. + O2 2H2O 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    30. 30. Light Reactions + O22H2O 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    31. 31. Light Reactions• Soon, the inner thylakoid space (or lumen) is filled withhydrogen ions (H+ ions). + O2 2H2O 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    32. 32. Light Reactions• The build-up of H+ ions provides the energy to makeATP. + O2 2H2O 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    33. 33. Light Reactions• H+ ions cannot cross the membrane directly. ATP synthase + O2 2H2O 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    34. 34. Light Reactions• The thylakoid membrane contains an enzyme called ATPsynthase that allows H+ ions to pass through it. ATP synthase + O2 2H2O 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    35. 35. Light Reactions• As H+ ions pass through ATP synthase, the proteinrotates. ATP synthase + O2 2H2O 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    36. 36. Light Reactions• As it rotates, ATP synthase connects ADP and a phosphategroup to produce ATP. ATP synthase + O2 2H2O ADP 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    37. 37. Light Reactions• At the end of the light reactions, two energy carriers go on topower the Calvin cycle. What are the names of these twocarriers? ATP synthase + O2 2H2O ADP 2 NADP+ 2 2 NADPH
    38. 38. Light Reactions
    39. 39. Light Reactions SummaryUse:• H2O• Light EnergyProduce:• ATP used in the Calvin• NADPH Cycle• O2 diffuses out of the chloroplast and enters the atmosphere
    40. 40. The Calvin Cycle• The second stage of photosynthesis. – Named after Melvin Calvin who was named “Mr. Photosynthesis” by Time magazine in 1961. – Sometimes referred to as the light-independent reactions or the dark reactions because the Calvin cycle does not require light directly.
    41. 41. The Calvin Cycle• ATP & NADPH from the light reactions are used as energy.• Six C02 molecules from the atmosphere are used to produce a single glucose molecule.• Takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts.
    42. 42. The Calvin Cycle
    43. 43. Steps in Calvin Cycle • Six carbon dioxide molecules enter the cycle from the atmosphere and combine with six 5-carbon molecules.CO2 Enters the Cycle Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    44. 44. Steps in Calvin Cycle• The result is twelve 3-carbon molecules, which arethen converted into higher-energy forms. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    45. 45. Steps in Calvin Cycle• The energy for this conversion comes from ATPand high-energy electrons from NADPH. Energy Input 12 12 ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP+ Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    46. 46. Steps in Calvin Cycle• Two of twelve 3-carbon molecules are removedfrom the cycle. Energy Input 12 12 ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP+ Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    47. 47. Steps in Calvin Cycle• The molecules are used to produce glucose. 12 12 ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP+ Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Glucose
    48. 48. Steps in Calvin Cycle • The 10 remaining 3-carbon molecules are converted back into six 5-carbon molecules, which are used to begin the next cycle. 12 12 ADP 6 ADP 12 NADPH 6 12 NADP+5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Glucose
    49. 49. Calvin Cycle SummaryUse: • ATP • NADPH • CO2Produce: • Glucose (C6H12O6) • NADP+ used in the Light Reactions • ADP & P
    50. 50. A Summary of Photosynthesis• Photosynthesis happens in two stages: 1. The light reactions – Energy is absorbed from sunlight and converted into chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and NADPH. 2. The Calvin cycle – Carbon dioxide and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH are used to form sugars.
    51. 51. A Summary of Photosynthesis H2O CO2 Light NADP+ ADP + P Light- Calvin Calvin dependent cycle Cycle reactionsChloroplast O2 Sugars Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    52. 52. A Summary of Photosynthesis• The process of photosynthesis can be summed up by the following chemical equation: Light Energy 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 6 O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 (Glucose sugar)• How does the plant use these sugars? − Energy (Cellular Respiration) − Storage - Cellulose/Starch
    53. 53. Factors that Affect Photosynthesis• Light Intensity – The rate of photosynthesis increases as light intensity increases until all the pigments are being used. At this saturation point, the rate of photosynthesis levels off because pigments cannot absorb any more light.
    54. 54. Factors that Affect Photosynthesis• Carbon Dioxide Levels – The CO2 concentration affects the rate of photosynthesis in a similar manner. Once a certain concentration of CO 2 is present, photosynthesis cannot proceed any faster.
    55. 55. Factors that Affect Photosynthesis• Temperature – Increasing temperatures accelerates the chemical reactions involved in photosynthesis. As a result, the rate of photosynthesis increases as temperature increases, over a certain range. The rate peaks at a certain temperature, at which many of the enzymes that catalyze the reactions become ineffective. Also, the stomata begin to close, limiting water loss and CO2 entry into the leaves. These conditions cause the rate of photosynthesis to decrease when the temperature is further increased.
    56. 56. Factors that Affect Photosynthesis• Environmental Influences on Photosynthesis
    57. 57. Linking Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration• The products of photosynthesis are the reactants for cellular respiration.• The products of cellular respiration are the reactants for photosynthesis.
    58. 58. Question: Why is photosynthesis considered to be the mostimportant chemical reaction on Earth?
    59. 59. Photosynthesis Song

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