Introduction to research design


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Introduction to research design

  1. 1. MR. JAYESH
  2. 2.  Research approach & research design are twoterms that are frequently usedinterchangeably; however research design is abroader plan to conduct a study, & researchapproach is an important element of theresearch design, which governs it. A research design is the framework or guideused for the planning, implementation, &analysis of a study. It is a systematic plan of what is to bedone, how it will be done, & how the data willbe
  3. 3.  Research design basically provides anoutline of how the research will be carriedout & the methods that will be used. It includes the descriptions of the researchapproaches, dependent & independentvariables, sampling design, & planningformat for data collection, analysis &
  4. 4.  The research design is the master plan specifying themethods & procedures for collecting & analyzing theneeded information in a research study. Research design can be defined as a blue print toconduct a research study, which involves the descriptionof research approach, study setting, samplingsize, sampling technique, tools & method of datacollection & analysis to answer a is specific researchquestions or for testing research hypothesis. Research design is a plan of how, when & where data areto be collected & analyzed. Research design is the researcher’s overall plan foranswering the research questions or testing the
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  6. 6. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.inELEMENTSOFRESEARCHDESIGNThe approachQualitativeQuantitativeOr bothWith/withouta conceptualframeworkPopulation, sample& samplingtechniqueTime & place ofdata collectionTools & Methods ofdata collectionMethod of dataanalysis
  7. 7.  It involves the description of the plan to investigate thephenomenon under study in a structured(quantitative), unstructured (qualitative) or acombination of the two methods (quantitative-qualitative integrated approach). Therefore, the approach helps to decide about thepresence or absence as well as manipulation & controlover variables. It also helps to identify the presence or absence of &comparison between groups. The approach of research study depends on severalfactors, but primarily on the nature of phenomenonunder study. At this stage of the research study, conceptualframework may or may not be
  8. 8.  Research design also provides the researcherwith directions about population, sample &sampling technique, which will be used for theresearch study. For example, in an ethnographic qualitativeresearch design, a researcher gets the directivethat the population will be a specific culturalgroup & the study will include a small sampleselected through a nonprobability
  9. 9.  Time (specifying days, months, & years ofstudy), location (study setting) & the sourcesof the requisite data are the other importantconstituents essential to ensure effectiveplanning to conduct a research
  10. 10.  This element of research design involves thedescription of different tools & methods ofdata collection, forexample, questionnaires, interview, directobservation or any other methods that suitthe particular approach of the research aswell as nature of the phenomenon
  11. 11.  A research design must also include thedescription of the methods of data analysis -either quantitative or qualitative data analysistechniques – that helps the researcher tocollect the relevant data, which later can beanalysed as per the research design plan. Without a formal plan of data analysis aresearcher may collect irrelevant data, whichcan later become difficult to
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  13. 13.  Research designs are plans & the procedures forresearch that span the decisions from broadassumptions to detailed methods of datacollection & analysis. In order to meet the aims & objectives of astudy, researchers must select the mostappropriate design. The selection of a research design largelydepends on the nature of the researchproblem, the resources available(cost, time, expertise of theresearcher), accessibility of subjects, & researchethics. However, the main factors which affect theselection of research design are as
  14. 14. Nature of the research problem: This is the mostimportant factor, which helps the researcher todecide about the selection of a research design.Based on the nature of research problem orphenomenon, researchers decide whether it shouldbe investigated through an experimental, quasi-experimental, or nonexperimental approach.Purpose of the study: Study may be conducted forthe purpose ofprediction, description, exploration, or correlationof the research variable. Therefore, the purpose ofthe research study helps the researcher to choose asuitable research
  15. 15. Researcher’s knowledge & experience: Selectionof research design is largely influenced by theresearcher’s knowledge & experience, becausethey avoid using those designs wherein they lackconfidence, relevant knowledge, or experience.Researcher’s interest & motivation: Interest &motivation levels help researchers decide aboutthe particular research design(s). Motivatedresearchers always analyse most aspects ofresearch design before selecting one or acombination, while casual & callous researchersmay choose research design(s) that may lead
  16. 16. Research ethics & principle: The incorporation &application of ethical & legal principles in theresearch design are essential. This includesmoral obligations such as respect for participants& their rights, informed consent, & protectionfrom harm, including any adverse effects toeducational progress, health & well-being.Selection of a research design issignificantly influenced by the ethics of theresearch study. For example, a researcher may bewilling to conduct a research study through acertain experimental approach, but problems ofethical approval may stop the researcher to do so& he or she may have to settle for anotheravailable possible research
  17. 17. Subjects/participants: The number & availabilityof study subjects may influence the selection ofresearch design. If only few subjects areinvolved, an in-depth qualitative researcher mayopt for qualitative research design.Resources: None of the researcher can conductwithout resources such asmoney, equipments, facilities, & support fromcollegeagues. However, some of the studiesrequire more amounts of resources as comparedto others. Therefore, the selection of a researchdesign may be affected by the availability ofresources for the research
