Progressive Era


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Overview of Progressive Era
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  • wikipedia
  • Shoe line--Bowery men with gift from Tim Sullivan, February, 1910
    "Big Tim" Sullivan, a New York City ward boss, rewarded "repeat voters" with a new pair of shoes. Sullivan once explained, "When you've voted ‘em with their whiskers on, you take ‘em to a barber and scrape off the chin fringe. Then you vote ‘em again…Then to a barber again, off comes the sides and you vote ‘em a third time with the mustache…[Then] clean off the mustache and vote ‘em plain face. That makes every one of ‘em for four votes." (Library of Congress) Pageant 13e Reader’s Companion
  • (1) Description: Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works, Midnight, Indiana. 1908. Photographer, Lewis W. Hine; Credit: Nartional Archives and Records Administration;
    (2) Description: Child Laborer, Newberry, S.C. 1908. The overseer said apologetically, "She just happened in." She was working steadily . photographer, Lewis W. Hine;Credit: Nartional Archives and Records Administration;
    (3) The coal mines of Pennsylvania employed more than ten thousand boys under the age of 16. Known as "breaker boys," they sorted coal. Such work was dangerous and sometimes fatal, as attested by this 1911 headline. (Library of Congress); Pageant 13e History Companion
    (4) Lewis W. Hine. Shrimp pickers in Peerless Oyster Co. Bay St. Louis, Miss., March 3, 1911.;"On other side of shed still younger children were working. Out of sixty working,... I counted 15 apparently under 12 years of age. Some 3, 4, and 5 years old were picking too.... Boss said they went to work at 3 A.M. and would quit about 3 or 4 P.M." ; PBS American Photography
  • Hull House today:;; (1906 picture)
  • Henretta, America’s History 4e from
  • Socialists parade, May Day, 1910
    Though their objectives sometimes differed from those of middle-class Progressive reformers, socialists also became a more active force in the early twentieth century. Socialist parades on May Day, such as this one in 1910, were meant to express the solidarity of all working people. (Library of Congress)
  • (2003B DBQ)
  • Description: Assassination of William McKinley. Czolgosz shoots President McKinley with a concealed revolver, at Pan-American Exposition reception, Sept. 6th, 1901.Keywords: Credit: Library of Congress
  • (portrait and on horseback); Underwood and Underwood. Theodore Roosevelt Addressing a Crowd, 1901-09. Collection of The New-York Historical Society. PBS- American Photography
  • (both)
  • Scanned from The Verdict 22 May 1899 by C. Gordon Moffat
  • (stockyards, Meatpacking workers); Brinkley 11e Instructor Resource CD (The Jungle); Theodore Roosevelt cartoon "A nauseating job, but it must be done“; Upton Sinclair's novel, The Jungle, published in 1906, prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to order an investigation of Sinclair's allegations about unsanitary practices. Roosevelt then used the results of that investigation to pressure Congress into approving new federal legislation to inspect meatpacking. (Utica Saturday Globe) Pageant 13e
  • Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot, 1907; The two friends and allies in the conservation cause aboard the steamboat Mississippi on a 1907 tour with the Inland Waterways Commission. (Library of Congress)’; [Pageant 13e History Companion]
    Description: Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir on Glacier Point, Yosemite Valley, California, c1906;Credit: Library of Congress;
  • Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;
  • This postcard depicts how President Theodore Roosevelt, in command of the Republican Party, persuaded his friend William Howard Taft to run for president in 1908. Taft was not eager for that office, but Roosevelt succeeded in convincing him to seek it. With Roosevelt's strong support, Taft was elected, but he proved a disappointment to Roosevelt. (Collection of Janice L. and David J. Frent)
  • The Mount Auburn house was sold by the Taft family in 1889. It went through many alterations, including use as an apartment house, before it was saved from demolition by the Taft Memorial Association in 1938, eight years after Taft's death. In 1969, the Federal Government designated the Taft house a national historic site, honoring the life and work of William Howard Taft.
