Research Design simplified


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Research Design simplified

  1. 1. By Dr. Tanima Dutta 09893216577
  2. 2. Stages in the Research Process Prepare the Research Report Analyze and interpret the Data Design Sample and collect data Design Data Collection method and forms Determine Research Design Formulate Problem
  3. 3. Exploration Generally not sufficient for dissertation project. Description This can be the goal if significant new facts or relationships are identified. Usually need to at least speculate on explanation. Explanation Central goal of most political science research.
  4. 4. Describe what is going on or exists. Estimate how groups of consumers might behave. Examine relationships between two or more variables. Predict.
  5. 5. Two Basic Types  Longitudinal Cross-Sectional
  6. 6. The discovery of ideas and insights. Exploratory research usually results when someone says, "We're not meeting our objectives. What's wrong?" Exploratory research will be used to find the most likely explanations regarding some observed problem. This type of research is often used for  Formulating a problems for more precise investigation  Discovering new ideas  Developing hypotheses  Establishing priorities for further research  Screening of alternatives  Increasing the analyst's familiarity with the problem area  Clarifying concepts
  7. 7.  Case studies  Literature search  Pilot studies  Experience interviews  In-Depth Interviews  Focus Groups
  8. 8. What is Research Design? • Research Design is obtaining satisfactory evidence for a research problem. • It answers the question “What type of evidence is required for the problem?” • Yin “ Research Design deals with logical problem and not logistical problem”. • Before collecting evidence it is important to design the nature of evidence required. • Research Design is a work plan.
  9. 9. Exploratory • “discovery” Descriptive • “relationships” Causal • “cause-and-effect” Example: Kees, Jeremy, Paula Bone, John Kozup and Pam Scholder Ellen (forthcoming), “Barely or Fairly Balancing the Black Box? Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Internet Promotion,” Psychology and Marketing.
  10. 10.  RESEARCH DESIGN refers to the plan, structure, and strategy of research--the blueprint that will guide the research process. 10 Developing Research Hypotheses Intriguing Observation, Intellectual Curiosity Defining Research Problem & Objectives Testing Hypo.: Data Analysis & Interpretation Sampling Design Refinement of theory (Inductive Reasoning) Data Coding, And Editing Developing Operational Definitions for Research Variables Buildingthe Theoretical Framework and the Research Model Data Collection More Careful Studying of the Phenomenon THE PROCESS OF EMPIRICALRESEARCH
  11. 11. RESEARCH DESIGN: The blueprint/roadmap that will guide the research. The test for the quality of a study’s research design is the study’s conclusion validity.  CONCLUSION VALIDITY refers to the extent of researcher’s ability to draw accurate conclusions from the research. That is, the degree of a study’s: a) Internal Validity—correctness of conclusions regarding the relationships among variables examined  Whether the research findings accurately reflect how the research variables are really connected to each other. b) External Validity –Generalizability of the findings to the intended/appropriate population/setting  Whether appropriate subjects were selected for conducting the study
  12. 12. Exploratory Research Causal Research Descriptive Research •Formulate problems more precisely •Develop Hypotheses •Establish priorities for research •Eliminate impractical ideas •Clarify concepts •Literature search •Experience survey •Analysis of select cases •Interviews •Ethnographies •Focus groups •Etc.•Describe segment characteristics •Estimate proportion of people who behave in a certain way •Make specific predictions •Longitudinal study •Panels •Sample Survey •Provide evidence regarding causal relationships •Rule out all other explanations •Laboratory experiment •Field experiment Uses Types
  13. 13. Design versus Method • Research Design is not a mode for data collection • It is a logical structure of the enquiry • Data can be collected by any method for any design • Design is more important than data collection • Important to distinguish between the two because otherwise there is poor analysis of design
  14. 14. Quantitative and qualitative Research • The purpose of Research Design is to reduce the ambiguity of much research evidence • Designs are often equated with qualitative an d quantitative methods which is not correct • Social surveys and experiments are equated with quantitative research • Case study is equated with qualitative research • “a point of confusion….has been the unfortunate linking between the case study method and certain types of data collection for example those focusing on qualitative methods, ethnography or participation observation. People have thought that the case study method required them to embrace these data collection methods….On the contrary, the method does not imply any particular form of data collection which can be qualitative or quantitative.” Yin
  15. 15. Data  Quantitative = numeric data  Qualitative = non-numeric data ◦ Caveat – all qualitative data can be coded and all quantitative data is based on judgment.  Common Assumption: ◦ Qualitative Data = preliminary ◦ Quantitative Data = confirmatory
  16. 16. 16 Qualitative Research To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of non- representative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Objective Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
  17. 17.  Experimental Designs: ◦ True Experimental Studies ◦ Pre-experimental Studies ◦ Quasi-Experimental Studies  Non-Experimental Designs: ◦ Expost Facto/Correlational Studies 17 SPECIFIC TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN BASIC RESEARCH DESIGNS:
  18. 18.  RESULT: Significant Improvement from O1 to O2 (i.e., sig. O2 - O1 difference)  QUESTION: Did X (the drug) cause the improvement? 18 One of the simplest experimental designs is the ONE GROUP PRETEST- POSTTEST DESIGN--EXAMPLE? One way to examine Efficacy of a Drug: O1 X O2 Measure DRUG Measure Patients’ Condition Experimental Patients’ Condition (Pretest) Condition/ (Posttest) intervention
  19. 19.  CONTROL GROUP simulates absence of X ◦ Origin of using Control Groups (A tale from ancient Egypt) Pretest Post-Test Control Group Design--Suppose random assignment (R) was used to control confounding variables: R Exp. Group O1E X O2E R Ctrl Group O1C O2C  RESULT: O2E > O1E & O2C Not> O1C QUESTION: Did X cause the improvement in Exp. Group? 19
  20. 20.  The design of choice in social sciences since the phenomenon under study is usually not reproducible in a laboratory setting  Researcher has little or no control over study’s indep., dep. and the numerous potential confounding variables,  Often the researcher concomitantly measures all the study variables (e.g., independent, dependant, etc.),  Then examines the following types of relationships: ◦ correlations among variables or ◦ differences among groups,  Inability to control for effects of confounding variables makes causal inferences regarding relationships among variables more difficult and, thus:  Generally, higher external validity, lower internal validity 20 NON-EXPERIMENTAL/CORRELATIONAL DESIGNS
  21. 21.  NOT NECESSARILY! EXAMPLES: ◦ Water Fluoridation and AIDS (San Francisco Chronicle, Sep. 6, 1984) ◦ Armed store robberies and cold weather ◦ Longevity and Pollution ◦ In-vitro birth and likelihood of developing eye tumors ◦ Hearing problem and blood pressure  What can a significant correlation mean then? 21 Non-experimental designs rely on correlational evidence. QUESTION: Does a significant correlation between two variables in a non-experimental study necessarily represent a causal relationship between those variables?
  22. 22. Popular Qualitative Research Methods Focus Groups •Group dynamics, expect more creative •Some probing •Relatively inexpensive •Ready industry •Qualitative •Flexible •Probing •Richness of data •Gets at the “Why” of customers’ behaviors •Generates ideas •Clarifies other project results Interviews •Not influenced by others •Max probing, great depth •Expensive •Time consuming •Candid, sensitive topics Common
  23. 23. Thank You