  18. 18. Time: Time is also a major deciding factors forthe selection of research design. For example, aresearcher needs more time to conductlongitudinal studies, while cross-sectionalstudies may be conducted in shorter time.Therefore, time is also a significant contributingfactor in selection of a research design.Users of the study findings: A research designalso various methods of data collection & dataanalysis. Therefore, while choosing a researchdesign, researcher must ensure that researchdesign is as appropriate for the users of thestudy findings as possible, so that maximumadvantage of the results can be
  19. 19. Possible control on extraneous variables: Anefficient design can maximize result, decreaseerrors, & control pre-existing or impairedconditions that may affect the outcome of thestudy. The maximized efforts of the researchershould maximize control. Therefore, possiblecontrol over the extraneous variables may affectthe selection of a research design. Forexample, a researcher wants to conduct a studythrough true-experimental design but becauseof inability to control selected extraneousvariables, other similar design has to be optedfor, such as quasi-experimental or pre-experimental research
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  21. 21.  There are two important criteriafor evaluating the credibility &dependability of the researchresults:Internal validityExternal
  22. 22.  It validates whether the independent variablesactually made a difference. Campbell & Stanley (1963) used the term internalvalidity to refer to the extent to which it ispossible to make an inference that theindependent variable is truly influencing thedependent variable. In the internal validity, the independent variableis responsible for variation in dependentvariable. Internal validity demands a tighter control overstudy to maximize the effectiveness of
  23. 23.  Internal validity is helpful in making the inferencethat the independent variable influences thedependant variable. According to Campell & Stanley (1966), six majorextraneous variables have been identified whichcan jeopardize the internal validity. They areknown as threats to the internal validity are asfollows: History Maturation of subjects Testing Instrumentation changes Mortality Selection
  24. 24.  The threat of history occurs when some event besidethe experimental treatment occurs during the course ofstudy, & this events even influences dependentvariables. For example, you are conducting a health teachingprogramme on the importance of breast selfexamination (BSE), while recently a famous film actressis diagnosed to be suffering from breast cancer. It catches media attention. Medical experts areinterviewed , & the importance of BSE is supported. All major television channels & newspapers startsreporting on the importance of BSE. While you find that the BSE activity has improved, youas a researchers may not be able to conclude if thechange in behavior is the result of your teachingprogramme or it is a result of the diagnosis of theaffliction of the movie actress & the subsequent
  25. 25.  When experimental research is carried on for along period of time over a group ofsubjects, there may be changes in the subjects indifferent ways, like in children there is increase inheight, weight, etc. So maturation is a threat to internal validity. For example, a researcher is interested inassessing the effect of particular nutritionalprotocol on the weight & height of themalnourished children. If this experiment is conducted for vary longperiod, it is difficult to make out whether theeffect on weight & height is due to maturation ornutritional
  26. 26.  It refers to the effect of taking a pretest ofsubjects’ performance post-test. The effect of taking a pretest may sensitizean individual & improve the score of thepost-test. Individuals generally score higher when theytake test a second time regardless of
  27. 27.  Another threat related to measurement is that ofinstrumentation. This bias reflects changes in measuringinstruments or methods of measurementsbetween two points of data collection. Instruments likethermometer, sphygmomanometer, weighingscale, tape measure, etc. should be checked fortheir accuracy at regular intervals, & sameinstruments should be used throughout thestudy to minimize the instrument-related errorof the internal
  28. 28.  Mortality is the loss or dropout of studysubjects during the course of study. If the subjects who remain in the study or joinlater are not similar to those who droppedout, the results could be affected. For example, a researcher conducting alongitudinal study wherein a subject whoparticipated in first round of the datacollection may not be available for the secondor other rounds of data
  29. 29.  If the subjects are not selected randomly forparticipation in groups, then there is apossibility that the groups which will becompared may not be equivalent. The effect on the dependant variable may bedue to some other factors. For example, if two different classes are used totest the effects of two types of lecture methodsor if subjects are selected in a nonrandomway, the effect on the dependant variables couldbe because of other heterogeneous factorsrather than the types of lecture
  30. 30.  It refers to the extent to which the results can begeneralized to a large population. External validity researches under whatconditions & in which type of subjects the sameresults can be expected to be replicated, orwhether the same intervention will work inanother setting & with different subjects. External validity explores the generalizationbeyond specific experiment, to check if theresults & findings come out to be same withother settings, or with other subjectspopulation, but related
  31. 31.  The factors that may affect external validityare: Hawthorne effect Experimental effect Reactive effect of pretest Novelty effect People Place
  32. 32.  Subjects may behave in a particular mannerbecause they are aware that they are beingobserved & this is called the HawthorneEffect. Subjects have the knowledge that they areinvolved in research study, thus affecting
  33. 33.  Experimental effect is a threat to study resultswhen researcher’scharacteristics, mannerisms, or behavior mayinfluence subject behavior. Examples of researcher’s characteristics orbehavior are facialexpressions, clothes, age, gender, bodybuilt, etc. Thus, the way researcher dresses up or his orher gender can influence the way in whichrespondents answer research
