The Progressive Era


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The Progressive Era

  1. 1. The Progressive Era Mr. Yount’s US History
  2. 2. I. The Progressive Movement Begins A. Religion influences: 1. The social gospel movement = churches help workers & poor. 2. Religious groups were formed, such as, YMCA, YWCA, Sal. Army 3. Settlement houses to distribute food & clothing 4. 1908, church groups fought for living wage, 1 day of rest, safer work conditions, to end child labor.
  3. 3. I. The Progressive Movement Begins B. The press 1. Magazine readership increased - increased power of press. 2. Muckrakers: term intro’d by Teddy Muckrakers Roosevelt to describe a journalist who exposes social wrongs. 3. Lincoln Steffens focused on links between big business and politics. Video:Progressives
  4. 4. I. The Progressive Movement Begins B.4. Ida Tarbell wrote of Standard Oil’s business methods. 5. Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle; focused on the meat Jungle packing business.
  5. 5. I. The Progressive Movement Begins C. Municipal reform 1. reform mayors built schools, set up work relief, app’td honest workers. 2. 1913 several hundred cities adopted the city mgr./council form of gov’t. Council made laws& appt’d mgr. to run city. 3. 1914, several hundred cities adopted commission form of gov’t. Each commissioner is the head of a dept.
  6. 6. I. The Progressive Movement Begins D. State reform 1. Rob’t. La Follette, governor of Follette Wisconsin, raised RR taxes & regulated rates (fed. gov’t. had failed to do so). 2. 1913, 17th Amendment = pop. election of senators, w/direct primary.
  7. 7. I. The Progressive Movement Begins D.3. 1914, state laws prohibited child labor, ltd. workday for adults & wkrs. compensation for injured workers. 4. 1916, all but 3 states adopted the direct primary (voters choose candidates). E. Socialists Party reform: Debs wanted to end private ownership of factories and utilities. Video: TR
  8. 8. II. Roosevelt, Progressive Leader A. He believed the fed. gov’t. was responsible for nat’l. welfare. B. He said workers, farmers and small business people would receive a Square Deal from a strong fed. gov’t.
  9. 9. “closed shop” is used to signify an establishment employing only members of a labor union. II. Roosevelt, Progressive Leader B.1. Coal miners strike for higher wages, 8 hr. day. Mine officials would not negotiate. Pres Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines & run them w/the army. a. mine agreed to 10% pay increase, 9 hr. day & but no closed shop. b. new standard: fed. gov’t. would standard now intervene, if public welfare was involved.
  10. 10. II. Roosevelt, Progressive Leader C. Trusts: Pres. R., “ the trustbuster”, Trusts was concerned not at their size, but if harmful to the public. Under Sherman public Anti Trust Act,1890, he shut down a total of 42 trusts. D. RR regulations; 1. Elkins Act, 1903, no giving or Act receiving rebates were allowed
  11. 11. II. Roosevelt, Progressive Leader D.2. Hepburn Act, 1906, allowed Interstate Commerce Commission to set max RR rates if there were complaints. E. Health laws: 1. Meat Inspection Act, 1906, & Act Pure Food & Drug Act (contents on label, restricted label claims)
  12. 12. Muckrakers helped make our drugs safer.
  13. 13. How far we have come…
  14. 14. II. Roosevelt, Progressive Leader F. Natural resources: resources 1. Roosevelt withdrew 148 mil, acres from public sale, plus 84 mil. for public exploration. 2. Set up wild life sanctuaries, nat’l. parks & monuments. 3. Appointed Gilford Pinchot to supervise nat’l. forests.
  15. 15. III. Under Taft A. In 1908 Taft was picked by Roosevelt, resulting in him winning the election. B. Taft’s mistakes: mistakes 1. He promised to reduce tariffs a. but not enough, so he seemed like a liar. 2. Americans liked the idea of conserving our natural resources a. He returned some forest land to public sale & fired Pinchot
  16. 16. Political cartoon when TR decided to run again in 1912.
  17. 17. This is a good example of the potential power of a 3rd political party. III. Under Taft C. New political party, 1912: 1. Taft & Rep. Party didn’t nominate Roosevelt, so he formed new party. 2. Bull Moose Party or Progressive Party supported T. Roosevelt 3. This split the Rep. Party 4. Resulted in the 1st Dem. Pres. In 16 yrs….Woodrow Wilson. Wilson
  18. 18. IV. Racial anti-discrimination efforts A. Booker T. Washington argued for self-help & accommodations on the part of blacks to society. In other words to work within the system. B. W.E.B. DeBois (Niagara movement, 1905) urged blacks to assert themselves & agitate for pol. & econ. rights. Formed the NAACP to use legal means to end racial discrimination.