  • Wilson:; Description: Theodore Roosevelt as an opera singer who wins the favor of "Miss Insurgency", while Robert La Follette watches in disgust. 03/18/1912. Artist, Berryman, Clifford K.;Credit: National Archives and Records Administration;
  • wadsworth
  • Thomson
  • (1997 DBQ)
    (1997 DBQ)
  • Thomson Wadsworth
  • Description: Women suffragists picketing in front of the White house. The first picket line - College day in the picket line line, 1917;Credit: Library of Congress.;
    Description: The 19th amendment; Credit: Library of Congress
  • (1989 DBQ edited)
  • Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;
  • BTW:; Du Bois:
  • Progressive Era

    1. 1. PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890s-1920 A21w 9.2.13
    2. 2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS ► ► ► Who were the Progressives? What reforms did they seek? How successful were Progressive Era reforms in the period 1890-1920? Consider: political change, social change (industrial conditions, urban life, women, prohibition)
    4. 4. Progressivism WHEN? “Progressive Reform Era” 1890s 1901 1917 1920s WHO? “Progressives” urban middle-class: managers women & professionals; WHY? Address the problems arising from: industrialization (big business, labor strife) urbanization (slums, political machines, corruption) immigration (ethnic diversity) inequality & social injustice (women & racism)
    5. 5. Progressivism WHAT are their goals? ► Democracy – government accountable to the people ► Regulation of corporations & monopolies ► Social justice – workers, poor, minorities ► Environmental protection HOW? ► Government (laws, regulations, programs) ► Efficiency value experts, use of scientific study to determine the best solution Pragmatism – William James, John Dewey ( Darwinism) (Cf. scientific management/Taylor) HOW MUCH?????
    6. 6. Origins of Progressivism ► ► ► ► “Muckrakers” Jacob Riis – How the Other Half Lives (1890) Ida Tarbell – “The History of the Standard Oil Co.” (1902) Lincoln Steffens – The Shame of the Cities (1904) Ida Tarbell Lincoln Steffens
    8. 8. MUNICIPAL REFORM ► municipal reform ► utilities - water, gas, electricity, trolleys ► council-manager plan Shoe line - Bowery men with gifts from ward boss Tim Sullivan, February, 1910 (Dayton, 1913)
    10. 10. STATE POLITICAL REFORM ► secret ballots ► direct primary ► Robert M. LaFollette ► Seventeenth Amendment (1913) ► initiative ► referendum ► recall Robert M. LaFollette, Wisconsin Governor 1900-06
    11. 11. STATE POLITICAL REFORM Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 1876-1920
    12. 12. STATE SOCIAL REFORMS ► professional social workers ► settlement houses - education, culture, day care ► child labor laws Enable education & advancement for working class children
    13. 13. STATE SOCIAL REFORMS ► workplace & labor reforms eight-hour work day improved safety & health conditions in factories workers compensation laws minimum wage laws unionization child labor laws Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, 1913
    14. 14. State Social Reform: Child Labor Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works, Midnight, Indiana. 1908 Child Laborer, Newberry, S.C. 1908 “Breaker Boys” Pennsylvania, 1911 Shrimp pickers in Peerless Oyster Co. Bay St. Louis, Miss., March 3, 1911
    15. 15. Settlement Houses ► Settlement Houses ► Hull-House – Jane Addams Jane Addams (1905) Hull-House Complex in 1906
    16. 16. TEMPERANCE ► Temperance Crusade ► Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) ► Anti-Saloon League Frances Willard (1838-98), leader of the WCTU Anti-Saloon League Campaign, Dayton
    17. 17. TEMPERANCE & PROHIBITION ► Eighteenth Amendment Prohibition on the Eve of the 18th Amendment, 1919
    19. 19. SOCIALISM ► Socialist Party ► Eugene V. Debs ► Industrial World Workers of the (IWW or “Wobblies”) Socialists parade, May Day, 1910 Eugene V. Debs
    20. 20. NATIONA L REFORM Roosevelt, Taft & Wilson as Progressive presidents
    21. 21. ESSENTIAL QUESTION How effective were Progressive Era reformers and the federal government in bringing about reform at the national level in the period 1900-1920?
