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World Geography Chapter 10 Mexico Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle R...
World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All righ...
Geography of Mexico <ul><li>What are the main physical characteristics that affect daily life in Mexico’s heartland region...
The Heartland Region <ul><li>Natural Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico’s central  plateau,  or area of high, flat land, is ...
The Coastal Regions <ul><li>Northern Pacific Coast </li></ul><ul><li>It has a hot and arid climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Irri...
Section 1 Review <ul><li>The geological instability of the central plateau  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) is slowly dividing th...
Section 1 Review <ul><li>The geological instability of the central plateau  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) is slowly dividing th...
A Place of Three Cultures <ul><li>How did Mexico become a Spanish colony? </li></ul><ul><li>What were key political events...
Aztecs and Spaniards <ul><li>The Aztecs had built a powerful empire in central Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenochtitlán occu...
Road to Democracy <ul><li>Criollo  resentment of the privileges of  peninsulares  erupted into conflict in the early 1800s...
Social Conditions <ul><li>After the Mexican Revolution, the government divided haciendas among landless peasants in policy...
Economic Activities <ul><li>Major Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum extraction and tourism are important to Mexico’s ...
Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did Hernán Cortés affect the Aztec empire?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) He traded European goods...
Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did Hernán Cortés affect the Aztec empire?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) He traded European goods...
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Chapter 10

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  1. 1. World Geography Chapter 10 Mexico Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: Geography of Mexico Section 2: Place of Three Cultures Chapter 10: Mexico
  3. 3. Geography of Mexico <ul><li>What are the main physical characteristics that affect daily life in Mexico’s heartland region? </li></ul><ul><li>How do Mexico’s four coastal plains regions differ? </li></ul>1
  4. 4. The Heartland Region <ul><li>Natural Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico’s central plateau, or area of high, flat land, is geologically unstable. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico is located at intersection of four tectonic plates. </li></ul><ul><li>Some mountains are active volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent earthquakes shake the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Factors </li></ul><ul><li>The mountains block rainfall in much of the central plateau. </li></ul><ul><li>The southern end of the plateau receives more rain than the arid north. </li></ul><ul><li>High elevation keeps temperatures mild year-round. </li></ul>1
  5. 5. The Coastal Regions <ul><li>Northern Pacific Coast </li></ul><ul><li>It has a hot and arid climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation, or artificial watering, gives this region some of the best farmland in Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Pacific Coast </li></ul><ul><li>The Sierra Madre del Sur mountain range edges a narrow coast. </li></ul><ul><li>There is little farmland, but a spectacular setting and tropical climate favor tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf Coastal Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Vast deposits of petroleum and natural gas are under the plain and Gulf of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the major oil-producing regions of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Yucatán Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall dissolves the limestone bedrock, producing underground caverns that sometimes collapse, forming sinkholes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayan ruins attract tourists and archaeologists. </li></ul>1
  6. 6. Section 1 Review <ul><li>The geological instability of the central plateau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) is slowly dividing the plateau in half. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) produces dangerous volcanoes and earthquakes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) causes heavy rainfalls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) has created a flat, low land. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mayan ruins have attracted tourists and archaeologists to which region? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the northern Pacific coastal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Gulf coastal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the southern Pacific coastal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) the Yucatán peninsula </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  7. 7. Section 1 Review <ul><li>The geological instability of the central plateau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) is slowly dividing the plateau in half. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) produces dangerous volcanoes and earthquakes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) causes heavy rainfalls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) has created a flat, low land. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mayan ruins have attracted tourists and archaeologists to which region? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the northern Pacific coastal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Gulf coastal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the southern Pacific coastal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) the Yucatán peninsula </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  8. 8. A Place of Three Cultures <ul><li>How did Mexico become a Spanish colony? </li></ul><ul><li>What were key political events in the development of democracy in Mexico? </li></ul><ul><li>What social problems face Mexico today? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the main characteristics of the Mexican economy? </li></ul>2
  9. 9. Aztecs and Spaniards <ul><li>The Aztecs had built a powerful empire in central Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenochtitlán occupied the site of modern Mexico City. </li></ul><ul><li>Hernán Cortés, a Spanish adventurer, marched his soldiers into Tenochtitlán in 1519. </li></ul><ul><li>Within two years, the Aztec empire was destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>The territory won by Cortés became the colony of New Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Four social classes emerged in New Spain: the peninsulares , the criollos , the mestizos , and the Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians provided labor on Spanish-owned haciendas, large estates run as farms or cattle ranches. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish king rewarded the conquistadors by granting them both haciendas and the Indians who worked them in a system known as encomienda . </li></ul><ul><li>Under encomienda , Indians lived a slave-like existence. </li></ul>2
  10. 10. Road to Democracy <ul><li>Criollo resentment of the privileges of peninsulares erupted into conflict in the early 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico achieved independence by 1821, but was not democratic. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican Revolution began in 1910 when Peasants and middle-class Mexicans rebelled. </li></ul><ul><li>The new Mexican government was a federal republic with an elected president and congress. </li></ul><ul><li>The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) controlled Mexican politics until the election in 2000. </li></ul>2
  11. 11. Social Conditions <ul><li>After the Mexican Revolution, the government divided haciendas among landless peasants in policy of land redistribution. </li></ul><ul><li>The government awarded most of the redistributed land in ejidos , land held collectively by members of a rural community. In an ejidos , farmers generally practice subsistence farming, only growing enough to meet their own needs. </li></ul><ul><li>One third of Mexico’s farms are huge commercial farms called latifundios , which, along with some ejidos , raise cash crops -crops raised for sale and profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Many landless, jobless peasants travel from place to place as migrant workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities offer better job opportunities and chances for education than the countryside, but most urban dwellers in Mexico are very poor and struggle to survive. </li></ul>2
  12. 12. Economic Activities <ul><li>Major Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum extraction and tourism are important to Mexico’s economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The state-owned oil company provides revenue that rises or falls along with oil prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate, scenery, and cultural history make tourism an important source of income for Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is a cleaner alternative to industry; Mexicans call tourism the “smokeless industry.” </li></ul><ul><li>Border Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Maquiladoras , factories that assemble products for export to the United States, are clustered along the United States-Mexico border. </li></ul><ul><li>People have raised concerns about work and pay in maquiladoras, but employment has increased and workers’ skills have improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns have been raised about pollution from factories and the damage to health and the environment. </li></ul>Since NAFTA was passed, manufacturing has increased and unemployment has declined in Mexico. 2
  13. 13. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did Hernán Cortés affect the Aztec empire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) He traded European goods with the Aztecs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) He conquered the Aztec empire for Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) He exchanged ideas and technology with the Aztecs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) He gave the Aztecs tribute from the Spanish king. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are two of the most important industries in Mexico? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) diamond mining and electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) petroleum extraction and timber cutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) steel and tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) petroleum extraction and tourism </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  14. 14. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did Hernán Cortés affect the Aztec empire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) He traded European goods with the Aztecs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) He conquered the Aztec empire for Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) He exchanged ideas and technology with the Aztecs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) He gave the Aztecs tribute from the Spanish king. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are two of the most important industries in Mexico? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) diamond mining and electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) petroleum extraction and timber cutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) steel and tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) petroleum extraction and tourism </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
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