Bruno Kasonga Congo

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Bruno Kasonga Congo

  1. 1.
  2. 2. FORES 1st december 2008 Seminar on D.R.Congo Situation Bruno Kasonga Representant of The Union for the Rebuilding of Congo Europe (UREC)
  3. 3. SITUATION IN DRC <ul><li>What is happening in DRC right now? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is fighting who? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the historical background? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is MONUC allowing the events to go on? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does it seem like nation building is particularly problematic in Central Africa? </li></ul>
  4. 4.
  5. 5. What is happening in DRC right now? <ul><li>WAR </li></ul><ul><li>WAR IN THE NORTH-EAST OF DRC </li></ul><ul><li>MOVING OF POPULATIONS FROM THE CONFLICT AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction OF ECOSYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>INSTABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>INSECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>UNCERTAINTY </li></ul><ul><li>5 millions of death </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual violence aigainst women (rate of young girls and old women) </li></ul><ul><li>CONFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>CONFUSION AT THE GOVERNMENTAL LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>LEADERSHIP DEFICIENCY AT THE HEAD OF STATE’S LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>WEAKNESS AND INCOMPETENCE OF THE KABILA’S LEADERSHIP </li></ul>
  6. 6. Who is fighting now ? <ul><li>More than 28 militias are fighting right now. </li></ul><ul><li>These militias can be subdivided into 3 groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The militias who are fighting against the government troops, those who are created by the government and the non-congolese militias. </li></ul>
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Anti-government Militias <ul><li>Congrès National pour la Défense du Peuple (CNDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Forces Nouvelles de l’Ituri </li></ul><ul><li>Gedeon </li></ul><ul><li>Groupe de 47 </li></ul><ul><li>Groupe Bisogo </li></ul><ul><li>Groupe Yakutumba </li></ul><ul><li>Groupe Makanika </li></ul><ul><li>FRF </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pro-gouvernement Militias <ul><li>Pareco </li></ul><ul><li>Pareco Sud-Kivu </li></ul><ul><li>Groupe Yakutumba </li></ul><ul><li>Groupe Zabuloni </li></ul><ul><li>Raia Mutomboki </li></ul><ul><li>Mundundu 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Gedeon </li></ul><ul><li>Maï-Maî Fizi </li></ul><ul><li>Maï-Maï Kirikicho </li></ul><ul><li>Maï-Maï Ny’Kiriba </li></ul><ul><li>Maï-Maï Kappo </li></ul><ul><li>Maï-Maï Mahoro </li></ul><ul><li>Maï-Maï Shabunda </li></ul><ul><li>Maï-Maï Shikito </li></ul><ul><li>Simba Maï-Maï </li></ul><ul><li>Forces d’Auto-Défense Populaire (FAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Résistants Maï-Maï (Kifuafua, Kasindiens, Mongols </li></ul>
  10. 10. Militias from the neighbouring countries <ul><li>FDLR (INTERHAMWE Rwanda) </li></ul><ul><li>FOCA (Forces combattantes Abacunguzi, Rwanda) </li></ul><ul><li>RUD (Forces de Rassemblement pour l’Unité et la Démocratie) </li></ul><ul><li>Rasta (Rwanda) </li></ul><ul><li>FNL (Front de Libération Nationale, Rwanda) </li></ul><ul><li>LRA(Lord of Resistance Army, Ouganda) </li></ul><ul><li>NALU (Rebelles Ougandais du Mont Ruwenzori) </li></ul><ul><li>PALIPEHUTU (Burundi) </li></ul><ul><li>MBORORO (Tchad, Lybie) </li></ul><ul><li>FLNC (Cabinda, Angola) Non active </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Main locals tribes or ethnies are implicated in the conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Important dates of conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Origins and distant reasons of conflict, </li></ul><ul><li>Actual reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Political manipulations </li></ul>What is the historical background ?
  12. 12. Political manipulations <ul><li>All conflicts allways begin before the electoral period. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of those people use ethnic origin as a unique reference to develop their (economics) potential or to victimize the rest of the population. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Main tribes or ethnies implicated in conflict <ul><li>Nande (+/- 50% of North-Kivu Province) </li></ul><ul><li>Hunde </li></ul><ul><li>Tutsi du Nord-Kivu (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Hutu </li></ul><ul><li>Banyamulenge (Tutsi du Sud-Kivu) </li></ul><ul><li>Lega </li></ul><ul><li>Nyanga </li></ul><ul><li>Tembo </li></ul><ul><li>Pygmées </li></ul>