  34. 34.  The reactive effect of the pretest occurs whensubjects have been sensitized to the treatmentbecause of taking a pretest. People might not respond to the treatment in themanner they finally do if they had not received thepretest. For example, a researcher wants to conduct a studyto assess the effect of a health education programmeon the awareness of HIV/AIDS among people. In this instance, researcher conducts a pretest tocollect baseline data before health education. This pretest may sensitize the subjects to learn aboutthe HIV/AIDS irrespective of health education isprovided or not to the
  35. 35.  When a treatment is new, subjects &researcher might behave in different ways. They may be enthusiastic about new methodsof doing things. Once treatment is morefamiliar & as the novelty wears off, resultsmight
  36. 36.  For example people of a specific race such aswhites have high prevalence of coronaryartery disease compared to the blacks. Therefore, a generalization made for whiteswill not be applicable for blacks. Hence, thisis threat to external
  37. 37.  For example the people living in highaltitudes have high hemoglobin (Hb) levelsbecause at higher altitudes the requirementof oxygen is more, due to which there ismore production of red blood cells (RBCs). However, the Hb level of the people living onthe plains is lower in comparison, so ageneralization for people of hilly areas is notapplicable for people living on
  38. 38.  If a research was carried out on a communityin 1990 & then again in 2000, the results ofthese two researches would be different. Therefore, older results cannot begeneralized over periods of time as societies& circumstances constantly
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  40. 40.  Generally research designs areclassified into two broad categories, &several subtypes1. Quantitative research design2. Qualitative research
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  42. 42. Broad Categories Types of Research Design Main FeaturesI. Experimentalresearch design1. True experimentaldesign- Post-test –only controldesign- Pre-test-posttest controlgroup design- Solomon four-groupdesign- Factorial design- Randomized blockdesign- Crossover designManipulation of independentvariable, in the presence ofcontrol group,randomization2. Quasi-experimentaldesign- Nonrandomized controlgroup design- Time-series designManipulation of independentvariable, but absence ofeither randomization orcontrol group.3. Pre-experimental design- One-shot case design- One-group pretest-post-test designManipulation of independentvariables, but limited controlover extraneous variables,no randomization &
  43. 43. Broad Categories Types of Research Design Main FeaturesII. Nonexperimentalresearch design1. Descriptive design- Univariant descriptivedesign- Exploratory descriptivedesign- Comparativedescriptive designAccurate description ofcharacteristics of individual,situation, or group, & thefrequency with which acertain phenomenon occursin natural setting withoutimposing any control ormanipulationUnivariant descriptive:Studies undertaken todescribe the frequency ofoccurrence of a phenomenonrather than to studyrelationshipExploratory: Investigatingthe phenomenon & itsrelated factors about whichvery little is knownComparative: Comparingoccurrences of aphenomenon in two or
  44. 44. Broad Categories Types of Research Design Main Features2. Correlational/Ex postfacto design- Prospective design- Retrospective designExamining the relationshipbetween two or more variables ina natural setting withoutmanipulation or control (cause &effect relationship)Prospective: Examiningrelationship from cause to effect.Retrospective: Examiningrelationship from effect to cause3. DevelopmentalResearch Design- Cross-sectional design- Longitudinal designExamining the phenomenon inrespect to the timeCross-sectional: Examining thephenomenon only at one point intimeLongitudinal: Examining thephenomenon at more than onepoint in time.4. Epidemiological design-Case-control studies- cohort studiesThe investigation of thedistribution & causes of diseasein a population is known
  45. 45. Broad Categories Types of Research Design Main Features5. Survey research design Survey studies areinvestigation in which self-reported data are collectedfrom sample with thepurpose of describingpopulation on somevariables of interest.III. Otheradditionalresearch design1. Methodological studies Research conducted todevelop, test, & evaluate theresearch instruments &method.2. Meta-analysis Quantitatively combing &integrating the findings ofthe multiple research studieson a particular topic.3. Secondary data analysis A research design in whichthe data collected in oneresearch is reanalysed byanother researcher, usuallyto test new
  46. 46. Broad Categories Types of Research Design Main Features4. Outcome research Outcome research involvesthe evaluation of carepractices & systems in place.It is used in nursing todevelop evidence-basedpractice & improve nursingactions.5. Evaluation studies It is research design whichinvolves the judgment aboutsuccess of a programmes,practices, procedures, orpolicies.6. Operational research Operational researchinvolves the study ofcomplex humanorganizations & services todevelop new knowledgeabout institutions,programmes, use offacilities, & personnel inorder to improve workingefficiency of an
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  48. 48. Types of research designs Main featuresPhenomenologicalresearchPhenomenological research examines humanexperiences through the descriptions provided bypeople involved.Ethnographic research Ethnographic research involves the informationcollected from certain cultural groups, by living withpeople of those groups & from their key informants,who are believed to be most knowledgeable aboutthe selected culture.Grounded theory Theory is developed inductively from a corpus ofdata acquired by a participant-observerCase studies Research on a phenomenon by studying in depth asingle case example. The case can be an individualperson , an event , a group, or an institution.Historical research Systematic collection & objective evaluation of datarelated to past occurrences in order to testhypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends ofthese events that may help to explain presentevents & anticipate future events.Action research Action research seeks action to improve practices &study the effect of the action that was
  49. 49. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.inTHANKYOU