Chapter 33

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Chapter 33

  1. 1. World Geography Chapter 33 Southeast Asia Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: Historical Influences on Southeast Asia Section 2: The Countries of Southeast Asia Chapter 33: Southeast Asia
  3. 3. Historical Influences on Southeast Asia <ul><li>How has the migration of people into Southeast Asia over the centuries affected the culture of that region? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Europeans change the economy, environment, and political boundaries of Southeast Asia? </li></ul>1
  4. 4. Migration <ul><li>Indian Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants from India brought Hindu and Buddhist monks with them. </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the region absorbed many aspects of Hinduism and Buddhism, but rejected others such as the caste system. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Traders from Arabia and India brought Islam to the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam created strong ties between the peoples of Malaysia, Indonesia, the southern Philippines, and other Muslim lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Influence </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese had little impact on the region, as the Chinese viewed their culture as superior, and considered foreigners to be barbarians, or people without manners or civilized customs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vietnamese were influenced by Chinese culture, but never lost their own cultural identity. </li></ul>1
  5. 5. Europeans Bring Change <ul><li>Europeans at first established trading posts, and then in the 1700s and 1800s began expanding their colonies deeper into Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans cleared forests and built plantations for cash crops and encouraged wealthy local landlords to grow rice for export, forcing many small farmers out of business. </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans sold factory-made goods to their colonies, undercutting local artisans and making the colonies dependent on industrialized countries for manufactured goods. </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans financed construction of inland roads and railroads to transport goods to port cities, which began growing rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing port cities attracted people from China and India, and tensions sometimes developed between the immigrants and indigenous Southeast Asians. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies were carved out of Southeast Asia with little attention paid to existing ethnic boundaries. </li></ul>1
  6. 6. Section 1 Review <ul><li>Which country in Southeast Asia was most influenced by Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did the Europeans affect the manufacture of goods in Southeast Asia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The Europeans industrialized the colonies by building factories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) European merchants bought goods from local artisans to sell to Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Local artisans were undercut by cheap European factory-made goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The Europeans had no effect on the economies of the region. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  7. 7. Section 1 Review <ul><li>Which country in Southeast Asia was most influenced by Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did the Europeans affect the manufacture of goods in Southeast Asia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The Europeans industrialized the colonies by building factories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) European merchants bought goods from local artisans to sell to Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Local artisans were undercut by cheap European factory-made goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The Europeans had no effect on the economies of the region. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  8. 8. The Countries of Southeast Asia <ul><li>Why does Myanmar struggle with its national identity and Thailand does not? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways did years of conflict affect Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia? </li></ul><ul><li>What keeps the diverse nations of Indonesia and the Philippines united? </li></ul><ul><li>What natural resources support the economies of Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, and Papua New Guinea? </li></ul>2
  9. 9. Myanmar and Thailand <ul><li>Myanmar </li></ul><ul><li>When the British took control in the late 1800s, they unified Burma politically but not culturally. </li></ul><ul><li>When Burma gained independence in 1948, the country lacked unity, and various ethnic groups have fought the government since then. </li></ul><ul><li>Myanmar’s economic growth has been slowed by warfare with ethnic insurgents and by its repressive military government </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand preserved its independence by signing treaties with Western powers in the late 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>Since World War II, Thailand has had strong ties with the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The country depended heavily on agriculture until the 1960s, when Thailand began to diversify the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism has become a major source of income, and Bangkok has become the transportation hub for the entire region. </li></ul>2
  10. 10. Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia <ul><li>After World War II, the region became involved in a series of wars, the first of which secured independence from France. </li></ul><ul><li>The second war, between North and South Vietnam, drew in the United States, as well as Laos and Cambodia, and ended with Vietnam united under Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>Communists also took control of Laos and Cambodia, and in all three countries the Communists killed huge numbers of non-Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1986, Vietnam began doi moi, a program designed to attract foreign investors, and during the 1990s the economy boomed. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995, the United States resumed diplomatic relations with Vietnam, and Vietnam joined ASEAN that same year. </li></ul><ul><li>Laos and Cambodia have turned away from strict government-controlled economies, but have not attracted investment on the scale of Vietnam. </li></ul>2
  11. 11. Indonesia and the Philippines <ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia has more than 228 million people living on islands spread over 3,200 miles of ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong government, backed by the military, has used force to maintain unity. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil resources have lifted Indonesia’s per capita income and provided money to spend on roads, airports, and schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia experienced an economic slowdown in the late 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines were ruled by Spain, and then the United States, until independence in 1946. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Spanish rule, the majority of Filipinos converted to Roman Catholicism, and intermarriage spread Spanish culture among ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. rule introduced a new educational system, the English language, and democratic institutions. </li></ul>Cultural heterogeneity challenges Indonesia and the Philippines 2
  12. 12. Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, and Papua New Guinea <ul><li>Singapore has a deep natural harbor, and is located in the center of an important trade route. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore is a thriving center of international trade and an important manufacturing center. </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia and Brunei are wealthy countries with large reserves of oil and natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil income has allowed Brunei to modernize, and Malaysia has a diverse economy exporting machinery, raw materials, and oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea is an ethnically diverse country in which most people practice agriculture with traditional tools, yet modern machines are used to mine gold and copper ore. </li></ul>2
  13. 13. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did Vietnam recover from years of war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Vietnam instituted a program to encourage foreign investment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Large deposits of oil and gas stimulated the economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Tariffs were raised to promote the growth of local industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Vietnam used farming collectives to export valuable cash crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which country’s economy is supported by oil revenues? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Thailand </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  14. 14. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did Vietnam recover from years of war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Vietnam instituted a program to encourage foreign investment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Large deposits of oil and gas stimulated the economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Tariffs were raised to promote the growth of local industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Vietnam used farming collectives to export valuable cash crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which country’s economy is supported by oil revenues? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Thailand </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2

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