  14. 14. Very important periods of conflict <ul><li>1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1963 </li></ul><ul><li>1964 </li></ul><ul><li>1995 </li></ul><ul><li>17/05/1997 </li></ul><ul><li>04/08/1998 </li></ul><ul><li>2005 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Origin and distant reasons of conflict, <ul><li>Conflict between populations from Rwanda-Urundi and difficulty of cohabitation between stockbreeders and peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonials reasons (Belgian territory) : To avoid an overpopulation in Rwanda-URUNDI colonials moved people to different areas in Congo for reducing the demographic pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of the colonial administration kept for a long time populations under control. (without revolt) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Actual reasons of conflict <ul><li>Political and economical control of the region </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminations and political manipulations </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong perception of citizenship or nationality with no proof. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of peaceful cohabitation, </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge for national culture and national history, </li></ul><ul><li>Political leaders preach division between ethnic groups to weaken patriotic feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated ambitions of the armed groups and the leaders of militias </li></ul>
  17. 17. Who fights who? <ul><li>CNDP < > FARDC </li></ul><ul><li>CNDP < > PARECO,FDLR, RASTA,FOCA,RUD. </li></ul><ul><li>CNDP <> All MAI-MAI groups or militias </li></ul><ul><li>FARDC / LRA, NALU, MBOROROS </li></ul>
  18. 18. WHY IS MONUC ALLOWING THE EVENTS TO GO? <ul><li>The real mission of The Monuc </li></ul><ul><li>The number of soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of war </li></ul><ul><li>E xtent of the territory to control </li></ul>
  19. 19. WHY IS MONUC ALLOWING THE EVENTS TO GO? <ul><li>Monuc = 17.000 Soldiers and Policemen </li></ul><ul><li>RDC = 2.435.000 km2 = Europe </li></ul><ul><li>North-Kivu = 59.483 km2 = Rwanda x 2 </li></ul><ul><li>North-Kivu = +/- 4.000.000 = 6 territoires </li></ul><ul><li>North-Kivu = 4.000 Monuc Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>North-Kivu = 1 soldier to protect 1000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>North-Kivu = mountains, valleys, rigid slopes, </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda = 26.338 km2 </li></ul><ul><li>The war in the North-Kivu is the guerilla . </li></ul>
  20. 20. WHY IS MONUC ALLOWING THE EVENTS TO GO? <ul><li>For those actors the war is the best business </li></ul><ul><li>Robberyng, extorsions, exactions, </li></ul><ul><li>Gun traffic, traffiking of military intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes on exploitation/Mines </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes on import </li></ul><ul><li>Actors : Monuc, Fardc, Fdlr, Cndp, etc… </li></ul>
  21. 21. FORCES AROUND GOMA <ul><li>CNDP : Gen Nkunda's Tutsi rebels - 6,000 fighters </li></ul><ul><li>FDLR : Rwandan Hutus - 6-7,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Mai Mai : pro-government militia - 3,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Monuc : UN peacekeepers - 6,000 in North Kivu, including about 1,000 in Goma (17,000 nationwide) </li></ul><ul><li>DRC army - 90,000 (nationwide) +/- 120.000 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: UN, military experts </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why does it seems like nation building is particular problematic in Central Africa? <ul><li>The heavy past (MOBUTU and KABILA) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong interference from Western countries, </li></ul><ul><li>Incompetence of the imposed leaders, </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread corruption, </li></ul><ul><li>Strong ethnicity, </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness of leadership, </li></ul><ul><li>Weak and poor policy choices. </li></ul>
  23. 23. For us UREC (liberal party) Our aim is to : <ul><li>Bring the specialists from the world to work out effective policies, mobilize local energies, mobilize capitals in other to rebuild a strong democratic country like South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>UREC needs your support and the help of all the liberal parties of the world to take power in D. R. Congo and overcome the development challenges! </li></ul><ul><li>Many thanks from Dr Oscar KASHALA, the National President of UREC </li></ul>

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