  19. 19. V. Women’s Rights A. While the number of employed women stayed constant from 1900-1920 (20%), the type of work switched from domestic labor (servants,cooks, laundresses) to clerical work (clerks, typists, bookkeepers), factory work and professionals.
  20. 20. V. Women’s Rights B. Most women still held the lowest paying & least opportune jobs. C. Suffragists urged that women be given the franchise, which came on the national level w/the 19th Amendment 1920.
  21. 21. This is a sample ballot from 1912. It is instructing voters how to “properly” vote about women’s suffrage.
  22. 22. Write down & answer the following questions: 1. What were the 4 goals of Progressivism? 2. How did abolition fit into the reform movement? 3. How did natural disasters help launch the local gov’t reforms?
  23. 23. Write down the following questions: 4. How did reforms protect children? 5. How did reforms change working conditions? 6. How did Susan B. Anthony help the cause of women?
  24. 24. Write down the following questions: 7. How did T. Roosevelt become President? 8. How did T.R. create the modern Presidency? 9. How did T.R.’s intervention in a coal strike set a precedent for federal arbitration?
  25. 25. Write down the following questions: 10. What did Taft do to anger Progressive Republicans? 11. How did Taft’s support of Joe Cannon alienate progressive Republicans?
  26. 26. Key topics 1. Describe the four areas of Progressive reform. 2. How did women’s lives change in the early twentieth century? 3. What policies did Teddy Roosevelt pursue? 4. Why did the Republican Party split, and what was the result? 5. What progressive reforms did Woodrow Wilson advance, and which did he do little or nothing to achieve?
  27. 27. Key topics 1. Describe the four areas of Progressive reform. 1. The four main areas of Progressive reform were protecting social welfare, promoting moral reform (such as Prohibition), reforming the economy (busting trusts and reforming business practices), and making businesses more efficient (scientific management and the assembly line).
  28. 28. Key topics 2. How did women’s lives change in the early twentieth century? 2. In the early 1900s, more women entered the workforce. Many middle- and upper-class women joined groups to promote culture and reform movements, including the effort to improve the lives of African-American women and to win suffrage for women.
  29. 29. Key topics 3. What policies did Teddy Roosevelt pursue? 3. Roosevelt pushed for a strong national government through government intervention in regulating business and conserving wilderness.
  30. 30. Key topics 4. Why did the Republican Party split, and what was the result? 4. The Republican Party split when Roosevelt and progressives objected to Taft’s slow pace on reform. The result was that Wilson won the White House and Democrats won Congress.
  31. 31. Key topics 5. What progressive reforms did Woodrow Wilson advance, and which did he do little or nothing to achieve? 5. Wilson pushed for reforms in business and banking, but did little or nothing to aid women and African Americans to win equal rights.
  32. 32. Terms & Names 1. progressive movement Social reform movement in the early 20th century 2. Florence Kelley Social reformer 3. prohibition Making the sale or use of alcohol illegal
  33. 33. Terms & Names 4. muckraker Writer who exposes wrongdoing 5. Robert M. LaFollette Progressive Wisconsin governor and senator 6. initiative A way for people to propose laws directly
  34. 34. Terms & Names 7. referendum A way for people to approve changes in laws by a vote 8. recall A vote on whether to remove a public official from office 9. Seventeenth Amendment Amendment providing for senators to be elected directly
  35. 35. Terms & Names 1. suffrage The right to vote; a major goal of women reformers 2. Susan B. Anthony Leader of the woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement’s goals and beliefs and to lead its actions
  36. 36. Terms & Names 1. Theodore Roosevelt President from 1901 to 1909 2. Square Deal President Roosevelt’s program of progressive reforms 3. Upton Sinclair Novelist who exposed social problems
  37. 37. Terms & Names: 1. Payne-Aldrich Tariff Bill meant to lower tariffs on imported goods 2. Gifford Pinchot Head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt,
  38. 38. Terms & Names: 3. Bull Moose Party Nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912 4. Woodrow Wilson Winner of the 1912 presidential election
  39. 39. Terms & Names: 1. Clayton Antitrust Act Law that weakened monopolies and upheld the rights of unions and farm organizations 2. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) A federal agency set up in 1914 to investigate businesses to help enforce the laws
  40. 40. Terms & Names: 3. Federal Reserve System National banking system begun in 1913 4. Carrie Chapman Catt President of NAWSA, who led the campaign for woman suffrage during Wilson’s administration 5. Nineteenth Amendment Amendment to the Constitution giving women the right to vote
  41. 41. Homework