    22. 22. Assassination of President McKinley , Sept 6, 1901
    23. 23. Theodore Roosevelt: the “accidental President” Republican (1901-1909) (The New-York Historical Society)
    24. 24. Roosevelt’s “Square Deal” ► 1902 Anthracite Coal Miners Strike ► “Square Deal” Anthracite miners at Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1900
    25. 25. Roosevelt the “trust-buster” ► Northern Securities Company (1904) ► “good trusts” and “bad trusts” ► Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906) “ONE SEES HIS FINISH UNLESS GOOD GOVERNMENT RETAKES THE SHIP”
    26. 26. Consumer Protection ► Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle ► Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) ► Meat Inspection Act (1906) Chicago Meatpacking Workers, 1905 "A nauseating job, but it must be done"
    27. 27. Roosevelt & Conservation ► Used the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 ► U.S. Forest Service (1906) ► Gifford Pinchot ► White House conference on conservation -1908 ► John Muir Theodore Roosevelt & John Muir at Yosemite 1906 Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot, 1907
    28. 28. CONSERVATION : National Parks and Forests
    29. 29. William Howard Taft President 1909-13 Republican Postcard with Taft cartoon
    30. 30. Taft Birthplace today, Mt. Auburn
    31. 31. Taft’s Progressive Accomplishments ► trust-busting ► forest and oil reserves ► Sixteenth Amendment (Taft has) “…completely twisted around the policies I advocated and acted upon.” -Theodore Roosevelt ► BUT: Caused split in Republican Party Payne-Aldrich Tariff Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy (1909)
    32. 32. Election of 1912 ► Woodrow Wilson ► Progressive Party (“Bull Moose party”) ► “New Nationalism” ► significance Woodrow Wilson Theodore Roosevelt cartoon, March 1912
    33. 33. 1912 Presidential Election
    34. 34. Wilson ► Woodrow Wilson ► “New Freedom” ► Underwood Simmons Tariff (1913) ► Sixteenth Amendment (1913) ► Federal Reserve Act (1913) ► Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) ► Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) ► Keating-Owen Act (1916) Wilson at the peak of his power
    35. 35. Federal Reserve System ► Federal Reserve Act
    36. 36. WOMEN & SUFFRAG E
    37. 37. ESSENTIAL QUESTION To what extent did economic and political developments as well as the assumptions about the nature of women affect the position of American women during the period 1890-1925?
    38. 38. WOMEN ► “women’s professions” ► “new woman” ► clubwomen A local club for nurses was formed in New York City in 1894. Here the club members are pictured in their clubhouse reception area. (Photo courtesy of the Women's History and Resource Center, General Federation of Women's Clubs.) The Women's Club of Madison, Wisconsin conducted classes in food, nutrition, and sewing for recent immigrants. (Photo courtesy of the Women's History and Resource Center, General Federation of Women's Clubs.)
    39. 39. Women’s Suffrage ► National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) ► Carrie Chapman Catt Ohio Woman Suffrage Headquarters, Cleveland, 1912
    40. 40. Woman suffrage before 1920
    41. 41. Women’s Suffrage ► Alice Paul ► National Woman’s Party ► Nineteenth Amendment ► Equal Rights Suffragette Banner Amendment 1918 19th Amendment National Woman’s Party members picketing in front of the White House, 1917 (All: Library of Congress)
    42. 42. RACE RELATION S
    43. 43. ESSENTIAL QUESTION Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois offered different strategies for dealing with the problems of poverty and discrimination faced by black Americans at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. How appropriate were each of these strategies (considering the context in which each was developed)?
    44. 44. Black Population, 1920
    45. 45. African-Americans ► Booker T. Washington ► W.E.B. Du Bois ► Niagara Movement ► “talented tenth” ► NAACP W.E.B. Du Bois Booker T. Washington